Form Akademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk 2018-12-12T01:52:45+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan Open Journal Systems <p>Tidsskriftet FormAkademisk er et fagfellevurdert forum åpent for publisering av forskning innen design og designdidaktikk, slik som industridesign, visuell kommunikasjon, interaksjonsdesign, arkitektur, landskapsarkitektur og urbanisme, og utdanning på alle nivå fra barnehage til doktorgrad. FormAkademisk har som mål å skape et forum for utveksling av forskningsresultater og konsepter på tvers av ulike designkulturer og designpraksiser, innen designteori og designhistorie, praksisbasert forskning og designdidaktikk.&nbsp;</p> COLridor 2018-12-12T01:52:26+01:00 Marie Davidova Kateřina Zímová <p><em>The mission of the present trans-disciplinary community environmental project COLridor </em><em>(Davidová, 2017b)</em><em> is to generate a situation of eco-systemic co-living across local species’ and abiotic agency in an urban environment through their co-design. Located in the city centre of Prague, the case study bio-tope is a part of larger bio-corridor that has evolved namely thanks to the adjacent railway and water stream. Though the prevailing opinion of European urbanists stays that cities should remain dense and separate from the rest of nature</em><em>, landscape ecologists and biologists tend to disagree. There is no nature on Earth without human beings and these together evolved reflecting each other’s impact and interaction. A great variety of species have adapted and evolved for the urban environment that, at the moment for many, offers safer and more habitable living environment than agricultural land full of herbicides, pests, antibiotics and antibiotics resistant bacteria. Through systematically co-designed and co-created so called eco-systemic ‘prototypical urban interventions’ </em><em>(Doherty, 2005)</em><em>, the project aims to motivate generation of edible landscape, social, cultural and habitable urban environment across the species. We claim that designers should be no longer designing for- but designing with- the overall eco-system. This case study helps to justify first author’s ratified design field Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance, covering fusion of variety of co-design across eco-system in process based fields.</em></p> <p><em>This is an extended, edited and updated article based on a working paper ‘COLridor: Co-Design and Co-Living for Sustainable Futures’ </em><em>(Davidová &amp; Zímová, 2017)</em><em> for Relating Systems Thinking and Design 6 conference within the theme ‘Environment, Economy, Democracy: Flourishing Together’ </em><em>(Sevaldson, 2017)</em><em>.&nbsp;</em></p> 2018-10-19T10:45:55+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Biodiversity and climate change adaptation through non-discrete architectural spaces and architectures 2018-12-12T01:52:27+01:00 Marie Davidova Dana Rakova <p><em>The research claims that traditions are not static. They develop and adapt based on the present situation. Due to the recent climate extremes coming to formally mild climate locations, their architectures can learn from traditional ones from more climate extreme locations. The present systemic design study on semi-interior, ‘non-discrete spaces’ </em><em>(Hensel, 2013; Hensel &amp; Turko, 2015)</em><em>, of Norwegian traditional architectures, so called ‘svalgangs’ and ‘skuts’ examine its reuse for today climate change adaptation and support of biodiversity that is currently decreasing. Our agricultural land become so toxic, that its species are recently moving and adapting for life in the cities. The discussed traditional spaces offer various boundary penetration of its surrounding environment while providing mediation of its biotic and abiotic agency. These do not cover only anthropocentric benefits for its users such as light and climate comfort but also offer opportunities of communication with other species or their sheltering. </em></p> <p><em>This practitioners’ historical research survey motivated by design co-developes its own systemic process based methodology Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance that originates from ‘Systems Oriented Design’ </em>(Sevaldson, 2013b)<em> and ‘Time Based Design’ </em><em>(Sevaldson, 2004)</em><em>. Where, this ‘non-anthropocentric architecture’ </em><em>(Hensel, 2012)</em><em> is in over-evolving co-design with ambient environment’s abiotic and biotic agents, including humans.</em></p> 2018-10-18T16:17:51+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relating Systems Thinking and Design IV 2018-12-12T01:52:27+01:00 Birger Sevaldson <p>The fourth special issue of FormAkademisk on the theme of Systemic Design features articles from RSD5 2016 held at OCADU, Toronto October 13 to 15. The themes of these five full papers are covering development of the design field at large, methodology development and practice of learning and education. The other main thread in this issue is sustainability, circular economy and urban co living strategies.</p> <p>The special issue follows after the publication of the RSD5 proceedings , containing videos, abstracts and working papers from the conference. In these full papers the themes form the presentations and working papers are developed further. The proceedings are found at:</p> <p><a href=""><em></em></a></p> <p>Parallel to this special issue a Springer Book is published with Peter Jones as editor presenting an additional set of selected papers.</p> <p>Following the three former special issues it is fair to state that systemic design has developed beyond the initial point where it was still unclear what the notion of Systemic Design was covering and how it should be developed. The current issue demonstrates that systemic design has a wide reach and depth in its explorations.</p> <p>Cover image by <span lang="NO-BOK" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; color: #1f497d;">Elisabeth Bjørndal Skjelten.</span></p> 2018-10-18T09:15:22+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Facing complexity through varying the clarification of the design task 2018-12-12T01:52:28+01:00 Wouter Carel Kersten Jan Carel Diehl Jo M.L. van Engelen <p>Today, most challenges designers face are complex. One way industrial design engineers have learned to deal with this complexity is to simplify the problem early on—for example, by focusing on one particular context, e.g. user group. Variations are typically addressed, but preferably inside the simplified design task or even after initial success has been achieved and a path has been set out. A range of authors have suggested ways to address variations during the design process. This paper contributes to exploring this notion of variation by presenting an approach that emphasises contextual variation early on, clarifying the design task before the design process, in a narrow sense, begins. This enables designers to seize opportunities that reveal themselves before a final path is set. Based on real-life cases and discussion of existing literature, the value of this approach for an industrial designer’s arsenal is explored and guidance for next steps is offered.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong></em> context variation, complexity, design arsenal, variation of the design task, design approach</p> 2018-10-15T15:51:33+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic design agendas in education and design research 2018-12-12T01:52:29+01:00 Susu Nousala David Ing Peter Hayward Jones <p><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">Since 2014, an international collaborative of design leaders has been exploring ways in which methods can be augmented, transitioning from the heritage legacy focus on products and services towards a broad range of complex sociotechnical systems and contemporary societal problems issues. At the RSD4 Symposium (2015), DesignX co-founder Don Norman presented a keynote talk on the frontiers of design practice and necessity for advanced design education for highly complex sociotechnical problems. He identified the qualities of these systems as relevant to DesignX problems, and called for systemics, transdisciplinarity and the need for high-quality observations (or evidence) in these design problems.&nbsp; Initial directions found were proposed in the first DesignX workshop in October 2015, which were published in the design journal Shè Jì.&nbsp; In October 2016, another DesignX workshop was held at Tongji University in Shanghai, overlapping with the timing of the RSD5 Symposium where this workshop was convened. The timing of these events presented an opportunity to explore design education and research concepts, ideas and directions of thought that emerged from the multiple discussions and reflections through this experimental workshop. The aim of this paper is to report on the workshop as a continuing project in the DesignX discourse, to share reflections and recommendations from this working group.</span></p> 2018-10-15T10:13:18+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic design and policy making 2018-12-12T01:52:29+01:00 Silvia Barbero Agnese Pallaro <p>The paradigm shift from a linear to a circular economic model has been increasingly advocated by many, from the scientific community to governments. The benefits of a Circular Economy (CE) are particularly appealing for Europe, considering the issues Europe is currently facing. Even though the European Union (EU) promotes activities to support the transition to a CE, several economic, social and regulatory barriers hinder this. The full potential of a CE can be realised only after these barriers have been overcome. Given the current European context in relation to policymaking for a CE, the paper provides a case study of the RETRACE Interreg Europe project to argue that the methodology of the Systemic Design approach can support the transition to a Circular Economy, thus overcoming existing barriers. The focus of the discussion will be narrowed to the Piedmont region (Italy) to better support the argument.</p> 2018-10-15T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Powerful learning at SEA 2018-12-12T01:52:30+01:00 Gordon Rowland Allison L. Kitchen-Meyer <p><em>The Sea Education Association (SEA) has an international reputation for creating powerful learning experiences in semester-long programs that involve conducting scientific research while sailing tall ships. To what extent, how and why these experiences occur was studied through interviews, extant data analysis, and participant observation of the SEA Semester program Marine Biodiversity and Conservation. Themes consistent with past studies of powerful learning emerged, for example, authenticity, openness, relationships with others, and intense engagement, while outcomes continued to be highly individual. Relationships among these themes point toward complexity, design, and systemic design and suggest seeds of a theory of powerful learning systems.&nbsp;</em></p> 2018-10-12T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Drawing as performance 2018-12-12T01:52:30+01:00 Theodor Barth <p><em>The objective of the present article is to re-work and radically reframe a case study on drawing presented at the E&amp;PDE conference, hosted by OsloMet in the early autumn of 2017. The case study was experimental – involving a drawer, </em><em>a furniture designer, an MA student (at the time) and an anthropologist. The present article ventures to draw certain learning outcomes from the experiment. These are presently relevant in the context of the heritage of a drawing school founded in 1818 and in the wake of the current activities in artistic research (AR) at the Oslo National Academy of the Arts (KHiO). The focus is on the educational aspects of ‘doing research’. The article queries the relation between drawing, writing and field research in the history of the school and currently in AR.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em>:</strong> drawing, writing, field research, process, reframing, case study, comparison, first science, third-party readability, non-philosophy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-10-09T20:34:57+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Når tilskueren tegner 2018-12-12T01:52:31+01:00 Hilde Kramer <p><em>Etter 2. verdenskrig har vitnebeskrivelser og fotografier dominert spredningen av kunnskap om holocaust. Bakgrunnen for artikkelen er utfordringer rundt formidling av disse hendelsene i vår tid. Innledningsvis poengteres viktigheten av å opprettholde formidling av holocaust. Teksten henter eksempler fra resepsjonsteori, og etterspør nye måter å fremme tilskuerens aktive engasjement. Den historiske bakgrunnen forklares. Gjennom en serie workshoper utprøves en fenomenologisk tilnærming gjennom tegning for å minnes ofre av holocaust. Tre eksempler fra workshopene viser ulike deltakeres tilnærming, samt mulige utfordringer. Resultater av workshopene, observasjoner og tilbakemeldinger diskuteres underveis. Artikkelen vil ta opp utfordringer ved prosjektet og mulige feilkilder man kan støte på. </em><em>Observasjoner av og tilbakemeldinger fra deltakerne i workshopene ser ut til å bekrefte at en innpakket stein med et nummer fungerte forløsende for flertallet fra posisjonen som passiv betrakter til aktiv, etterforskende tegner.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Nøkkelord: </em></strong>kunstnerisk utviklingsarbeid, tegning, holocaust, deltakerbasert minnekultur, formidlingsmetoder, resepsjonsteori</p> 2018-10-09T20:05:52+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Participation in hybrid sketching 2018-12-12T01:52:31+01:00 Arild Berg <p><em>In the age of digitalisation, the role of the sketch has taken new forms, but it still works as a mediator between people who work to create something together. There is, however, a lack of knowledge about how the sketch can be used as a strategy to increase participation and collaboration in creative processes. Participation in various types of sketching was explored through a case study with a participatory design approach in a public art project for a health centre. The study demonstrated how hybrid materialisations of a sketch have value as a communicative medium. Essential concepts emerged from collaborative learning in fieldwork that created shared understanding based on drawing experiments. The concepts contribute to a typology of hybrid sketches used as creativity skills in the expanded field of art. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong>Collaborative learning, participatory design, artistic research, drawing in the expanded field, management of creative processes</p> 2018-10-09T18:49:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Striper 2018-12-12T01:52:32+01:00 Arild Berg Karen Disen <p>Striper blir i denne studien undersøkt gjennom Friedrich Schillers konsepter om menneskets tre grunndrifter i form; formdrift, stoffdrift og lekedrift. Schillers teoretiske begreper brukes til å fokusere på forskning om form i forhold til menneskets trang og ønske om å forme. Gjennom å vise konkrete eksempler av striper som er materialisert på ulike måter i kunst og design viser artikkelen hvordan Schillers begreper kan brukes til å øve studenter og lærere i design- og kunstutdannelse til å se egen og andres praksis gjennom et kunstteoretisk blikk, og slik gi økt forståelse for sammenheng mellom teori og praksis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2018-10-09T15:54:06+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Hvordan øke bevisstheten om den førspråklige dimensjonen av det kroppslige nærværet i tegning? 