Tidsskriftet Arkiv https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv <p><strong>Tidsskriftet Arkiv</strong> har som formål å styrke den vitskaplege tilnærminga til arkivfaget og skal vere ein uavhengig arena for fagleg utvikling og debatt. Tidsskriftet publiserer fagfellevurdert artiklar og fagartiklar utan fagfellevurdering, debattinnlegg og redaksjonelle kommentarar. Det er kostnadsfritt for forfattere å publisere i Tidsskriftet Arkiv.</p> ABM-media nb-NO Tidsskriftet Arkiv 1891-8107 Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> Noark-standarden sett i lys av åpen forvaltning og tilgang til offentlig informasjon https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/2602 Dette er en norsk oversettelse av artikkelen <em>The Norwegian Noark model requirements for EDRMS in the context of open government and access to governmental information.</em> Olav Hagen Sataslåtten ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-16 2018-01-16 8 2 10.7577/ta.2602 Examining the use of core terms in a records appraisal context – two Swedish examples https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/2589 Records appraisal in the digital environment becomes a multi-professional enterprise, undertaken in the line of business, in which non-archivists play a vital role, but appraisal practices are not adjusted to this electronic reality. One aspect of this problem is the use and understanding of terminology. This paper presents a study on the usage of records-related terms in steering documents that affect records appraisal in Sweden. It uses a structured model for the analysis of steering documents. Used data sources are authoritative term databases and terminology report and steering documents from the three levels of regulations, i.e. Legislation and Regulations, Policy decisions and Instructions and Retention decisions steering documents from the Swedish National Archives and Stockholm City Archives, both archival authorities within their jurisdictions. The steering documents represents levels of hierarchical impact and are the foundations upon which appraisal is done and effectuated. Analysis of term frequency show change in vocabulary at level of hierarchy as well as development in time. Analysis of focus, characteristics and common features in definitions of terms show a variety of possible interpretations of the included terms, a result that affects appraisal and underpins a need for common corporate understanding in areas with multi-professional influences. The paper concludes that legal terms have impact on term use at regulation level, which lessens at lower levels, where vocabulary broadens. Difference is found between the two archival institutions studied, especially at decision level. Analysis of focus, characteristics and common features in definitions of terms show a variety of possible interpretations of the included terms, a result that affects appraisal and underpins a need for common corporate understanding in areas with multi-professional influences. An action suggested to mitigate risk is to form Communities of Practice for the task of records appraisal. One part of the task for these communities should be to agree upon shared concepts on used terminology that support electronic records appraisal. This would be a step where everyone involved develop a solid ground for the setting of the scope of appraisal. The idea of introducing Communities of Practice for the records and archives appraisal task is wider than the subject of this article, and should be further developed. Elisabeth Klett ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-01-04 2018-01-04 8 2 10.7577/ta.2589 The Norwegian Noark Model Requirements for EDRMS in the context of open government and access to governmental information https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/2485 <p class="Default">This article analyses the relationship between the Norwegian Noark Standard and the concepts of Open Government and Freedom of Information. Noark is the Norwegian model requirements for Electronic Documents and Records Management Systems (EDRMS). It was introduced in 1984, making it not only the world’s first model requirement for EDRMS, but also, through the introduction of versions from Noark 1 to the present Noark 5, internationally the model requirement with the longest continuation of implementation.</p> Olav Hagen Sataslåtten ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-11-29 2017-11-29 8 2 10.7577/ta.2485 Students’ Trust Formation and Credibility Judgements in Online Health Information – A Review Article https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/2165 <p>Health information is a frequent subject for online information seeking. Research on the phenomenon has to a certain extent included students. This review, based on an analysis of 61 articles, shows the current state of the art of research on students’ trust in online health information. The review covers methodological approaches and findings of previous previous empirical studies: research design; trustworthy health information sources; credibility assessment; and factors impacting on trust formation. The analysis of research designs reveals that the survey method was most frequent, but small qualitative studies were also occurring. More than half of the studies were administered in the USA, while only a smaller part concerned ‘non-Western’ countries. Female subjects were more frequent than male.