FLEKS - Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory and Practice 2019-08-21T17:45:59+02:00 Cato Christensen Open Journal Systems <p><em>FLEKS - Scandinavian Journal of Intercultural Theory</em> and practice is a double-blinded peer-reviewed, open access journal. The journal focuses on the following topics:</p> <ul> <li class="show">intercultural communication</li> <li class="show">cross-cultural studies</li> <li class="show">multicultural studies</li> <li class="show">intercultural pedagogy, psychology and philosophy</li> <li class="show">professions in diverse societies</li> <li class="show">language, interpreting and translation</li> <li class="show">development studies</li> <li class="show">migration health</li> <li class="show">diversity management</li> </ul> <p>The journal provides an academic platform for researchers and professionals to contribute innovative work in the field. Based in a Scandinavian context, characterized by prioritizing no single theoretical horizon or methodological approach, the journal creates a space for development of the research field.</p> <p>The journal publishes: Research articles, Pedagogical development work, Book reviews, Student essays.</p> Gjesteredaktørenes innledning 2019-08-02T13:49:13+02:00 Thorgeir Kolshus Per Inge Båtnes 2019-03-26T09:27:02+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Cato Christensen; Thorgeir Kolshus, Per Inge Båtnes Hate and Identity <br> - A social philosophical attempt to understand extremism 2019-08-05T14:12:50+02:00 Lars Gule <p>In the analyses of extremism, the focus has mostly been on ideology and sociological – or so-called vulnerability – factors. While these factors are important the relevance and weight of emotions in the extremisation processes have not received the attention, they deserve. This article is an attempted to filling this gap. The paper explores the importance of emotions, especially strong emotions like hate and ‘ressentiment’, in establishing and reproducing the extremist identity. Methodologically this contribution emphasises a hermeneutic approach and draws on the philosophy of emotions, especially the approach of Robert C. Solomon. Empirically the article draws upon established international research and the author’s research on Islamist extremism in Norway.</p> 2019-03-26T09:32:48+01:00 Copyright (c) Esoterogeni og aktiv forskjellsdannelse: <br> Religion og identitetsskapning, i Stillehavet og andre steder 2019-08-05T14:13:54+02:00 Thorgeir Kolshus <p>Taking its cue from Marx’ and Weber’s grand theorizing, a key narrative in Western modernity has been the inevitable dissolution of pre-modern identities. This thesis has informed both policy making and notions of global agency, and in effect caused a particular worldview in which everyone will become more or less the same – what I refer to as the Star Trek-vision of globalized culture and values. In this article, I borrow the linguistic concept of ‘esoterogeny’, the creation of the obscure, to address whether difference, far from being coincidental, serves a more fundamental experiential purpose and consequently is actively maintained. The empirical point of departure are church fissions and denominational dynamics in the Pacific island state of Vanuatu. I argue that in an age characterized by identity politics, in which recognition and attention are scarce resources, all keen observers of social systems should expect the outcome of ever more global interaction to lead to an increase in articulations of social and cultural difference.</p> 2019-03-26T09:37:44+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Cato Christensen; Thorgeir Kolshus «Ubehagets pedagogikk» – en inngang til kritisk refleksjon og inkluderende undervisning? 2019-08-21T17:45:59+02:00 Åse Røthing <p>“Pedagogy of discomfort” was first introduced by Boler in 1999 as a teaching practice that invites educators and students to engage in critical inquiry regarding values and norms, and to examine constructed self-images and perceptions of others (1999, p. 177). The concept has later been further developed by Boler and Zembylas (2003) as a pedagogical framework to engage students and teachers with issues of difference, race and social justice by challenging their emotional comfort zones. This pedagogical approach is grounded in the assumption that discomforting emotions are important in challenging dominant beliefs, social habits and normative practices that sustain stereotypes and social injustice and in creating openings for empathy and transformation. (Zembylas &amp; Papamichael, 2017, p. 3). This article explores how pedagogy of discomfort may contribute to critical reflections and inclusive education, by asking what educators may gain from dwelling with discomfort rather than trying to escape it. I argue that discomfort may function as an approach to critical reflections and new knowledge, and a resource for transformation, not as something to fear and avoid. However, the ideas of pedagogy of discomfort have raised concerns for what might happen when students are challenged and become uncomfortable in educational settings. One might argue that the concept of “classroom safety” could imply that educators first and foremost should offer comfort in classrooms. My main interest in this article is what educators may gain from engaging with discomfort as a resource for critical reflections and inclusive education.</p> 2019-03-26T09:41:53+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Cato Christensen; Åse Røthing Identitetspolitikk til besvær – om det nye ubehaget i profesjonsutøvelsen 2019-08-21T17:45:13+02:00 Per Inge Båtnes <p>Den moderne profesjonsutøveren synes å ha pådratt seg noen nye utfordringer med hensyn til forvaltning av egen myndighet som ikke var på langt nær like påtakelig bare for få tiår siden. Det er snakk om en form for ubehag eller en frykt som er knyttet til faren for å krenke andre menneskers identitetsfølelse og kanskje utløse aggresjon. Det som skrives i dette lille essayet berører spørsmål som gjelder sammenhenger mellom identitetspolitikk og myndighetsutøvelse i samfunnet. Det som skrives kan også leses som en personlig reorientering med hensyn til spørsmål som gjelder identitet. En fordums begeistring over menneskers innsats når det gjelder å presisere og polere sine identiteter har blitt erstattet av en form for besinnelse og ettertanke.</p> 2019-03-26T09:48:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Cato Christensen; Per Inge Båtnes Minoritetspolitisk historie som profesjonskunnskap – en personlig refleksjon om «praktisk relevans» 2019-08-21T17:45:40+02:00 Cato Christensen <p>Working at Oslo Metropolitan University, which aspire to be a “university for professional education”, I often sense an expectation that my teaching should have “practical relevance” for the students. But does it need to, always?</p> 2019-03-26T00:00:00+01:00 Copyright (c) 2019 Cato Christensen; Cato Christensen, 34188