2018-12-12T01:52:32+01:00 Christian Montarou <p><em>I tillegg til dialogen som organismen fører med den ytre verden ved hjelp sansene, finnes det under tegneprosessen en uartikulert førspråklig kobling mot de stimuli, som kommer fra den «ikke synlige» indre fornemmende kroppen. Forskningsspørsmålet jeg har valgt å arbeide med i artikkelen er: Hvordan øke bevisstheten om den førspråklige dimensjonen av det kroppslige nærværet i tegning? Dette undersøkes gjennom Merleau Ponty sin tenkning rundt kroppsfenomenologi, Derrida sitt syn på tegneren som blind, psykolog Stern sin tenkning om vitalitetsaffekt. Likeledes inspirasjon fra forskere som </em><em>Petitmengin med sin mikrofenomenologiske metode, Berger sin pedagogiske tenkning og studier av kroppens rolle i vitenskapelig forskning og ulike forfattere innen kroppskognisjon teori som fremhever betydningen av det førspråklig i tenkning. Forskningsspørsmålet vil også bli belyst ut fra min erfaring som kunstner og som tegnelærer på Institutt for landskapsarkitektur ved NMBU</em></p> 2018-10-08T20:37:22+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Experimental psychology and visual artwork 2018-12-12T01:52:33+01:00 Stine Vogt <ol> <li class="p1 show"><span class="s1"><em>This article explores ways in which modern experimental psychology can provide information about aspects of the processes involved in the creation of visual art. Many areas of research in the fields of neuroscience and cognitive neuropsychology yield information that can be used to develop techniques to benefit the production of art. Several phenomena are discussed to provide a comprehensive perspective on the psychological, behavioural and physiological processes that influence the creation of artwork. </em></span></li> </ol> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: paradoxical facilitation, cognitive psychology, system 1, system 2, verbal overshadowing, perceptual constancy, categorical, coordinate, TMS</em></span></p> 2018-10-08T19:53:23+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Modelling as a fundament for creativity 2018-12-12T01:52:34+01:00 Nina Scott Frisch <p>The overall setting around this investigation is the writing of a PhD thesis ‘To see the visually controlled’ (Frisch, 2010), where my aim was to document, describe, analyse, compare and theorise formal (teacher-initiated) and informal (children-initiated) visually controlled drawings, also called modelling drawing processes, among 9–12-year-olds. The modernist narrative in art education presented by Wilson (2004) claims that modelling in drawing among children is uncreative. My investigation shows how creative processes can be detected by using Vygotsky’s creativity theory and Kaufmann and Beghetto’s (2009) 4c creativity model within a sociocultural theoretical tradition. The acts of creative processes done by moving modelled elements in a drawing around has not been thoroughly seen as a central strategy in children´s drawing processes. This article is an attempt to shed light on these processes often found when looking at children’s informal drawing processes. The importance of these ‘shifting-around’ processes are not always regarded as valuable and related to both modelling and creativity. The relation between modelling in drawing and creativity as part of children´s drawing learning is explored in this article.</p> 2018-10-08T18:27:16+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Begynnaropplæring i teikning 2018-12-12T01:52:34+01:00 Karen Braenne Janne Heggvoll <p><em>Artikkelen har begynnaropplæring i teikning som tema. Ved å studere fagstoff om teikneopplæring nytta ved norske grunnskulelærarutdanningar, utviklar denne teksten tre ulike teoretiske kategoriar som skildrar teiknemetodiske tilnærmingar. Kategoriane er forma med støtte frå lese- og skriveopplæringsfeltet og omgrepa analytiske og syntetiske tilnærmingar, samt kunnskapsteoretiske og læringsteoretiske posisjonar. I tillegg blir omgrepet progresjon ved Ralph Tyler (1948) nytta for å utdjupe det som kjem fram. Bidraget er meint å vere ein forsiktig start på å utvikle ei teikneteoretisk plattform til støtte for dei institusjonane som utdannar lærarar for dei minste i skulen.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> 2018-10-08T17:18:48+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tegneundervisning og (poly)tekniske idealer 2018-12-12T01:52:35+01:00 Mathilde Sprovin <p><em>Tegneskolen i Christiania ble opprettet i 1818. I undervisningen stod tegneopplæring sentralt. Fra oppstarten i 1818 var dette etter modell fra de europeiske kunstakademiene. Dette endret seg mot slutten av 1800-tallet, i takt med den teknologiske utviklingen i Europa som satte nye krav til tegnefaget. Idealene ble hentet fra École Polytechnique i Paris. </em></p> 2018-10-08T16:50:29+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial. Drawing in Artistic Research – Whence and Wherefore? 2018-12-12T01:52:35+01:00 Theodor Barth <p>The topic of this special issue of FormAkademisk is <em>drawing</em>. While the issue is hosted by the Oslo National Academy of the Arts (KHiO), the contributors have come in from different urban locations in Norway, including Volda, Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. <em>We would like to use this occasion to extend our thanks to the external peer-reviewers</em>. They have helped in bringing the issue to its present level of quality</p> 2018-10-08T14:34:59+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FormAkademisk 10 år – med forskning på design og designdidaktikk 2018-12-12T01:52:36+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p><em>FormAkademisk</em> – <em>forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk</em> fyller 10 år omtrent på denne tida. I 2017 feira vi 10. årgang og i år er det 10 år siden den første redaksjonen starta sitt arbeid.</p> 2018-10-08T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Make it NOW! – Learning, Exploring and Understanding 2018-12-12T01:52:36+01:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Siri Homlong Mari-Ann Letnes Jaana Lepistõ Anniken Randers-Pehrson <p><em>This issue of FormAkademisk features selected articles developed from papers presented at the Make it NOW</em><em>! Learning, Exploring and Understanding conference in Rauma, Finland, September 28-30, 2016</em><em>. This NordFo conference was organized by Rauma Unit of Turku University´s Department of Teacher Education. NordFo is a Nordic forum, supported by NordPlus, which since the 1980s has worked towards initiating, stimulating and reporting research and development work within the subject art and craft, textile work and woodwork and the teacher education in these subjects in the Nordic countries. The conference Make it NOW! aimed to “…provide an arena for discussions on craft, design and technology as an innovative combination of knowledge and skills related to eco-social values in altering the world according to human needs and wants”</em> (International NordFo Conference in Rauma, 2016). <em>This special issue of FormAkademisk</em><em> called for articles with an emphasis on the theme Researching embodied making and learning – New methodological vistas on Making, however this did not exclude papers from other sessions. Additionally, this issue contains </em><em>two </em><em>other, </em><em>independent articles that fit</em><em> this special issue’s scope. </em></p> 2018-05-16T11:08:29+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Documentation as a practice-led research tool for reflection on experiential knowledge 2018-12-12T01:52:37+01:00 Maarit Mäkelä Nithikul Nimkulrat <p>Practice-led research has been under debate for three decades. One of its major issues concerns how the researcher who is also the practitioner documents and reflects on her creative process in relation to a research topic. This article reviews and discusses documentation and reflection in practice-led research through three cases of doctoral dissertations that were completed at Aalto University in Finland. Through the cases the article examines the role the documentation and reflection of creative processes and products in these studies. In conclusion, documentation in the practice-led research context functions as conscious reflection on and in action. Any means of documentation, for example diary writing, photographing, or sketching, can serve as a mode of reflection.&nbsp;</p> 2018-05-16T09:50:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Assessment of textile craft products’ creativity in the Latvian competition for pupils 2018-12-12T01:52:38+01:00 Māra Urdziņa-Deruma <p><em>The purpose of the research is to explore the results of pupils’ creative activity in a competition in textile craft in Latvia and to find trends in the creation of textile craft products. The applied method is the analysis of creative work items made by pupils from Forms 6–7 (N1 = 106) and Forms 8–9 (N2 = 132): photos, designs and textile craft products. Among the hand and foot garments, the most popular products in both age groups were fingerless gloves. The knitting technique was used most frequently, and most of the items were wearable. Creativity predominantly manifested in the combinations of colours, techniques and materials, followed by creative technology solutions and creative product shapes. The results </em><em>regarding creativity were higher for the creation of textile craft products than for creating designs.</em></p> 2018-04-18T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Visual Ethnography as tool in exploring children's embodied making processes in preprimary education 2018-12-12T01:52:38+01:00 Kari Carlsen <p><em>This article presents and discuss Visual Ethnography as Methodological approach to research on embodied making and learning in preprimary education. Children’s making processes with materials and tools are visible. What children learn in and through these processes is not necessary visible. The article reflect on how visual ethnography (Pink, 2007) contribute to uncover and understand ongoing learning processes through visual documented making situations. The empirical material referred to, includes children from one to six years old and staff in Norwegian kindergarten as participants. Ethnographic methods are frequently used in educational research. Rose (2007) discusses visual methods within different methodological approaches.</em></p> <p><em>Preschools and Early Childhood Centers in Reggio Emilia, Italy (Giudici, Rinaldi, Krechevsky, 2001; Rinaldi, 2006; Vecchi, 2010) has developed various ways of documentation that focus on visual readable material. Norwegian kindergartens inspired by the educational experiences in Reggio Emilia aims to develop pedagogical documentation as didactic tool in daily educational processes, with visual presentations as central part. The article discusses how visual ethnography as method gives the opportunity to present research findings also through visual representations, how these may give another insight in small children’s making than pure written text, and focus on ethical dilemmas concerning visual presentation. The connection between visual ethnography as research method and the presentation of research insights and findings, explore and visualize small children’s learning processes during embodied making with materials and tools, and contribute to research on children’s learning processes in preprimary education. </em></p> <p><em>Key words: </em>Visual ethnography, pictures, video, preprimary education, materials, embodied making and learning, Reggio Emilia atelier</p> 2018-04-18T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Colour and form 2018-12-12T01:52:39+01:00 Camilla Gåfvels <p><em>This article investigates how </em><em>expressions</em><em> of vocational knowing regarding colour and form changed in Swedish upper secondary floristry education between 1990 and 2015. An analytical approach is used which falls within the framework of a sociocultural interpretation of educational activity. During the period studied, subject matter related to colour and form became increasingly formalised. Empirical data was obtained from multiple sources, including two interviews with an experienced senior teacher, which helped to reveal the local history of a leading Swedish floristry school. The findings of the article are as follows: (i) conceptualisation, verbal analysis and reflection have gained prominence in Swedish floristry education since the 1990s, and (ii) these tools have increasingly served to help participants in education make and express aesthetic judgements. Through a discussion of various aspects of contemporary Swedish floristry education, the article illuminates the complexity of long-term changes in vocational knowing.</em></p> 2018-04-11T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A continuum of measures of validity for research in the making fields 2018-12-12T01:52:39+01:00 David Wang <p>With the growth of “making” doctorates in design-related fields comes the need to define how dissertations in these fields achieve doctoral robustness.&nbsp; This paper first suggests that this new category of doctoral degree is justifiable from a historical point of view.&nbsp; A brief survey of how the PhD emerged in the European tradition, and its trajectory through the centuries, reveals there have been previous changes in the areas of study deemed worthy of doctoral distinction.&nbsp; On this view, we can justify awarding doctorates in the “making” fields, from art to architecture, on historical grounds.&nbsp; The aspect that has remained constant through the years, however, is that the doctoral degree signifies inclusion in a community of learners and, in turn, doctoral learning has positively impacted human community in general.&nbsp; Making doctorates should therefore not be so unique and exclusive that they separate themselves from the historic community-building role doctorates have played.&nbsp; The second part of this paper suggests a way towards this inclusivity.&nbsp; This paper proposes a “continuum of measures of research validity” to help researchers (and evaluators) in making doctorates anchor their research logic in measures that have roots in scientific method.&nbsp; The continuum is purposefully broad, beginning with standard measures of scientific research, but stretching those measures all the way to fictive constructions.&nbsp; Within this broad continuum, dissertations in the making fields can comfortably fall within the scope of doctoral research using expanded definitions for measures of validity. The paper concludes with four recommendations for candidates in the making fields, for the committees that guide them, and for the emerging community of making doctoral research as a whole.