</p><p>The concept of trust was not always explicitly defined in the studies. The students' actual propensity to use internet was generally taken as an expression of trust. The antecedents of trust identified in the studies can be summarized as the perceived quality of the information, the perceived credibility of the source or source provider, the users’ general inclination to trust, the actual use of information, and the perceived intelligibility of the information. The findings show that Internet was among the main sources for health information, but parents or other family members, friends, schools, health professionals were also frequent sources of health information, and students were not immediately accepting online information as trustworthy. The students’ trust and credibility judgments were influenced by social and demographic, cultural, psychological, knowledge and skills-related, and source, system and content-related factors. Governmental and organizational websites were reported as the most trustful sources, although some issues regarding website features and presentation of content were reported as barriers. Easy access were of importance for using a particular resource, but there seemed to be a learning effect impacting on seeking behaviour and trust formation. </p> Mahmood Khosrowjerdi Anneli Sundqvist ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-06-16 2017-06-16 8 2 10.7577/ta.2165 Bevaring, formidling, interaksjon. Refleksjoner rundt arkivet som levende hus https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/2125 <p>Arkivenes samfunnsmandat er uløselig knyttet til deres rolle som vår kollektive kunnskapsbank, den demokratiske informasjonsfrihet og som historiske og kulturelle identitetsmarkører. Likevel må det kunne sies at arkivene fremdeles fremstår for mange som utilgjengelige og innesluttede institusjoner, i motsetning til sine "søsken", museene og bibliotekene. Ifølge Meld.St. 7 (2012-2013) er imidlertid målsettingen om at arkiv skal være tilgjengelig for flest mulig, uavhengig av forhåndskunnskap og tilpasningsbehov. Hvordan kan arkivinstitusjonene i større grad fremheve seg selv som levende, aktive samfunnsaktører? Hvordan står arkivformidling på brukernes premisser i konflikt med premisser vedrørende bevaring og proveniens? Denne artikkelen er basert på min eksamensoppgave i emnet Arkivformidling (Ark3200) ved Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, avholdt våren 2016.</p> Camilla Christensen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-05-11 2017-05-11 8 2 10.7577/ta.2125 Elektronisk dokumentasjonsforvaltning – i teori og praksis Den første moderne læreboken på feltet som foreligger på et nordisk språk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/2127 <p>Tom Sahlen: Informationsforvaltning - i offentlig och privat sektor <br />Dokument &amp; Arkiv nr 6, Näringslivets Arkivråd, Stockholm 2016.<br />ISSN: 1 404-7640<br />ISBN: 978-91-973863-5-7</p> Martin Bould ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-05-11 2017-05-11 8 2 10.7577/ta.2127 Availability and findability of FOI and privacy statements on Finnish municipalities’ websites https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1968 <p>FOI and privacy statements are statements in which an organization inform users about the accessibility of the digital and analog information in its custody and the privacy policy it has adopted. This study examined whether Finnish municipalities have posted FOI and privacy statements on their websites.</p><p>At the first phase 309 municipal websites were examined to see whether the statements were located on the front page or if there were direct links to them at the front page. If the website did not have FOI or privacy statement or a link to statements at the front page, then it was studied whether the statements could be found easily in the municipal website by making a simple search. At the second phase 38 municipal websites were studied.</p><p>The study resulted that FOI and privacy statements are non-existent on Finnish municipal websites. The study also revealed while there is sometimes an effort to provide information on municipal FOI and privacy practices, the information is scattered on the website and it is not easy to find. This is in accordance with the previous studies in other countries. Interestingly, long tradition of Finnish FOI legislation does not seem to make a difference when it comes to informing users about FOI and privacy policies.</p><p>Future studies should examine how aware are the citizens about FOI and privacy rights; whether the citizens trust authorities in handling information; and what are the reasons why authorities ignore to inform the citizens about FOI and privacy practices.