</p> 2018-04-04T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Humor supporting preschoolers in designing and making crafts 2018-12-12T01:52:40+01:00 Marja-Leena Rönkkö Juli-Anna Aerila <p><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: NO-BOK; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">This study aims to examine how designing and making humorous craft products can be connected to storytelling. The study involved 17 preschoolers who were tasked to design a soft toy that would make others laugh. The brainstorming was supported by collaborative and individual activities (e.g., discussions and sketching). The preschoolers told humorous stories inspired by the craft process. Humor and different activities form an inspiring starting point for the design process. Craft making with humor motivates children, gives them story ideas, and makes learning more holistic. Storytelling makes children’s thoughts on their soft toys visible. Girls’ and boys’ views differ on what makes others laugh. Girls prefer to laugh together, whereas boys’ humor is aggressive, unconventional, and may be based on embarrassing others or laughing at others’ expense. Girls emphasize the significance of cheering up others; thus, they are more product oriented than boys.</span></p> 2018-02-12T15:32:31+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Why our brains love arts and crafts 2018-12-12T01:52:40+01:00 Minna Huotilainen Mimmu Rankanen Camilla Groth Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Maarit Mäkelä <p><em>Art and craft practitioners have personal experience of the benefits of making: the handling of material can help to regulate our mental states through providing a means to reach flow states. The mirror neuron system helps in skill learning, and the plasticity of the brain ensures that skills may be learned at all stages of life. Arts and crafts play a role in controlling stress and enhancing relaxation. They also enable us to fail safely and handle our emotions. Furthermore, they facilitate social activity for many individuals who are at risk of social isolation. This article aims to integrate knowledge from both the field of neuroscience and the arts by focusing on the implications that flow experience and the mirror neuron system integral to making processes have on our psychophysical well-being.</em></p> 2018-02-12T11:09:38+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bærekraftig utvikling gjennom skapende praksis 2018-12-12T01:52:41+01:00 Eva Lutnæs Nina Fallingen <p><em><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: medium;">Faget Kunst og håndverk er grunnskolens linse til gjenstandenes, byggenes og bildenes verden; det allmenndannende faget innen visuell og materiell kultur. Faget rommer praktisk problemløsning, estetiske erfaringer, nærhet til materialer og et vurderende blikk. Kunst- og håndverkslærererne står i verkstedet med materialene i hendene og har mulighet til å sette små dagligdagse handlinger og meninger inn i en større sammenheng og utfordre elever til å ta ansvar for det de gjør og det de kanskje velger å ignorere. Artikkelen søker å forsterke fagets samfunnsmandat gjennom å peke på hvilket potensial det har til å fremme økoliteracy og kimer til å bebo denne verden bedre gjennom fire innganger: estetisk erfaring, innovasjon, praktisk arbeid og kritisk refleksjon.  </span></em></p> 2017-12-29T12:16:11+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Internasjonal anerkjennelse av FormAkademisk 2018-12-12T01:52:42+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p>FormAkademisk ble – som eneste designforskningstidsskrift i Norden – invitert til Design Journal Editors’ Meeting på College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP), University of Cincinnati i slutten av oktober. Møtet ble arrangert i forkant av konferansen IASDR 2017, den verdensomspennende organisasjonen for designforskning.</p><p>Liv Merete Nielsen, som opprinnelig tok initiativet til å opprette FormAkademisk og har vært seksjonsredaktør siden oppstarten og jeg, som har vært ansvarlig redaktør hele perioden, reiste sammen til møtet.</p><p>FormAkademisk var i godt selskap – blant de andre som var invitert, kan vi nevne det amerikanske <em>Design Issues</em> og det britiske <em>Design Studies, </em>begge tidsskrift på nivå 2 i Norsk vitenskapsindeks – NVI. Andre anerkjente tidsskrift som var invitert, var <em>International Journal of Design </em>fra Taiwan, <em>She Ji - The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation </em>fra Tongji University i Shanghai i Kina<em>, Design and Culture </em>fra USA<em>, Co-Design </em>fra Storbritannia<em>, Information Design Journal </em>utgitt i Nederland med en internasjonal redaksjon<em>, Journal of Design, Business &amp; Society </em>med en internasjonal redaksjon<em>, </em>det franske<em> Sciences du Design </em>og <em>Visible Language </em>ved University of Cincinnati, som var vertskap for møtet<em>.</em></p><p>Mike Zender ved College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP), University of Cincinnati og redaktør for tidsskriftet <em>Visible Language </em>hadde tatt initiativ til og ledet møtet. Målsettinga var at redaktørene for disse tidsskriftene skulle diskutere felles utfordringer for tidsskriftene.</p><p>Først varmet vi opp ved at hvert tidsskrift beskrev sin redaksjonelle profil. Fra FormAkademisk la jeg vekt på at vi har to bein å stå på – forskning innen design, men også designutdanning av folk flest – <em>design education for the general public</em>. Denne kombinasjonen ser vi ut til å være alene om internasjonalt.</p><p>Felles saker som ble diskutert videre var utfordringer med kvaliteten på innsendte artikler og å få kvalifiserte fagfeller. Vi diskuterte også om vi skulle bli enige om en felles forståelse av hva det innebærer av medvirkning for å stå oppført som artikkelforfatter. Det var enighet om at vi ønsket flere slike møter for å diskutere felles utfordringer for forskningstidsskrift for design og designutdanning framover, gjerne i forbindelse med de største internasjonale designforsker­konferansene. Vi ønsker også kurs i fagfellevurdering og artikkelskriving. Ut fra diskusjonene, kommer FormAkademisk godt ut sammenlignet med de andre internasjonalt ledende forsknings­­tidsskriftene innen  design og designutdanning.</p><p>Etter møtet i Cincinnati har det vært livlige diskusjoner på email mellom de inviterte til <em>Design Journal Editors’ Meeting </em>i Cincinnati i oktober. Vi ser fram til neste møte for å diskutere felles utfordringer for tidsskriftene innen designforskning.</p><p>Et felles problem for tidsskriftene er å finne gode fagfeller som kan vurdere artiklene. Vi oppfordrer derfor alle som blir spurt om å si ja til å være fagfeller. Husk at for hver artikkel du sender inn til vurdering er det to fagfeller som stiller opp for deg!</p> 2017-12-06T20:30:39+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Det skapende rom 2018-12-12T01:52:42+01:00 Solveig Toft Kari Holte <p><em>I denne artikkelen rettes blikket mot selve opplevelsen i den skapende prosess, de ikke-målbare kvaliteter, spesielt i forhold til faget Kunst og håndverk. Artikkelens data består av </em><em>tre ulike utøvergruppers arbeidsprosess i en bestemt type maleoppgave; maling med musikk som inspirasjon. De tre utøvergruppene hadde ulik alder, bakgrunn og skolering. Disse tre gruppene skal eksemplifisere hvilke opplevelser som kan oppstå i noen utvalgte skapende prosesser. Teorigrunnlaget er Czsikmyhalis flow-teori og Hans-Georg Gadamers hermeneutiske teori. Intensjonen er å bringe inn et perspektiv for å øke bevissthet og omtanke av enkelte forhold vedrørende tilrettelegging for skapende aktiviteter i skolen.</em><strong></strong></p><p><em><br /></em></p> 2017-11-01T10:24:26+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The domestication of planning ideas – the case of Shared Space 2018-12-12T01:52:43+01:00 Sebastian Peters <p><strong></strong>New planning ideas of diverse types, ranging from new design concepts to large-scale development policies, are inherently challenging because they involve changes to prevailing thought and practice. As they are passed on, though, they are subjected to translation, adjusting them to discourses prevailing in different contexts, and often resulting in conceptual distortion. This article seeks to contribute to the theorization of the translation of planning ideas, by proposing the concept of domestication as a means of understanding such distortion. An analysis of one such challenging idea - <em>Shared Space</em> - serves to illustrate this concept and assess its usefulness.</p> 2017-10-23T17:54:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bokanmeldelse: Kritisk diskursanalyse 2018-12-12T01:52:43+01:00 Petter Næss <p>Det er ikke skrevet særlig mange bøker av nordiske forfattere om diskursanalyse, trass i den store interessen for diskursperspektiver og diskursteoretiske begreper blant forskere og studenter i samfunnsfagene. Sosiologen Joar Skredes bok <em>Kritisk diskursanalyse</em> (Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2017) er et av de få nyere bidragene. Boka tar for seg en spesiell retning innenfor det diskursanalytiske landskapet. Som bokas tittel signaliserer, dreier det seg om såkalt kritisk diskursanalyse.</p> 2017-10-16T19:42:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reflecting Contemporary Design Research 2018-12-12T01:52:44+01:00 Ida Engholm <p><em>In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present article addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The article's underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the article discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets and methodological practices. </em></p><p class="Pa1"> </p> 2017-10-16T09:22:02+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Learning for Tomorrow 2018-12-12T01:52:45+01:00 Nina Scott Frisch Silje Bergman <p>This special issue of Form Akademisk consist of four selected peer reviewed articles developed from papers held at <em>The 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers - DRS/CUMULUS learnxdesign conference</em> held in Chicago from the 28<sup>th</sup> of June – 30<sup>th</sup> of June 2015.  The conference was implemented through close cooperation between the Design Research Society (DRS) and the International Association of Universities and Schools of Design, Art and Media (CUMULUS). It was hosted by School of the Art Institute of Chicago. </p> 2017-09-18T11:48:09+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Visual strategies for co-design with a community partner 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Aaron Fry Carol Overby Jennifer Wilson <p class="Abstract">Deficient financial literacy is an important international problem, and research suggests the potential effectiveness of narrative visualizations. This paper presents a case study: a collaboration between a class of design students and a community-based financial-counseling organization to develop financial-literacy comic strips for use with the organization’s low-income clients. We describe and examine the communication challenges between a community partner and an academic institution, detailing the several communication modes employed.  These modes include questionnaire and surveys of the counsellors; emails directly between students and counsellors; and most successfully, a hands-on visualization workshop with counsellors. The visualizations engaged counsellors with generated (based) design practices, which resulted in superior communication with design students.  Lessons from this experience may be broadly useful for any collaborative efforts among academic institutions, design students and community partners. </p> 2017-09-13T10:56:24+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparing the way for mainstream sustainable product design 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Vicky Lofthouse <p class="Abstract">This paper proposes that there is a need to prepare undergraduate design students to be responsible practitioners when they enter the workplace. The multi-faceted approach adopted by the Design School at Loughborough University to achieve this is presented. The paper outlines and reflects on the differences between the idealistic environment provided within an educational setting and the actual situation in the design industry, where there is little evidence of mainstream sustainable design practice. The paper concludes that it is valuable to provide students with a range of skills that support sustainable design thinking, even if they are not currently required by the design industry because doing so turns the students into informed individuals with the potential to lead the next generation of design practitioners.</p> 2017-09-11T14:54:58+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Intuition, Reflection and Reflexivity 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Kathrina Dankl <p class="Abstract">This paper synthesises findings from a design method course that focused on a design brief in shared medical decision making. In the paper, design methods is a term describing any action undertaken for a forward movement in the design process. The course is based on a selection of assignments that target intuition, reflection and reflexivity. Although many science disciplines strive to include more elements of active and practice-based learning, design education faces the challenge of integrating theory in a ‘designerly’ way. The current curriculum offers little opportunity to train these skills together with traditional practice-based ones. However, the complexity of design tasks in interconnected systems with manifold stakeholders and users requires a cohesive design research approach to govern its inherent complexity. Using the findings of this case study, design students can integrate theory in their practical work and welcome the confrontation found in current design research literature, helping them contextualise the meaning of design, be inspired and develop an individual stance on the purpose of design.</p><div> </div> 2017-09-04T12:38:26+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Advancing Design Thinking Towards a Better Understanding of Self and Others 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Meredith James <p class="Normal1"><em>In advancing the design discipline, two key themes repeatedly emerge: design's move away from materialism and augmenting better problem-solving skills through self-awareness. The first anchors design in a process rather than a product, something that is native to the concept of design thinking. The second anchors the designer in ethics. Designers who have a strong sense of self-awareness, understanding their own roles, biases and influences and the larger contexts they inhabit, are overall better equipped to solve problems. If we continue to advance design away from materialism and towards self-awareness, what models can we follow in this change? </em></p><div> </div> 2017-09-04T10:41:20+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relating Systems Thinking and Design III 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Jodi Forlizzi Birger Sevaldson Alex Ryan <p>This special issue of Form Akademisk captures some of the systemic design thinking and research presented at the RSD3 conference, held in Oslo, Norway in 2014, and the RSD4 conference, held in Banff, Canada in 2015. These two conferences offered a range of submissions encompassing the fields of design, systemics, public policy, healthcare, and other domains. This body of work explores the emerging renaissance of systems thinking in design. The papers presented here are responses to the world we live and design in, a world that is increasingly complex and increasingly problematic for those in government, industry and academia alike.</p><p>            We believe that the thinking and intervention developed at RSD3 and RSD4 is well poised to meet these challenges. In this issue, we offer two sets of papers; the first set focuses on frameworks and organizing concepts, and the second set focuses on methods and tools to aid in systemic design.</p> 2017-05-24T12:09:06+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic Design for Second-Order Effects 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Evan Barba <em>Second-order effects refer to changes within a system that are the result of changes made somewhere else in the system (the first-order effects). Second-order effects can occur at different spatial, temporal, or organizational scales from the original interventions, and are difficult to control. Some organizational theorists suggest that careful management of feedback processes can facilitate controlled change from one organizational configuration to another. Recognizing that skill in managing feedback processes is a core competency of design suggests that design skills are potentially useful tools in achieving organizational change. This paper describes a case study in which a co-design methodology was used to control the second-order effects resulting from a classroom intervention to create organizational change. This approach is then theorized as the Instigator Systems approach.</em> 2017-04-19T11:26:03+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Marie Davidova <p><em>First-hand experiences in several design projects that were based on media richness and collaboration are described in this article. Although complex design processes are merely considered as socio-technical systems, they are deeply involved with natural systems. My collaborative research in the field of performance-oriented design combines digital and physical conceptual sketches, simulations and prototyping. GIGA</em><em>-mapping </em><em>- is applied to organise the data. The design process uses the most suitable tools, for the subtasks at hand, and the use of media is mixed according to particular requirements. These tools include digital and physical GIGA-mapping, parametric computer aided design (CAD), digital simulation of analyses, as well as sampling and 1:1 prototyping. Also discussed in this article are the methodologies used in several design projects to strategize these tools and the developments and trends in the tools employed.  The paper argues that the digital tools tend to produce similar results through given pre-sets that often do not correspond to real needs. Thus, there is a significant need for mixed methods including prototyping in the creative design process. Media mixing and cooperation across disciplines is unavoidable in the holistic approach to contemporary design. This includes the consideration of diverse biotic and abiotic agents. I argue that physical and digital GIGA-mapping is a crucial tool to use in coping with this complexity. Furthermore, I propose the integration of physical and digital outputs in one GIGA-map and the participation and co-design of biotic and abiotic agents into one </em>rich design research space<em>, which is resulting in an ever-evolving research-design process-result </em>time-based design<em>.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> 2017-04-19T11:05:26+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Many Faces of Design 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Perin L.Z. Ruttonsha <p><em>In light of contemporary global pressures, designers have been considering how to apply their thinking and practice more broadly within the enterprise of sustainability. Given the often wicked nature and cross-scale dynamics of related challenges, there is reason to reassess the role of design in processes of systems transformation amidst complexity. In this </em><em>manuscript, the author contemplates the diversity of ‘designerly ways’, in interpretation of designers’ encounters with complex adaptive systems. These interactions are classified here using the three lenses of adaptive response, creative agency and emergent engagement.</em></p><em><br /></em> 2017-04-05T12:19:35+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Redesigning Systems Thinking 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Birger Sevaldson <p><em>The resent movement of Systemic Design seeks for new synergies between Design and Systems. While the usefulness of systems approaches in design has been fairly obvious, this paper argues that many core concepts in design are beneficial in systems thinking. This seems reasonable when it comes to the concept of Design Thinking. However, as this paper argues, the more practical core concepts of design are equally important. Designerly skills have been regarded as belonging mainly in the realm of traditional commercial design, whereas design thinking has been regarded as useful in strategic management settings. This paper argues against the idea of separating design thinking from design action. The skills and competences of design, such as the composition of the shape and form that are obvious in product design, are central to Systems Oriented Design (SOD). SOD is a version in the emerging pluralistic field of Systemic Design. The Systemic Design movement should recognise the core values of design and integrate them in systems thinking. This integration would contribute to innovation in both Systemic Design and systems thinking. Among the core competences of design discussed in the paper are composition, choreography, orchestration, the notion of the Gesamtkunstwerk and open-ended multi-scalar design strategies that allow for both structural and organic development. The paper provides examples to support its proposal for the use of concrete aesthetic principles to guide Systemic Design processes. This paper expands the working paper entitled “Holistic and dynamic concepts in design: What design brings to systems thinking”, which was presented at the RSD3 symposium (2014).</em></p> 2017-03-21T12:50:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Co-designing with relationships in mind 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Manuela Aguirre-Ulloa Adrian Paulsen <p><em>We need to move from object-oriented thinking towards relational thinking for many reasons. As public services become more complex, their design increasingly focuses on the relationships between people.  The role of the traditional service staff is shifting from a ‘provider’ to an ‘enabler’ and ‘facilitator’ of relationships between service users, their peers, family or members of the civil service.  Many agree that the future of public services relies on relational services, relational welfare and a relational state. Yet we don’t have a shared vocabulary to describe good relationships nor materials to </em><em>design for services that support meaningful relationships</em><em>. We visually perceive the world as fragmented parts rather than seeing the connection amongst the parts. This perception is integrated with cognition, therefore when mapping complex systems, nodes are emphasized over their relations in-between. Categorizing and color-coding types of systemic relations are useful to understand but not sufficient to shape complex social relationships. </em><em>We propose a multi-sensory relational tool that aids public servants, designers and users in understanding social relationships through the use of material properties as new design materials</em><em>. Testing this tool revealed that people are enabled, within a short timeframe, to create a shared relational vocabulary and use </em><em>the tool to co-design new service concepts</em><em>. However, future research needs to address how to move from theory to practice, hence from concepts to prototyping.</em></p> 2017-03-15T15:55:57+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Introducing systems-oriented design for complex societal contexts in design engineering education 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Jairo da Costa Junior Ana Laura Rodrigues dos Santos Jan Carel Diehl <em>As our society faces large-scale wicked problems like global warming, resource depletion, poverty and humanitarian emergencies, problem solvers are required to apply new reasoning models more appropriate to deal with these complex societal problems. Dealing with these problems poses unfamiliar challenges in contexts with poor financial and infrastructural resources. Systems Oriented Design (SOD) has been recognized in the literature as a promising approach, capable to support design engineers to deal with these complex societal problems. This paper explores the application of SOD in the development of Product-Service System (PSS) concepts by student teams in a multidisciplinary master course. The course resulted in twelve concepts that were analysed using a case study approach with the support of protocol analysis. The analysis results in a description of advantages, context- and process-related challenges of using SOD. From an education point-of-view, the results demonstrate that even though SOD provides students with a broad knowledge base and skills to deal with problems in complex societal contexts, there is still the need to introduce the appropriate scope and depth in the design engineering curricula, making the transition from traditional product design, a challenging one.</em> 2017-03-14T14:32:49+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integrating Systems Thinking and Storytelling 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Maggie Ollove Diala Lteif <em>This paper explores the role of design in conflict resolution when doing so means balancing burdened pasts with present uncertainties. To prove its relevance in today’s complex problem spaces, design cannot remain stagnant; it must evolve alongside the pace of development. Designing within complexity is unprecedented. Yet, design can define structures that guide an understanding of this complexity. The methodology and case study described in this paper explore how systems thinking, storytelling and grounded theory can contribute to this understanding. The methodology aims to combine subjective perspectives with systemic analyses to create a collective narrative that reveals the multitude of individual understandings of conflicts. Ultimately, this methodology does not attempt to resolve conflict; instead, it  aims to provide an in-depth diagnosis of a wicked problem and question the role of design therein.</em> 2017-03-14T13:40:07+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lærernes arbeidstid i Kunst og håndverk – grunnlaget for gammeldags leseplikt i grunnskolen 2018-12-11T13:45:32+01:00 Catrine Lie Liv Merete Nielsen <p class="Abstract">En lærer i faget Kunst og håndverk på ungdomstrinnet har mindre tid til for- og etterarbeid enn lærere i andre fag. I denne artikkelen søker vi etter opphavet til denne differensieringen av lærernes arbeidstid og finner det i Lesepliktutvalgets utredning fra 1977.  Der er det imidlertid ingen gode begrunnelser for hvorfor fagene får ulik leseplikt. Ti år senere legger <span>Utvalget til å vurdere undervisningspersonalets fremtidige arbeidssituasjon</span> (UFA-utvalget) beskrivelsene i de enkelte fagplanene til grunn for vurdering av lærernes leseplikt. Selv ikke etter innføringen av L97, der faget Kunst og håndverk fikk tydeligere innhold og lærerne større arbeidsbyrde, ble forskjellene i lærernes tid til for- og etterarbeid endret. Lærere har påpekt skjevheten, men leseplikten har forblitt uendret. Skoleledere har imidlertid gitt uttrykk for at leseplikten er rettferdig. I denne artikkelen drøfter vi hva som kan ligge til grunn for opprettholdelsen av denne gammeldagse leseplikten.</p> 2016-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Åpen tilgang til vitenskapelig publisering 2018-12-11T13:45:33+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p>Interessen for åpen tilgang – open access – til vitenskapelig publisering er stadig økende, både i Norge og internasjonalt. FORMakademisk har helt fra starten blitt publisert som et <em>digitalt</em> vitenskapelig tidsskrift og var et av de første med <em>open access</em> i Norge. Vi har helt siden starten brukt Open Journal Systems (OJS) som publiseringsprogram. OJS er en del av Public Knowledge Project (PKP), som ble opprettet av canadiske John Willinsky og kretsen rundt han ved Faculty of Education ved University of British Columbia i 1998. Den første versjonen av OJS kom som open source software i 2001. Programmet er gratis å bruke for alle og er en del av en større kollektiv bevegelse, der kunnskap deles. Da FORMakademisk startet i 2008 fikk vi mye hjelp fra tidsskriftet Acta Didactica (u.å) ved Universitetet i Oslo, som hadde startet opp året før oss. De hadde også oversatt programmet til norsk. Vi kunne derfor helt fra starten publisere både på norsk og engelsk. Andre tidsskrift har brukt FORMakademisk som modell og inspirasjonskilde når de har startet opp sine tidsskrift – eller konvertert fra abonnementsbasert trykket tidsskrift til elektronisk open access, blant annet tidsskriftet til Norsk Medieforskerlag. Det er slik bevegelsen rundt PKP fungerer, og fortsetter å vokse, for å gi fri tilgang til forskning. Siden artiklene ligger åpent på nettet, er de også lett tilgjengelige for ikke-forskere. Vi legger også vekt på at språket skal være lett tilgjengelig, sjøl om det holder en høy vitenskapelig kvalitet. Ofte kan det være to sider av samme sak. Vi i redaksjonen ser nå fram til å ta i bruk den nyutviklede OJS 3 i løpet av våren – med mange nye funksjoner og bedre design for brukerne; forfattere, fagfeller, redaktører og lesere.</p> 2016-12-21T13:21:48+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Criteria for architect selection and satisfaction among first-time private sector clients 2018-12-11T13:45:33+01:00 Adedapo Adewunmi Oluwatayo <p><em>For sustained profitability, architects must position themselves to attract new clients. This involves understanding potential clients’ choices and how these might impact on subsequent satisfaction. The study ranked criteria for architect selection and how these predict satisfaction among first-time private sector clients in Lagos, Nigeria. Data from a questionnaire survey were analysed using descriptive statistics, relative importance index and categorical regression, identifying timely delivery, cost of service and quality of previous services as the most important criteria. Although personal relationship has been said to influence selection of a professional service provider, this criterion was found to be of relatively low importance here. To attract private sector clients, architects should prioritise improved service delivery and construction skill development.</em></p><div><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /></div><p><em><br /></em></p> 2016-11-30T11:04:02+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Universell utforming som tema i høyere utdanning 2018-12-11T13:45:34+01:00 Ulf Rydningen Dorte Lybye Norenberg Inger Marie Lid <p><em>For å sikre muligheter for deltakelse av og velferd for alle, er samfunnet avhengig av stadig kunnskapsutvikling og samhandling mellom ulike samfunnssektorer. Universiteter og høgskoler er arenaer hvor kunnskap skapes, læres og anvendes for å sette studenter i stand til å håndtere situasjoner som må løses til beste for samfunnet.  