</p> Tuija Kautto Pekka Henttonen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-03-01 2017-03-01 8 2 10.7577/ta.1968 An Information Management Framework for the Support of E-Government in Zimbabwe https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1960 <p>It has come as a fact that the use of Information and Communication Technologies has come to stay in this world. It aids the implementation of the emerging and irresistible e-government concept that seems to be the in-thing the world over. Zimbabwe has also joined the world by ascertaining its commitment to e-government as witnessed by its promulgation of various e-government services. However, despite the government of Zimbabwe having committed itself to e-government, it is of concern to note that up to this day, the country is operating without a clear information management policy or strategy that will guide and direct all the information management practitioners in the country. This comes as a great weakness in this day and age when the government of Zimbabwe has declared its intentions to subscribe to the e-government concept both in principle and in practice. Although the country has managed to survive without a clearly defined information policy in the pre e-government era, chances of it rolling out an effective and sustainable e-government policy on the same foundation are very slim, given the importance of well managed information as a pillar of sound e-government. The paper employed document analysis as its methodology in which Zimbabwe National Information and Communication Policy (ICT) Policy Framework of 2005 and the Ministry of Information Communication Technology’s (MICT) Strategic Plan (2010-2014) were reviewed and assessed the extent to which they sufficed to serve as information management frameworks that can support e-governance in Zimbabwe. The study revealed that there are ICT policies that are meant to serve as ICT strategies for the country but none of them has been put to test and such policies are very piecemeal at best as far as their coverage of information management is concerned. The first policy of such nature was the Zimbabwe National Information and Communication Policy (ICT) Policy Framework of 2005 that was developed by the government of Zimbabwe. This was followed by the Ministry of Information Communication Technology’s (MICT) Strategic Plan (2010-2014) which was being led by the then Minister Nelson Chamisa in the Government of National Unity (GNU). Following the dismantling of the GNU, the MICT was also dismantled and a new Ministry known as the Ministry of Information and Communication Technology, Postal and Courier Services that was headed by then Minister Webster Shamu came up with a new draft policy to guide ICT in Zimbabwe. Ironically, that new policy did not see the light as the then Minister was relieved of his duties and the new and incumbent Minister; Mr Supa Mandiwanzira came up with a new draft to guide the ICT operations in Zimbabwe. Despite all these developments, it remains of concern to notice that none of these policies ever prioritised information management as a strategic pillar of e-government. It is the argument of these authors that without the country’s e-government strategy being governed by a sound information management policy that will ensure the creation, management, and preservation of information, the concept will suffer the consequences in retrospect, to the detriment of the concept and the citizens. The study further revealed that the present policies are only addressing technical issues such as network and infrastructural issues of information management, yet other important aspects such as preservation, disposal and legal issues of information management are neglected. The study recommends a new framework that is comprehensive in terms of all the facets of information management. The framework covers all the relevant information management players such as archivists, librarians, records managers and the ICT personnel who should work together so as to collectively manage national information that support e-governance which Zimbabwe has just embarked on. The study further recommends that every government department has an information manager and the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Services should be the one in charge of the information management framework and oversee its implementation. </p> Mehluli Masuku Sindiso Bhebhe Njabulo Bruce Khumalo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-02-21 2017-02-21 8 2 10.7577/ta.1960 E-government without E-democracy in the case of Vietnam: Transparency has been a sham? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1961 For over decade, Vietnam has made many efforts to promote e-government and improve efficiency and effectiveness of its public administration. As a result, the administrative system becomes more transparent time after time. However, E-democracy does not go hand in hand with e-government in the case of Vietnam wherein a non-democratic government has to strike the balance between economic and political openness. This paper aims to shed more light on a case of an authoritarian regime in the path from e-government to e-democracy. This is such a long, tough, and rocky journey linked with democratization in an authoritarian regime. Tran Van Long Nguyen Trieu Hoa Nguyen Thi Anh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-02-21 2017-02-21 8 2 10.7577/ta.1961 Trust and Transparency in E-Government https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1962 From the Editor ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-02-21 2017-02-21 8 2 10.7577/ta.1962 Your Comments Here: Contextualizing Technologies, Seeking Records and Supporting Transparency for Citizen Engagement https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1956 <p>Today, governments the world over are opening decision-making processes to citizen engagement as an aspect of open government. Citizen engagement initiatives may range from making information available and seeking feedback, to highly dynamic processes that transfer authority to communities and individuals. As part of these initiatives, governments are actively using digital technologies to gather, analyze, and store citizen input; activities that in turn create an array of records. My paper surveys a range of digital technologies used by Canadian citizen engagement case initiatives. In linking technologies, recordkeeping and citizen engagement, I present the combined frameworks of the IAP2 Spectrum and archival diplomatics as one method of understanding how recordkeeping and citizen engagement frameworks may be joined. I conclude with a discussion on defining and locating the records of citizen engagement initiatives and how records and recordkeeping may support transparency and trust in citizen engagement.</p> Grant Hurley ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-02-20 2017-02-20 8 2 10.7577/ta.1956 Government to Business E-Services – Accountability and Trust https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1958 <p>The authors divide their research in several phases. First, they conduct a literature review in order to identify relevant studies and theoretical papers covering the topic of governmental e-services. Then, they conduct an environmental scan in order to identify relevant governmental e-services in the EU countries. Further, the authors focus their research on eight European countries and conduct a deeper analysis of the implemented Government to Business (G2B) e-services. Research is centered on the eight G2B e-services. The identified e-services are firstly ranked according to their maturity level, and then analysed by using a developed questionnaire. The aim was to systematically collect enough information on the e-services in order to be able to conclude if the users may consider an e-service as responsible, reliable, accurate, secure, transparent and trustworthy as well as to conclude if an e-service addresses privacy issues, duties to remember, and the right to be forgotten. The comparative analysis of the identified G2B e-services in the eight European countries identifies weak spots of e-services and points them out in order for them to be improved. The identified gaps refer to the long-term service continuity plans, policies giving information on storage and preservation methods, long-term preservation of digitally signed records, use of clients’ data etc. One of the by-products of this research is a check list which can be used by the users of e-services as guidance for establishing trust in an e-service they (intend to) use but it also can be used as guidelines by e-service providers. The authors conclude that not only the comparative study provides an insight into the state of development of G2B e-services in the investigated countries but it also reveals the areas of possible improvements in the context of establishing accountability and trust in governmental e-services in general.</p> Hrvoje Stančić Tomislav Ivanjko Ana Garic ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-02-19 2017-02-19 8 2 10.7577/ta.1958 Opening Digital Archives and Collections with Emerging Data Analytics Technology: A Research Agenda https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1959 <p>In the public sector, the EU legislation requires preservation and opening of increasing amounts of heterogeneous digital information that should be utilized by citizens and businesses. While technologies such as big data analytics (BDA) have emerged, opening of digital archives and collections at a large scale is in its infancy. Opening archives and collections involve also particular requirements for recognizing and managing issues of privacy and digital rights. As well, ensuring the sustainability of the opened materials and economical appraisal of digital materials for preservation require robust digital preservation practices. We need to proceed beyond the state-of-the-art in opening digital archives and collections through the means of emerging big data analytics and validating a novel concept for analytics which then enables delivering of knowledge for citizens and the society. We set out an agenda for using BDA as our strategy for research and enquiry and for demonstrating the benefit of BDA for opening digital archives by civil servants and for citizens. That will – eventually - transform the preservation practices, and delivery and use opportunities of public digital archives. Our research agenda suggests a framework integrating four domains of inquiry, analytics-enhanced appraisal, analytics-prepared preservation, analytics-enhanced opening, and analytics-enhanced use, for utilizing the BDA technologies in the domain of digital archives and collections. The suggested framework and research agenda identifies initially particular BDA technologies to be utilized in each of the four domains, and contributes by highlighting a need for an integrated “public understanding of big data” in the domain of digital preservation.