Universell utforming er nedfelt i flere lover som en plikt å gjennomføre for nye tiltak. Dette krever kunnskap om hvordan arbeide med universell utforming i praksis. I denne artikkelen beskriver vi erfaringer med et treårig samarbeid mellom utdanningene i ergoterapi og byggingeniørfag om universell utforming. Hensikten var å gi studentene kjennskap til hverandres kunnskapsfelt og fagmetoder for å kunne bidra til felles kunnskapsbase om universell utforming innen hvert fagområde. Gjennom å analysere konkrete områder/oppgaver skulle studentene begrunne og kritisk reflektere over universell utforming. Videre er formålet med samarbeidet å styrke universell utforming som et tema i forskning og utdanning. Studentene verdsatte høyt å bli kjent med og samarbeide med hverandre, og de erfarte at egen profesjon ikke hadde kunnskapsmonopol på universell utforming. Studentene erfarte at andre yrkesprofesjoner har ulike kunnskapsgrunnlag, og at samarbeidet gav innsikt i kompletterende kunnskap som kan være verdifull i senere yrkesutøvelse i forbindelse med universell utforming.   </em><strong></strong></p> 2016-10-18T14:32:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book review: Architecture Beyond Criticism 2018-12-11T13:45:34+01:00 Beata Sirowy 2016-09-06T09:53:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integrating Sensitizing Labs in an Educational Design Process for Haptic Interaction 2018-12-11T13:45:35+01:00 Cheryl Akner-Koler Parivash Ranjbar <em>New design methods for educating designers are needed to adapt the attributes of haptic interaction to fit the embodied experience of the users. This paper presents educationally framed aesthetic sensitizing labs: 1) a material-lab exploring the tactile and haptic structures of materials, 2) a vibrotactile-lab exploring actuators directly on the body and 3) a combined materials- and vibrotactile-lab embedded in materials. These labs were integrated in a design course that supports a non-linear design process for embodied explorative and experimental activities that feed into an emerging gestalt. A co-design process was developed in collaboration with researchers and users who developed positioning and communications systems for people with deafblindness. Conclusion: the labs helped to discern attributes of haptic interactions which supported designing scenarios and prototypes showing novel ways to understand and shape haptic interaction.</em> 2016-08-19T14:19:31+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Embodied Making and Design Learning - Special Issue from the Learn X Design-conference DRS/CUMULUS, Chicago 2015 2018-12-11T13:45:35+01:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Catharine Dishke Hondzel Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Tellervo Härkki <p><em>This issue of FORMakademisk features selected articles developed from papers presented at the symposium Embodied Making and Design Learning at the DRS/CUMULUS-conference LearnXDesign in Chicago, Illinois, June 28–30, 2015. </em><em>This special issue was developed as an initiative by the symposium conveners.</em> <em>The symposium was developed by researchers from research groups in Norway, Finland and Canada to explore various aspects of embodied making in relation to design learning. The symposium was a full-day event with four sessions, seven paper presentations, a roundtable discussion, a plenary discussion and a workshop. The symposium received positive feedback, attracting many participants and stimulating engaged discussions throughout the conference. This indicates a growing awareness of the topic of embodied making and design learning. This special issue features five articles that together highlight a variety of approaches and examples of current research endeavours in relation to the theme.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p><p> </p> 2016-06-27T17:08:59+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How can neuroscience help understand design and craft activity? The promise of cognitive neuroscience in design studies 2018-12-11T13:45:36+01:00 Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Minna Huotilainen Maarit Mäkelä Camilla Groth Kai Hakkarainen <p> </p><p class="Abstract"><em>Designing and making crafts is a complex, multifaceted process that requires sophisticated, professional thinking and competence, described as reflection in action and as an embodied process in which the hand, eye and mind collaborate. This article discusses these cognitive and embodied aspects central to designing and making crafts in light of cognitive neuroscience. Understanding the specific cognitive processes and forms of knowledge used in creative practices is essential. In this article, we propose that cognitive neuroscience provides valuable tools for analysing thinking and acting processes relevant to designing and making. We discuss the challenges and opportunities that the use of brain imaging methods, in particular, provides for understanding design activities, skills and cognition. Additionally, we present two neuroscientific experimental settings from our empirical studies in which the methods of cognitive neuroscience are applied to study and detect the interrelations between drawing, forming, skill learning and the functional activities of the brain and its subareas. We argue that cognitive neuroscience provides valuable instruments and methods which complement traditional design research.</em></p><p><em><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><br /></span></span></em></p> 2016-06-23T11:00:13+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design- and Craft thinking analysed as Embodied Cognition 2018-12-11T13:45:36+01:00 Camilla Groth <p><em>Through the concept of design thinking the act of designing is presented as an intellectual activity, and the act of planning the design is elevated over the making process. However, the importance of materiality and the embodied sense-making that occurs in this context should not be forgotten. In this study, embodied cognition in design and craft practices was investigated through three case studies. The study takes on an enhanced tactile perspective as a methodological platform; thus, the cases involve 1) deafblind makers in ceramics, 2) a practice-led self-study report on tactile experiences while working with clay and 3) a study on design students’ use of their tactile sense during material exploration. The results show that the act of thinking design involves the body as a knowledge provider. </em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> 2016-06-22T09:10:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Material knowledge in collaborative designing and making - A case of wearable sea creatures 2018-12-11T13:45:37+01:00 Tellervo Härkki Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Kai Hakkarainen <p><em>This article is based on a study of novice designers’ knowledge of materials in a challenging collaborative assignment. We approached material knowledge from two complementary viewpoints: the dimensions of knowledge shared during designing, and how student teams built new knowledge during making. We found that both modalities studied—namely, words and gestures—contributed to advancement in designing. The modalities became specialised: While words served mainly to identify materials and to describe visual qualities, gestures conveyed information about size, shape, location and dynamic dimensions, such as movement and change over time, as well as signature qualities based on embodied experience. During making, ambitious teams took material decisions and the challenge of authenticity seriously, but the tight timeframe and budget compelled them to favour pragmatic choices. </em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> 2016-06-21T20:56:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Personal exploration: Serendipity and intentionality as altering positions in a creative process 2018-12-11T13:45:38+01:00 Maarit Mäkelä <p><em> <em>Artists and designers have recently begun to take an active role in contextualising the creative process in relation to their practice. Thus, understanding how the creative mind proceeds has been supplemented with knowledge obtained inside the creative process. In this way, the spheres of knowledge, material thinking and experience that are fostered through creative work have become entangled and embedded as elemental parts of the research process. This article is based on documentation and reflection of the author’s creative practice in contemporary ceramic art at the beginning of 2015. The article discusses how the creative process proceeds by alternating between two positions: serendipity and intentionality. By describing the different phases of the process, it reveals the interplay between the diverse range of activities and how these gradually construct the creative process</em> </em></p> 2016-06-21T14:08:11+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Embodied Making, Creative Cognition and Memory 2018-12-11T13:45:38+01:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen <p class="Abstract">This article revisits previous research on the maker’s experience when working with materials, and discusses this in light of new research on creative cognition and the neurobiological basis of making. It is one in a series of four articles, which draw on neurobiological knowledge to expand our understanding of the woodcarver’s experience. The aim of this article is to present and discuss one element of the creative cognition of the woodcarver: memory. It reviews the basics of the nervous system and its function, cognition, and attention. I argue that one of the reasons why the woodcarver cherishes the experience of carving is that he or she can recall and relive many details in the memory of it. I will specifically discuss the role of the hippocampus in storing and recollecting declarative episodic memories. The article concludes with a short discussion of why this knowledge is useful in understanding the woodcarver’s experience and, in turn, if – and, if so, why – woodcarving could be an important activity in which to engage in the twenty-first century.</p> 2016-06-21T13:52:08+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From Gender-segregated Subjects to Multi-material Craft: Craft Student Teachers’Views on the Future of the Craft Subject 2018-12-11T13:45:39+01:00 Jaana Lepistö Eila Lindfors <p><em>This paper describes the views of student teachers of craft about the future of craft as a school subject. The study was conducted at the University of Turku, Department of Teacher Education, in Rauma in 2014. The literature review revealed that the subject of craft in Finnish basic education is understood as a dialog between the maker and the materials. However, teaching and learning craft in schools and in teacher education has a strong gender-based tradition.</em> <em>The aim of this study is to investigate student teachers’ understanding of craft as a school subject in the future and their solutions to teaching craft in basic education. </em><em>The data were collected from essays (N = 20) written by student teachers of craft. The essays </em><em>were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis.</em><em> The results showed that the student teachers<strong> </strong>of craft viewed holistic craft, reflective action readiness, entrepreneurial behaviour, multiple skills, the use of versatile materials, and craft as sources of pleasure and the main solutions for the future of craft as a subject. </em></p> 2015-12-31T17:14:38+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Læringserfaringer for reflekterte forbrukere. Kritisk refleksjon og systemorientert design 2018-12-11T13:45:39+01:00 Eva Lutnæs <p><em>Internasjonalt fremmes utdanning som et kraftfullt verktøy i den omstillingsprosessen som er nødvendig for å kunne redusere global oppvarming og klimaendringenes skadevirkninger på natur og samfunn. Det forutsetter at utdanning formes som motkultur og bygger kapasitet til å transformere nåværende idégrunnlag og praksiser. Kritisk refleksjon løftes frem som en sentral kompetanse, men hvordan kan det ta form som konkrete læringserfaringer? I denne artikkelen utforskes fem tekster om refleksjon med spørsmål om hvordan de kan bidra til utdanning av informerte, kritiske og ansvarlige forbrukere. Tekstene har ulike agendaer, men jeg finner en felles grunnstruktur på tvers i hvordan refleksjon beskrives som en spesifikk tankeprosess delt i fire faser. Videre diskuterer jeg hva som skiller refleksjon fra kritisk refleksjon i konteksten utdanning for bærekraftig forbruk. Tekstene om refleksjon har sin styrke på bevisstgjøring om årsaker til og konsekvenser av egen tenkning, men hvordan en kommer fra økt bevissthet til endret praksis er mindre utdypet. Avslutningsvis utforsker jeg hvordan kritisk refleksjon kan forenes med systemorientert design for å skape læringserfaringer som utfordrer elevene til å tenke nytt om forbrukskultur på det personlige og samfunnsmessige plan. </em></p> 2015-12-31T09:48:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tegning og fagspråk – et kritisk blikk på lærebøker i tegning som benyttes i faglærerutdanning 2018-12-11T13:45:41+01:00 Clara Christina Myhr Stavnås Liv Merete Nielsen <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Studier av bøker på studentenes pensumlister er en indikator på studiets profil og i hvilken grad studiet er forskningsbasert. I denne artikkelen har vi fokus på lærebøker i tegning for faglærerstudenter i formgiving, kunst og håndverk. Denne artikkelen har fokus på en analyse av de lærebøkene som ble benyttet ved grunnstudiet i faglærerutdanningen i Oslo studieåret 2014/2015 og hvordan kontur og linje blir omtalt og knyttet til uttrykk i bøkene (Stavnås, 2015). De fleste av disse er oversatte lærebøker med førstegangsutgivelser i tidsrommet 1983–1988. Bare én av bøkene, Billedrom av Per Rauset (1989), er skrevet av en norsk forfatter. Lærere ved faglærer­utdanningene i Oslo, Notodden og Volda, oppgir at de benytter egne kompendier som ikke er utgitt på forlag. Mot slutten av artikkelen drøftes hva som kan ligge til grunn for at det ikke er utviklet flere norske offentlig tilgjengelige læremidler i tegning som holder høgskolenivå. </span></span></p> 2015-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Leder. FORMakademisk – både akademisk ledende og aktivt rekrutterende 2018-12-11T13:45:40+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p>Mange av artiklene i FORMakademisk blir ofte lastet ned og sitert. Stipendiater publiserer stadig flere artikler i tidsskriftet for sine artikkelbaserte avhandlinger. Vi tror at FORMakademisk har bidratt til å gjøre artikkelbaserte doktorgrader innen design og designutdanning mulig, og ser dette som en anerkjennelse av FORMakademisk. Vi ønsker å opprettholde og ytterligere styrke vår posisjon som den fremste publiseringskanal for studenter og forskere innen design og designutdanning.<br />Vi inviterer de mest etablerte forskerne til å publisere i FORMakademisk, men vi ønsker samtidig å bidra til å rekruttere yngre forskere til å publisere i tidsskriftet for å bidra til å videreutvikle forskningsfeltet. I år har vi invitert masterstudenter til å publisere fra sine masteravhandlinger, sammen med sine veiledere. Vi ser dette som viktig for å sikre kvalitet gjennom å bygge en ‘kritisk masse’ innen vårt forskningsfelt. Den første artikkelen som er et resultat av denne invitasjonen, blir publisert i dette nummeret.</p> 2015-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FORMakademisk 8-3 2015 HELE NUMMERET 2018-12-11T13:45:40+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan 2015-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Statens lærer(høg)skole i forming Oslo 1966-1994 - ein utdanningsinstitusjon med samfunnsansvar og berekraft i fokus 2018-12-11T13:45:41+01:00 Randi Veiteberg Kvellestad <p><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Denne artikkelen set fokus på utdanningsinstitusjonen Institutt for estetiske fag, Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus, Noreg frå ca. 1950 til 1990. Skulen bar namnet Statens lærerskole i forming Oslo (SLFO) frå 1966 til 1975, så Statens lærerhøgskole i forming Oslo frå 1975 til 1994. Institusjonen hadde eit tydeleg lærarfokus samstundes som den dreiv ei utstrakt fagleg opplæring, forsøksverksemd og rettleiingsteneste. Tradisjonen med kvalitet i val av materiale, i arbeid med teknikk og utførsle stod sterkt, men det blei etter kvart lagt større vekt på eksperimentering i materiale, med reiskap og teknikkar. Studentane blei både oppfordra og utfordra til å vere kreative og stole på eigne idear i eksperimenteringa. Artikkelen set fokus på endring og opplæring i tekstil i handarbeidslærarinneutdanninga. Kjeldematerialet er årsmeldingar, publiserte tekstar funne i Instituttet si Historiske samling og intervju av sju tilsette som arbeidde på skulen i delar av, eller i heile tidsperioden. Informantane sine argument og analyse av tekstane blir knytt til nyare forsking i Sverige og Noreg. Artikkelen viser at institusjonen den gong sto for haldningar som ein i dag kallar berekraftige, med solide kvalitetskrav og viste dermed eit samfunnsansvar gjennom opplæring og næringsretta tiltak.</span></span><em></em></p> 2015-12-30T16:54:51+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How to Understand Disorderly Boys - An Exchange of Didactic Experiences Among Textile-Sloyd Teachers in an Internet-based Community of Practice 2018-12-11T13:45:42+01:00 Marcus Samuelsson <p class="Abstract">This paper reports on a case study in which a textile-sloyd teacher sent a message to an internet-based community of practice seeking advice from other textile-sloyd teachers regar­ding how to cope with unruly boys. Two major themes emerged from a interview and the discu­­ssion on the Internet: 1) behaviour analysis and 2) coping attempts The analysis also reve­­aled two themes related to the exchange of experiences: 1) descriptions of the problem as pertaining to the pupils, the process, classroom management, freedom of choice, or conne­ction to everyday life and 2) suggested solutions, such as area of activity, competences, leader­­ship and techniques. The article concludes with a discussion demonstrating that the collegial exch­ange about disorderly boys appears to have strengthened and challenged this internet-based community of practice.</p> 2015-10-30T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Forskningsbasert kunst- og håndverksundervisning 2018-12-11T13:45:42+01:00 Torunn Paulsen Dagsland <p><em><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Artikkelen setter søkelyset på </span><span style="font-size: medium;">hvordan klasseromforskning fra grunnskolen kan implementeres i, påvirke, endre og innta undervisningen i faget kunst og håndverk på grunnskolelærer­utdanningen og praksisen i grunnskolen. I artikkelen presenteres og drøftes noen utvalgte forskningsresultater fra et prosjekt i faget kunst og håndverk der elever på ungdoms­skole­trinnet er i dialog med kunst. Forskningsresultatene, som er basert på et elevperspektiv, utfordrer til en nyorientering når det gjelder ungdoms møte med kunstverk i skolen i retning av et mer ungdomskulturelt innhold og relasjonelle kunstmøter som er narrative, tolknings­orienterte, dialogiske, opplevelsesorienterte og flerstemmige. Artikkelen viser også hvordan disse forskni­ngs­­resultatene er blitt en viktig del av undervisningen i fagdidaktikk, kunst­historie og praktisk estetisk arbeid i grunnskolelærerutdanningen.</span></span></em></p> 2015-10-30T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bokanmeldelse: Om kunsten å formidle kunst! 2018-12-11T13:45:43+01:00 Thurid Vold <p>I tre aktuelle bøker skriver forfattere fra pedagogikkens første-divisjon om kunstformidling<strong>: </strong><em>Formidling av kunst til barn og unge </em>av<strong><em> </em></strong><em>Arne Marius Samuelsen</em><strong>, </strong><em>Dialogbasert Undervisning. Kunstmuseet som læringsrom<strong> </strong></em>av<strong><em> </em></strong><em>Olga Dysthe, Nana Bernhardt, Line Enskjønn,</em><strong> </strong>og<strong> </strong><em>Kunsten å formidle</em><strong><em> </em></strong>av<strong><em> </em></strong><em>Alfred Oftedal Telhaug.</em><strong> </strong>Anmelderen skriver at<strong> </strong>alle tre bøkene er gode bidrag til litteraturen om kunstformidling og er unnværlige for alle som underviser barn og unge i skole og museer. Bøkene bør ha en selvsagt plass på litteraturlisten for faglærerstudenter i kunst og håndverk,  almenlærer- og førskolelærer­studenter og museumspedagoger. <strong></strong></p> 2015-10-27T22:48:25+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Den kulturelle skulesekken – Kvalitetsskule eller kulturarroganse? 2018-12-11T13:45:43+01:00 Ingvild Digranes <p class="HeadingAbstract"><span lang="NO-NYN">I programmet Visuell kunst i Den kulturelle skulesekken (DKS), var målsetjinga i utgangspunktet eit likeverdig samarbeid mellom skulen og kulturverda. Ti år inn i satsinga ser vi framleis usemje rundt mål og innhald knytt til samarbeidsprosjekt i skulen. To ulike profesjonar, med ulikt ideologisk og fagleg utgangspunkt, skal saman ha ansvar for ei arbeidsoppgåve. Rammene og arbeidsdelinga vert uklår og dette gjev opphav til eit profesjonsdilemma knytt til både forankring av programmet, og ansvaret for kvardagen i skulefaget Kunst og handverk. Å sameine kunstverda sine karismatiske verdiar og skuleverda sine demokratiske prinsipp for opplæringa kan verke som ei vanskeleg øving. Det mystiske i kunsten og vektlegging av tydelege læringsmål i skulen kan verke vrient å sameine i ein inter-profesjonell kvalitetsdiskusjon som set ideologiar i spel. Ut frå denne media- og dokumentundersøkinga kan det verke som om media si framstilling av DKS-praksis i større grad har vore med på å gravleggje relevante spørsmål knytt til problematikken heller enn å skape eit klima for gode diskusjonar på tvers av samarbeidet.</span></p> 2015-10-27T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Leder. Designutdanning i framtidas skole i Norge 2018-12-11T13:45:44+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p>I tillegg til fokus på designforskning, er designutdanning fra barnehage til doktorgrad et hovedfokus for FORMakademisk. Vi ser på utdanning av brukere, innkjøpere og beslutnings­takere i forhold til design som like viktig som utdanning av profesjonelle designere. Det hjelper ikke at det blir laget god design hvis den ikke blir kjøpt inn og tatt i bruk. Hva folk flest lærer i grunnopplæringa er derfor viktig, og her er læreplanene et fundament.<br /><em></em></p><p><em>Institutt for estetiske fag ved Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus</em>, i samarbeid interesse­organisasjonen <em>Kunst og design i skolen</em>, arrangerte denne våren et debattmøte om Kunst og håndverk i framtidas skole. Hovedinnleder var Sven Ludvigsen, professor i pedagogikk ved Universitetet i Oslo og leder av utvalget som har utredet grunnopplæringens fag opp mot krav til kompetanse i et framtidig samfunns- og arbeidsliv. I tillegg innledet Eivind Moe på vegne av <em>Kunst og design i skolen </em>og Liv Merete Nielsen på vegne av bachelor- og master­utdanningen for faglærerutdanning i formgiving, kunst og design ved Institutt for estetiske fag, Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus.</p><p>FORMakademisk ser med spenning fram til de nye læreplanene som skal utvikles for framtidens grunnopplæring. Når det gjelder faget Kunst og håndverk, må det innebære en plan som legger til rette for vide oppgaver som fører til dybdelæring og at kompetanse om bærekraft utvikles ved å jobbe kreativt med verktøy i materialer. Kompetanse innen design må være allmenn­dannende når det gjelder å forberede elevene som brukere, fremtidige beslutningstakere og innkjøpere av design og samtidig gi den grunnleggende kompetansen for de som velger et designrelatert yrke i framtida.</p><p>Issue cover photo: Design by David Salafia</p> 2015-10-26T20:23:31+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Profesjonsdilemmaer i det kunstpedagogiske felt 2018-12-11T13:45:44+01:00 Eva Lutnæs <p><span style="font-family: Calibri;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Antologien <em>Kunstner eller lærer? Profesjonsdilemmaer i musikk- og kunstpedagogisk utdanning</em></span><span style="font-size: medium;"> er redigert av Elin Angelo og Signe Kalsnes. Anmelderen konkluderer med at det er merkelappenes identitetsbygging gjennom begrepsbruk, hvordan du velger å posisjonere deg og hvordan du settes i kategorier av andre, som gjør boka til et meget verdifullt bidrag til diskusjonen av profesjonsdilemma og yrkesidentitet for både studenter, lærere og forskere innen det kunstpedagogiske felt.</span></span></p> 2015-10-23T15:55:03+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Digital didaktikk sett i lys av kvalifikasjonsrammeverket 2018-12-11T13:45:45+01:00 Kirsten Klæbo <p>I 2011 fikk Institutt for estetiske fag, ved Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus (HiOA) beskjed om å utarbeide nye studieplaner. De nye studieplanene skulle være i tråd med et nytt Nasjon­alt kvalifikasjonsrammeverk (NKR). Kunnskapsdepartementet satte 2012 som frist for imple­mentering i de enkelte fag. Det var ikke mye diskusjon rundt hva innføring av kvalifika­sjon­s­­rammeverket ville innebære, annet enn en forklaring på hva NKR sto for. Artikke­len er basert på en litteraturundersøkelse med fokus på å finne ut hva NKR er, hvor det kommer fra, og hvilke fagdidaktiske konsekvenser det vil ha å gå fra en målstyrt studieplan til en programplan som vektlegger læringsutbytte. Forfatteren har i mange år undervist i digi­­tale medier på bachelorstudium Faglærerutdanning i formgiving, kunst og håndverk. De fagdidaktiske vurderingene er derfor be­gren­set til å omhandle digitale medier.  </p> 2015-09-03T18:22:17+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FORMakademisk 8-2 2015 HELE NUMMERET 2018-12-11T13:45:45+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan 2015-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Audio-visual Approach to Teaching the Social Aspects of Sustainable Product Design 2018-12-11T13:45:50+01:00 Matthew Alan Watkins This paper considers the impact of audio-visual resources in enabling students to develop an understanding of the social aspects of sustainable product design. Building on literature con­cern­ing the learning preferences of ‘Net Generation’ learners, three audio-visual workshops were developed to introduce students to the wider social aspects of sustainability and encour­age students to reflect upon the impact of their practice. The workshops were delivered in five universities in Britain and Ireland among undergraduate and postgraduate students. They were designed to encourage students to reflect upon carefully designed audio-visual materials in a group-based environment, seeking to foster the preferences of Net Generation learners through collaborative learning and learning through discovery. It also sought to address the perceived weaknesses of this generation of learners by encouraging critical reflection. The workshops proved to be popular with students and were successful in enabling them to grasp the complexity of the social aspects of sustainable design in a short span of time, as well as in encouraging personal responses and creative problem solving through an exploration of design thinking solutions. 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Progressive Development of Creative Design Skills from Kindergarden Education 2018-12-11T13:45:49+01:00 Meryem Yalcin This article offers an alternative view of design education, emphasising on its introduction in kindergarten and proposing a curriculum that covers design issues for introduction in kinder­gar­ten. This approach is suited to developing creative thinking skills. In an environ­ment where children imagine, create, practice, modify, recognise, manipulate and share knowl­edge, experiences and objects are crucial in design education. Early childhood education should be advanced based on basic design issues—such as design principles, conceptuali­zation, 2D/3D spatial allocation and composition—more comprehensively, which will enable children to construct perceptual, critical and analytic view points at an early age and develop these perspectives in the future. Based on this argument, the study model for design education in kindergarten, which will instil in children strong design knowledge, as well as stimulate their cognitive development. 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Imagining the unknown - Responsible creativity for a better tomorrow 2018-12-11T13:45:49+01:00 Eva Lutnæs <p>This paper explores the scientific discourse on creativity in the field of design education, drawing upon 165 papers presented at the DRS//CUMULUS Oslo 2013 conference. The re­view shows creativity to be a key concept in the scientific discourse and identifies five story­lines that conceptualise creativity as a generic human capacity for which the field of design education eagerly claims responsibility. In the scientific discourse, the fostering of creativity is a leading motive when articulating reasons for design to gain terrain in general education. A multifaceted repertoire of strategies to solve design problems can drive new ideas or arte­facts that contribute to both environmental protection and degradation, human aid or human-made disasters. I discuss how to frame the relevant educational content of creativity as part of a general education that empowers citizens to promote sustainability and meet global chal­lenges ahead.</p><div><div><p> </p></div></div> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ecological Literacy in Design Education - A Theoretical Introduction 2018-12-11T13:45:48+01:00 Joanna Boehnert <p>Sustainability educators developed the concept of ecological literacy to provide a basis for understanding environmental problems and developing new capacities and critical skills to respond effectively. This paper presents a theoretical introduction to ecological literacy for design education. It starts with a philosophical overview of why ecological literacy is neces­sary, including details of some of the planet’s vital signs. The paper then describes six ecologi­cal principles (networks, nested systems, cycles, flows, development and dynamic balance) along with associated design concepts (resilience, epistemological awareness, a circular econ­omy, energy literacy, emergence and the ecological footprint). The final section explains why critical ecological literacy is necessary to make the work of transforming unsustainable condi­tions and designing sustainable ways of living possible.