</p> Ahmed Elragal Tero Päivärinta ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-02-19 2017-02-19 8 2 10.7577/ta.1959 Ny versjon av standarden ISO 15489 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1799 Standarden NS-ISO 15489-1:2016 er gjeldende norsk standard fra 1. juli 2016. Dette er andre versjon av ISO 15489, den første versjonen fra 2001 er ikke lenger gyldig. 2001-utgaven av ISO 15489 besto av to deler. Del 2, SN-ISO/TR 15489-2:2001 er trukket, slik at den nye ISO 15489 kun består av del 1. ISO 15489 var den første internasjonale Records Management-standarden, og har en funksjon som overordnet referansestandard for en voksende portefølje av senere standarder på tilgrensende områder. Denne artikkelen gjennomgår endringene i hovedtrekk, både i standarden ISO 15489 som sådan og i noen av de standardene som bygger videre på den. Herbjørn Andresen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-09-06 2016-09-06 8 2 10.7577/ta.1799 Inspirasjon til og praktiske råd for arkivsøk som journalistisk metode https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1777 Bokanmeldelse av <em>Arkivsøk for journalister</em> Herbjørn Andresen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-08-23 2016-08-23 8 2 10.7577/ta.1777 Arkivformidlingens hvordan og hvorfor https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1741 <p align="left">Bokanmeldelse av <em>#arkividag – relevans, medvirkning, dialog</em></p> Leiv Bjelland ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-06-20 2016-06-20 8 2 10.7577/ta.1741 Uttrekkssammenligning - to uttrekk fra samme system https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1670 Petter B. Høiaas Cecilie Hansen Rørås Thomas Sødring ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-04-08 2016-04-08 8 2 10.7577/ta.1670 Migrasjon og arkiv. Migrasjon i Norge fra 1800-tallet til i dag og dokumentasjonen i arkivene https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1668 <p>Artikkelen omhandler migrasjonen i Norge fra 1800-tallet og fram til i dag. I tillegg til å redegjøre for selve migrasjonshistorien, er dokumentasjonen som dette har satt og setter i ulike typer arkiver et sentralt tema.</p><p>1800-tallet var preget av utvandringen til USA og har derfor en sentral plass.  Likeledes de fem årene okkupasjonen varte. Enten som flyktninger på flukt fra den tyske okkupasjonsmakten, eller mennesker som av andre grunner måtte ut av landet.</p><p>Under den andre verdenskrig vokste det fram en profesjonell militær etterretningstjeneste. Dette var en grenseløs profesjon som i dag er viktigere enn noen gang. Denne er ikke spesifikt knyttet til enkeltindivider, men blir omtalt spesielt.</p><p>Migrasjonen etter 1945 er historisk sett spennende, med arbeidsinnvandring og den økende flyktningestrømmen som sentrale elementer. Denne har eskalert på grunn av de mange krigene som stadig rykker nærmere, internasjonal terror og globale klimaendringer. </p> Svein Amblie ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-04-07 2016-04-07 8 2 10.7577/ta.1668 Conceptualisations of the use of records https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1358 <p><span style="font-family: 'Bodoni MT', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;">The archival community has an ambivalent attitude towards use of record. In one sense, use could be said to be the ultimate purpose of keeping records, on the other hand, it has not been theorized in archives and records management discourse. </span></span><span style="font-family: 'Bodoni MT', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">The purpose of this study is to contribute to an enhanced understanding of the use of records by an empirically underpinned analysis of the concept. Based on an analysis of theoretical conceptualizations of use and an analysis of data from two major case studies of contemporary public organizations, several dimensions of use covering </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Bodoni MT', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-GB">different aspects of user behaviour </span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Bodoni MT', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">were identified.</span></span></span></span><span style="font-family: 'Bodoni MT', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US"> The most important of them were the purposes of use, the objects of use, and the applications, i.e. the actual use. As a result, a conceptual model was constructed. </span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Bodoni MT', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-GB">Transformed into more abstract conceptual categories, the findings of the case studies could be applicable in other contexts</span></span></span></span><span style="color: #000000;"><span style="font-family: 'Bodoni MT', serif;"><span style="font-size: small;"><span lang="en-US">, and the model used as an analytical framework in different settings.</span></span></span></span></p> Anneli Sundqvist ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2015-04-23 2015-04-23 8 2 10.7577/ta.1358 ISO 30300 Information & documentation – Management system for records på norsk – en ny start https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/arkiv/article/view/1315 Martin Bould Jon Bjerkelien ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2015-01-30 2015-01-30 8 2 10.7577/ta.1315