</p><p><em>Cover image: Principles, Ecolabs, 2014  </em></p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Global Studio - Incorporating Peer-Learning into the Design Curriculum 2018-12-11T13:45:48+01:00 Aysar Ghassan Erik Bohemia <p>In ‘tutor-led’ design education, lecturers reside at the centre of teaching &amp; learning activi­ties. We argue that tutor-led design education does not prepare graduates sufficiently for working in highly complex professional capacities. We outline an alternative learning envi­­ron­ment named the Global Studio in which lecturers are more ‘distant’ in pedagogical activities. This ‘distance’ opens up learning spaces which expose students to complex project situations in preparation for professional working life. Global Studio projects are ‘student-led’ and contain explicit opportunities for peer tutoring to ensue. Feedback indicates that learners benefitted from engaging in peer tutoring. However, many students struggled with making important decisions when operating outside of the tutor-led learning environment. To maximise their benefit, we argue that student-led projects featuring peer-tutoring should be scaffolded throughout design programmes to provide students with a sufficient level of expo­sure to this mode of learning.</p><p>Image by artist Malcom Jones.</p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Testing keywords internationally to define and apply undergraduate assessment standards in art and design 2018-12-11T13:45:48+01:00 Robert Harland What language should be featured in assessment standards for international students? Have universities adjusted their assessment methods sufficiently to match the increased demand for studying abroad? How might art and design benefit from a more stable definition of standards? These are some questions this paper seeks to address by reporting the results of recent pedagogic research at the School of the Arts, Loughborough University, in the United Kingdom. Language use is at the heart of this issue, yet it is generally overlooked as an essential tool that links assessment, feedback and action planning for international students. The paper reveals existing and new data that builds on research since 2009, aimed at improving students’ assessment literacy. Recommendations are offered to stimulate local and global discussion about keyword use for defining undergraduate assessment standards in art and design. 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Vernacular traditions in Norwegian jewelry design - Past, present, future 2018-12-11T13:45:47+01:00 Astrid Skjerven Living in an era of globalization, the capability of communicating identity has become of greater importance than ever. This has increased our estimation of the vernacular, which represents an expression of a national or local identity. In Norway the vernacular tradition in silver jewelry is particularly strong. It has played an important role not only locally, but also in the constantly changing relation with the outside world, in accordance with the societal situation. It should therefore constitute a reliable indicator of how our country relates to the present process of globalization. The aim of the paper is to throw light on the relation between Norway’s role on the global scene and the use of the vernacular tradition in the development of jewelry design in general. It consists of a historical exploration that leads up to a discussion the present and future situation. Today there is a cleft between consumer behavior and avant-garde practice. In accordance with the global situation and Norway’s geopolitical situation of existing in the outskirts of political and economic decisions, the situation is characterized by a variety of practices, and by a slow acceptance of the vernacular values in the world of avant-garde practitioners. 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Learning for Tomorrow — Design Education from Kindergarten to PhD 2018-12-11T13:45:47+01:00 Liv Merete Nielsen Karen Brænne Ingvill Gjerdrum Maus <p>This issue of<em> </em>FORM<em>akademisk </em>is built upon papers from the DRS//CUMULUS Oslo 2013 con­fer­ence — <em>2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers </em>— at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HIOA) 14-17 May 2013 in Oslo. The conference was a cooperative event between the Design Research Society (DRS) and the International Association of Universities and Schools of Design, Art and Media (CUMULUS),<em> </em>and hosted by the Faculty of Technology, Art and Design at HIOA. The theme for the conference was <em>Design Learning for Tomorrow — Design Education from Kindergar­ten to PhD</em>. The conference received an overwhelming response both ahead of the conference, with 225 admitted papers, and during the conference with 280 delegates from 43 countries listening to 165 presentations and having a good time in Oslo. The last day of the conference was the 17<sup>th</sup> of May, Norway National Day, with traditional songs and a children’s parade in the centre of Oslo.</p><p>We see this positive response to the conference as a growing awareness of perceiving design in a broad interdisciplinary perspective in support for a <em>better tomorrow</em>. For years the <em>Design Literacy</em> <em>Research Group,</em> with a base at HIOA in Oslo, has promoted the idea that sustainable design solutions should include more than ‘professional’ designers; they should also include the general public as ‘conscious’ consumers and decision makers with responsi­bility for quality and longevity, as opposed to a ‘throw-away’ society.</p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Working memory and background knowledge - Cognitive science in the design classroom 2018-12-11T13:45:46+01:00 Pino Trogu This article discusses two universal principles from cognitive psychology, and proposes some ways in which those principles relate to graphic design. The two most important principles are first, the strict constraints of working memory, a function which persists for only a few seconds, and second, the finding that perceptions and meanings are mediated by the cultural knowledge of viewers, including their knowledge of design conventions and genre. Better de-signs are likely to emerge from the designer’s familiarity with these psychological and cultur-al principles. Visual examples, including maps and student projects, illustrate how the two principles are useful for classroom instruction. 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FORMakademisk 8-1 2015 HELE NUMMERET 2018-12-11T13:45:51+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan 2015-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teaching Systemic Design in the Context of Organizational Communication 2018-12-11T13:45:51+01:00 Gordon Rowland <p>Courses emphasizing systemic design are taught in the Communication Management and Design program at Ithaca College for undergraduate students who seek to positively impact organizations and society through communication and learning. In a first-year course, students engage in a wide variety of learning activities and challenges through which they come to a basic understanding of systems thinking, design, and systemic design. This understanding creates a broad foundation for, and begins to develop connecting threads across, their studies of corporate communication, and workplace learning and performance. Then in their senior year capstone course students engage in a systemic design inquiry, which combines research and design in an attempt to address a critical current issue in organizations. Described here is the pedagogical approach for these courses, including underlying assumptions, links to strategy, and a rich set of concepts and tools that promote systems thinking in design, and which have potential applications beyond pedagogy. Also described is how these have all been informed by research.</p><p> </p> 2015-01-12T11:48:20+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Before and after Lightfoot/León. Using rich pictures to illustrate an educational journey through the world of opera and ballet 2018-12-11T13:45:52+01:00 Laurence Habib Elisabeth Juell <p>In this article, we describe part of an action research project carried out during a classroom-based art course at a higher education institution. We gave the students themed collaborative drawing assignments, with the purpose of achieving a rich picture of what they associated with the notion of “going to the opera”. They completed assignments before and after attending a guided tour and a ballet performance at a famous opera house. We aimed to address two main research questions: a) How can the students’ understanding of opera and ballet develop through their experience of a ballet performance? and b) How can drawing activities in the classroom support collaborative learning and the students’ personal development? The data gathered involved three main elements: 1) the rich pictures themselves, 2) the teachers’ observations of the students and 3) the students’ reflections on the process. The study points towards a significant transformation of the students’ representation of the concept of opera, as illustrated in their drawings. We discuss how the students’ drawings may reflect their development in terms of attitude and their newly acquired knowledge of an artistic genre they knew little about, and suggest new avenues for further research.</p> 2014-12-31T18:34:16+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Beredskapskunnskap – navet i Lærerutdanning i Kunst og håndverk 2018-12-11T13:45:52+01:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen <p>Concurrent (samtidig) lærerutdanning møter en dobbelt utfordring: studentene skal lære et (eller flere) fag, samtidig som de skal lære å lære bort fag. I Kunst og håndverk knyttes denne debatten ofte opp mot hvordan en i korte utdanningsenheter kan få nok faglig dybde i de ulike delene av faget. I artikkelens første del presenteres tidligere forskning på Kunst og håndverk. Et fagdidaktisk kunnskapsperspektiv trekkes opp i tilknytning til begrepet pedagogisk innholdskunnskap forstått som en re-forhandling av fagkunnskap og pedagogisk kunnskap (Shulman). Ut fra dette problematiseres fagets kvalifiseringsbredde og indre spenninger som en del av lærerutdanningens premiss. Det argumenteres for at en reduksjon av kvalifiserings­bredden ikke vil føre til redusert kompleksitet i undervisningen i faget. Artikkelens andre del foreslår begrepet beredskapskunnskap som en måte å håndtere fagets kompleksitet på: som et mulig grunnprinsipp for inn- og utvalg av arbeidsformer og innhold i utdanning i Kunst og håndverk. Diskusjonen knyttes til spørsmålet om hvordan lærerutdanning i Kunst og håndverk best kan ruste studenter til et langt liv som lærerprofesjonsutøvere i en fremtid vi ennå ikke vet hvordan ser ut. Artikkelen foreslår at beredskapskunnskap kan forstås som et nav i et prinsipp om livslang læring for lærere i Kunst og håndverk, og således som et overordnet mål for lærerutdanning generelt.</p><p> </p> 2014-12-31T16:11:40+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Å etablere et akademisk formingsfaglig miljø. Tilbakeblikk på den tidlige fasen for hovedfag i forming 2018-12-11T13:45:52+01:00 Laila Belinda Fauske <p class="Abstract">I 1976 ble hovedfag i forming startet opp ved to lærerutdanningsinstitusjoner i Norge. Studiet ble opprettet uten paralleller ved universitetene og skilte seg fra andre hovedfag ved å inkludere studentenes praktisk-estetiske arbeid. Frem til lærerutdanningsloven fra 1973 hadde ikke lærerskolene hatt anledning til å tilby hovedfag. Denne type studier hadde vært forbeholdt universitetene. Da den nye loven trådde i kraft ble lærerskolene møtt med krav om kvalitet og omfang tilsvarende tradisjonelle hovedfag, noe som var en utfordring for et fagmiljø uten en egen akademisk tradisjon. Denne artikkelen har som mål å belyse den tidlige fasen for hovedfag i forming med særlig vekt på utfordringene ved å inkludere det praktisk-estetiske arbeidet. Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i rammeplanen fra 1976 og undersøker hvordan det praktisk-estetiske arbeidet er beskrevet i planen. Videre belyses grep fagmiljøet nyttiggjorde seg i den tidlige fasen med å etablere et eget akademisk formingsfaglig miljø. Kildematerialet er publiserte tekster og intervju av tre sentrale bidragsytere fra fagmiljøet. Utviklingen rundt hovedfagsstudiet drøftes i lys av konseptet knowledge building. I artikkelen belyses fagmiljøets samarbeid med universitetsmiljøet og med beslektede fagmiljø i Norden. Videre diskuteres begrepsutvikling og metodetenkning om praktisk-estetisk arbeid. Artikkelen argumenterer for at fagmiljøet i den tidlige fasen etterstrebet å utvikle et fruktbart akademisk formingsfaglig miljø som utfordret grensene for hva en til nå hadde ansett for å være ‘best practice’.</p><p class="Abstract"> </p> 2014-12-31T13:55:07+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Taswir – perspektiver fra en meningsutveksling om figurativ fremstilling i sunni-islam 2018-12-11T13:45:53+01:00 Birte Brekketo <p>På hvilke måter angår det oss hva islamske lærde måtte mene om figurativ fremstilling? Vi lever i massemedienes og de sosiale medienes tidsalder der visuelle budskap når ut til store og sammensatte betraktergrupper. Stadig flere av oss mestrer avanserte kommunikasjons­medier, men vår kunnskap om forskjellige visuelle tradisjoner har ikke økt i takt med den teknologiske utviklingen. Denne artikkelen går tett på tradisjonstrekk som er mindre kjente for mange i den vestlige verden, men som jevnlig kommer til uttrykk i både norsk og global offentlighet: Innenfor sunni-islamsk visuell tradisjon foregår det en fortløpende menings­utveksling om virkningene av figurativ fremstilling (taswir). De ulike synspunktene som lar seg høre, bygger på omhyggelig fortolkning av religiøse kilder, og de formidles ofte i polemiske former på internett. Den foreliggende oversikten over bredden og nyansene på taswir-feltet er blitt til ved samling og strukturering av stoff over lang tid. Målsettingene med å presentere denne oversikten er å inspirere leseren til å sende tankene i nye retninger. For det første får leseren innblikk i hvordan forestillinger om det visuelle utvikles, prøves ut og konsolideres i en sunni-islamsk tradisjonskontekst. For det andre plasseres taswir i en global samtidskontekst, i en posisjon som synliggjør det presserende behovet for en debatt om kompetanse og sensibilitet i samtidens visuelle kommunikasjonssituasjon.</p> 2014-12-31T13:10:59+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Lokalisering av nye videregående skoler – argumenter for sentrumslokalisering 2018-12-11T13:45:53+01:00 Else Margrethe Lefdal <span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p>Det er en økende tendens til at nye videregående skoler i Norge bygges i sentrum. Innhentede opplysninger om hvor nye skoleanlegg for videregående opplæring er lokalisert, samt hvor planlagte skoleanlegg vil bli lokalisert, bekrefter dette. I denne artikkelen spør jeg hvorfor sentrum er et foretrukket lokaliseringsvalg, og jeg undersøker hvilke argumenter som fremmes for sentrumslokalisering. Søkermønsteret til videregående opplæring viser at elevene foretrekker sentrumsskolene. Utdanningsforbundet i Oslo etterlyser pedagogiske begrunnelser for at flest mulig videregående skoleplasser legges til sentrum. Det bør kunne forventes at et læringsperspektiv eller pedagogiske perspektiver blir vektlagt i argumentasjonen for sentrumslokalisering av nye skoleanlegg, men det kan synes som at argumenter med forankring i eksterne brukergruppers behov eller i ulike aktørers ønsker om synergieffekter vektlegges i like stor eller sterkere grad. Enkelte drivkrefter argumenterer eksempelvis med at de videregående skolene må lokaliseres i sentrum for å styrke handel og kafédrift i sentrumsområdene. I artikkelen drøfter jeg utfordringer knyttet til at skolene, som først og fremst skal være gode læringsarenaer for elevene, skal være «så mye mer enn bare skole».<strong> </strong></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"> </p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span> 2014-12-31T12:39:59+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Leder. Ja takk – både håndverk og digitale verktøy i grunnopplæringen 2018-12-11T13:45:54+01:00 Liv Merete Nielsen Janne Beate Reitan <p>Ludvigsen-utvalget, som har som formål å vurdere grunnopplæringens fag i grunnskolen og fellesfagene i videregående opplæring opp mot krav til kompetanse i et framtidig samfunns- og arbeidsliv i Norge (Kunnskapsdepartementet, udatert), har publisert en del-innstilling med tittelen <em>Elevenes læring i fremtidens skole. Et kunnskapsgrunnlag </em>(NOU 2014:7, 2014). Der skriver de at «At faget skal bidra til personlig utvikling og samtidig styrke mulighetene til å delta i et demokratisk samfunn, kan ses på som et ønske om å ivareta både en individrettet og en samfunnsorientert opplæring. Bredden i faget kan begrense muligheten for å kunne gå i dybden i enkeltemner» (s. 89). Dette vil være en viktig utfordring for fagmiljøet i nærmeste framtid. Utvalget skal levere en hovedinnstilling innen 15. juni 2015.</p><p>Praktisk arbeid med materialer må ikke skyves ut av grunnskolen. Krev heller at kvalifiserte lærere blir ansatt på de lave trinnene. Det kan gi håndverksfagene et løft, stimulere elever til senere å velge yrkesfag og hindre frafall på de yrkesfaglige utdanningsprogrammene.  Vi trenger dyktige håndverkere også i framtiden, og god undervisning i Kunst og håndverk i grunn­skolen vil kunne gi et viktig grunnlag for både framtidige håndverkere og brukere av gode håndverkere.</p> 2014-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Bokanmeldelse. Smart læring. Hvordan IKT og sosiale medier endrer læring 2018-12-11T13:45:55+01:00 Peter Haakonsen <p>Arne Krokans <em>Smart læring</em> er en kortfattet, informativ og nyttig bok som slår et slag for hvorfor og hvordan vi kan og bør få mer bruk av IKT og digitale medier i skolen. Etter å ha gitt en generell oversikt over ulike læringsteorier og hvilke paradigmer undervisningen har støttet seg til i de siste tiårene (referert til som industrisamfunnet), diskuterer han hvordan lærings­potensialet i internett og sosiale medier ikke utnyttes fullt ut i skolen i dag. Krokan er opptatt av at IKT skal fungere på egne premisser, i stedet for å etterligne og erstatte operasjoner som har blitt foretatt analogt tidligere. En PC er mer enn en digital skrivemaskin, og dette er et poeng som brukes i diskusjonen om hvor fruktbart det kan være å legge mer til rette for at internett og sosiale medier kan og bør bli mer brukt i undervisning.</p> 2014-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Methodological Unboundedness of Limited Discovery Processes 2018-12-11T13:45:55+01:00 John Benjamin Cassel <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-CA">Though designers must understand systems, designers work differently than scientists in studying systems.  Design engagements do not discover whole systems, but take calculated risks between discovery and intervention. For this reason, design practices must cope with open systems, and unpacking the tacit guidelines behind these practices is instructive to systems methodology. This paper shows that design practice yields a methodology which applies across forms of design.  Design practice teaches us to generate ideas and gather data longer, but stop when the return on design has diminished past its cost.  Fortunately, we can reason about the unknown by understanding the character of the unbounded.  We suppose that there might as well be an infinite number of factors, but we can reason about their concentration without knowing all of them.  We demonstrate this concept on stakeholder systems, showing how design discovery informs systems methodology. Using this result, we can apply the methods of parametric design when the parameters are not yet known by establishing the concentration of every kind of factor, entailing a discovery rate of diminishing returns over discovery activities, allowing the analysis of discovery-based trade-offs.  Here, we extend a framework for providing metrics to parametric design, allowing it to express the importance of discovery.<strong></strong></span></p> 2014-12-17T13:38:47+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Flaws and Service System Breakdowns. Learning from Systems Thinking 2018-12-11T13:45:56+01:00 David Ing <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">In what ways might systems thinking be helpful to designers?  In the 21st century, the types of projects designers have engaged have expanded to include service systems.  Service systems are typically composites of mechanisms, organisms, human beings and ecologies.  Systems thinking is a perspective with theories, methods and practices that enables transcending disciplinary boundaries.  Application of systems thinking in designing a service system can aid in surfacing potential flaws and/or anticipating future breakdowns in functions, structures and/or processes. Designers and systems thinkers should work together to improve the nature of service systems.  As a starter set into these conversations, seven conditions are proposed as starting contexts.  These conditions are not presented as rigourously defined or as exhaustive, but as an entry point into future joint engagement.</span></p> 2014-12-16T22:19:18+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The strengths / limits of Systems Thinking denote the strengths / limits of Practice-Based Design Research 2018-12-11T13:45:56+01:00 Wolfgang Jonas <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">If we focus on Practice-Based Design Research (PBDR) in its various forms and terminologies one can consider Design Research as a process of “generating the unknown from the known” or of “organizing the transition from knowns to unknowns” (Hatchuel, 2013: 5). It is thereby confronted with the fundamental problems of control (non-reducible complexity in design situations), of prediction (not-knowing of evolutionary emerging futures) and of incompatible domains of knowing. The problems become apparent in causal gaps between bodily, psychic and communicative systems and between the phases of evolutionary development. PBDR explores the possibilities of bridging these gaps in the medium of design projects and thereby creates new knowledge. This is necessarily done with scientific support, but in a situated, “designerly” mode, which means that the designer is part of the design / inquiring system. This is the epistemological characteristic of design. The text argues for a strong coupling of PBDR and advanced systems thinking to face the problems mentioned above</span><span lang="EN-GB">.</span></p> 2014-12-16T22:13:52+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teaching Systems. Getting future IT entrepreneurs to see the full picture 2018-12-11T13:46:01+01:00 Andrea Resmini Bertil Carlsson <p class="Textbody">Information is going everywhere. It is bleeding out of the Internet and out of personal computers, and it is being embedded into the real world. Mobile devices, networked resources, and real-time systems are making our interactions with information constant and ubiquitous. Information is becoming pervasive, and products and services are becoming parts of larger systems, many of these emergent, complex information-based ecosystems where participants are co-producers and where relationships between elements, channels and touchpoints are messy and non-linear. Still, by and large, within the area of informatics and information systems we teach management and design as if they were linear processes where cause and effect are easily ascertained and a solution readily provided. Could we try something different? How would that work and what results could it produce in terms of both learning outcomes and student satisfaction? This paper details the approach we followed and the early results we achieved in introducing business and informatics students to entrepreneurship and innovation through a holistic approach in the 2-year Master in IT, Management and Innovation at Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), in Jönköping, Sweden.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relating Systems Thinking and Design I. Practical Advances in Systemic Design 2018-12-11T13:45:58+01:00 Birger Sevaldson Alex J. Ryan <p>This issue, <em>Relating Systems Thinking and Design I –</em> <em>Practical Advances in Systemic Design</em>, along with Issue 7:4, <em>Relating Systems Thinking II – Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design</em>, together form a double special issue of <em>FORMakademisk</em> on the theory and practice of Systemic Design.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## System Design for Sustainable Energy for all. A new challenging role for design to foster sustainable development 2018-12-11T13:46:01+01:00 Carlo Vezzoli Emanuela Delfino Lorraine Amollo Ambole <p>This paper argues that Product-Service System Design for Sustainability applied to Distributed Renewable Energy DRE) is a promising approach to help achieve the goal of “Sustainable energy for all” (United Nation). Firstly, two understandings are presented: 1) Distributed Renewable Energy (DRE) is a key leverage for sustainable development and; 2) Product-Service System (PSS) is a promising model for sustainable development. Based on those understandings two consequent research hypotheses are presented: 1) S.PSS is a promising model for DRE and is particularly relevant for the distributed and informal economies in low-middle income (all) contexts; 2) (Product-Service) System Design for Sustainable energy for all is a new challenging role for design. The recently awarded LeNSes (Learning Network on Sustainable energy system) EU project (bi-regional with Africa) is based on these hypotheses and it is introduced in terms of its aims and expected results, i.e. to deepen and diffuse the knowledge-base and know-how of system design for sustainable energy for all. Finally, two best practices of DRE-based S.PSS are described, one is the recently awarded (2014 International Ashden) project ‘M-POWER Off-grid electric services in Arusha, Tanzania’ and the second is the pilot implementation of the ‘Sunride sustainable mobility system in Cape Town’.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies 2018-12-11T13:46:00+01:00 Alex Ryan Mark Leung <p class="Abstract">This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From Product to Service Design: A Thinking Paradigm Shift 2018-12-11T13:45:59+01:00 Liliana Rodriguez Carlos Peralta <p>Society, industry and the economy are all experiencing changes caused by a shift from products to services. While a “problem-solving” approach is commonly used for the development of products, new design approaches are needed as the primary unit of exchange moves from goods to services.  This research argues that a fundamental transformation in the design world is taking place, manifested in a thinking paradigm shift from problem solving (designing products) towards systems thinking (designing services). This paper draws on design literature to identify concepts of systems thinking and problem solving to help understand core elements in the shift from product to service design. It also reports on a series of semi-structured interviews with designers working in five design consultancies that have moved from product design to services design. The results show a change in the way designers think and approach projects when facing the challenges of designing services, confirming a movement from problem solving to systems thinking. However, systems thinking is not replacing problem solving but complementing it. The results also indicate that the growing complexity of the issues designers deal with influences the adoption of systems thinking in responding to service design challenges, as well as current changes in people’s ideas about sustainability and  society.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systems Design Perspective of Healthcare Provision in Humanitarian Aid 2018-12-11T13:46:02+01:00 Ana Laura Santos Linda S.G.L. Wauben <p>This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book review. Design for Care: Innovating Healthcare Experience 2018-12-11T13:45:58+01:00 Manuela Aguirre Ulloa <p><em>Adapted from a review on the same book published by The Design Observer Group on April 4<sup>th</sup>, 2014. You can access the original publication online at </em><a href=""></a></p> <p>Peter Jones´ recently published book represents a timely and comprehensive view of the value design brings to healthcare innovation. The book uses an empathic user story that conveys emotions and life to a structure that embraces the different meanings of Design for Care: Spanning from caring at the personal level to large-scale caring systems. The author has a main objective for each of its three main target audiences: Designers, companies and healthcare teams. Firstly, it allows designers to understand healthcare in a holistic and patient-centered way, breaking down specialized silos. Secondly, it shows how to design better care experiences across care continuums. Consequently, for companies serving the healthcare sector, the book presents how to humanize information technology (IT) and services and meet the needs of health seekers. Finally, the book aims to inform healthcare teams (clinical practitioners and administrators) the value design brings in research, co-creation and implementation of user and organizational experiences. It also proposes that healthcare teams learn and adopt design and systems thinking techniques so their innovation processes can be more participatory, holistic and user-centered.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relating Systems Thinking and Design II. Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design 2018-12-11T13:45:57+01:00 Peter Jones <p>We have joined two issues of <em>FORMakademisk</em> to accommodate two sets of articles developed from remarkable early work presented at the 2013 Relating Systems Thinking to Design Symposium in Oslo. We organized these papers into a theory set, and a set for practice of systemic design, although most of these theoretical works are deeply informed by design and planning practices. The theory issue, Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design, comprises the perspectives of scholars contributing new work crossing the former boundaries between systems theory and design thinking.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##