FormAkademisk - Research Journal of Design and Design Education 2018-08-21T01:29:55+02:00 Janne Beate Reitan Open Journal Systems <p><span class="text_exposed_show">Please subscribe to notifications of new publications at the meny to the right. </span>Registration is not required in order to read Form Akademisk.</p> <p><img src="/public/site/images/toreandre/tenYEARS.png" alt="" width="241" height="49"> &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <img src="/public/site/images/toreandre/fb_icon_325x3253.png" alt="" width="22" height="22"><a title="Find us on facebook." href="" target="_top"> Follow us on facebook</a></p> Art and Craft education for sustainable development 2018-08-21T01:29:52+02:00 Eva Lutnæs Nina Fallingen <p>The Norwegian school subject Art and Crafts makes a lense for pupils into the world of object, buildings and pictures. It makes visual and material culture part of general education. The subject embodies problem solving in materials, aesthetical awareness and critical reflection on visual communication and the quality of objects. Teachers in this subject have the opportunity to connect daily actions and opinions to bigger picture thinking, by challenging pupils to take responsibility for what they do, and what they might choose to ignore. This article explores four entries to ecoliteracy in the repertoire of the subject: Problem solving in materials, aesthetic experiences, responsible product design and critical reflection. Ecoliteracy rely on both awareness and empowerment, and to coin the four entries in design assignments would better prepare pupils for a transition towards a more sustainable future.</p> 2017-12-29T12:16:11+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## International Recognition of FormAkademisk 2018-08-21T01:29:52+02:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p><em>FormAkademisk</em> was invited to the Design Journal Editors' Meeting at the College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP), University of Cincinnati in late October, as the only design research journal from the Nordic region. The meeting was organized in advance of the International Association of Societies of Design Research (IASDR) 2017 conference.</p><p>Liv Merete Nielsen, who initiated the creation of  <em>FormAkademisk</em> and has been a Section Editor since the start-up and I, who have been the Editor-in-Chief for the entire period, travelled to the meeting.</p><p><em>FormAkademisk</em>   was in good company - among the others invited, we can mention the American <em>Design Issues</em> and the British <em>Design Studies</em>, both of which are at Level 2 of the Norwegian Science Index - NVI. Other reputable journals invited were the <em>International Journal of Design</em> from Taiwan, <em>She Ji - The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation</em> from Tongji University in Shanghai, China, <em>Design and Culture</em> from the United States<em>, Co-Design</em> from the United Kingdom, <em>Information Design Journal</em> published in the Netherlands with an international editorial board, <em>Journal</em><em> of Design, Business &amp; Society</em> with an international editorial board, the French <em>Sciences du Design</em> and <em>Visible Language</em> published at the University of Cincinnati, USA who hosted the meeting.</p><p>First, we warmed up by describing each journal's editorial profile. For <em>FormAkademisk </em>we emphasized that we have two equal focuses – research in design, but also research in design education for the general public. This combination seems to be unique internationally.</p><p>Common issues we discussed further were challenges with the quality of submitted articles and obtaining qualified peer reviewers. We also discussed whether we would agree on a common understanding of what it means to be included as an author of an article. Based on the discussions, <em>FormAkademisk</em> comes well prepared compared to the other internationally leading design research journals.</p><p>After the meeting in Cincinnati, there have been lively discussions on email between those invited to the Design Journal Editors' Meeting in Cincinnati in October. We look forward to the next meeting to discuss common challenges for research journals in design and design education, especially in connection with the largest international design research conferences.</p><p>We also want workshops in peer review and article writing. A common issue for the journals is finding good peer reviewers who can review the articles. We therefore encourage anyone who is asked to say yes. Keep in mind that for each article you submit for review, there are two peer reviewers who stand up for you!</p> 2017-12-06T20:30:39+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The creative space 2018-08-21T01:29:53+02:00 Solveig Toft Kari Holte <pre><em>This study addresses the actual experience of the creative process, the non-measurable qualities, related to the subject of Arts and Crafts. The intention is to bring in awareness and a perspective regarding the organization of creative activities in school. The non-measurable qualities are areas that need special consideration at a time when public school documents mostly focus on conditions that can be measured</em><a href="#_msocom_1">[.1]</a> <em>. The research question is: Which experienced processes can be identified in an image-making process? This is a qualitative study based on different types of data collection with emphasis on participatory observation and qualitative interviews related to one particular type of painting task: </em>painting with music as inspiration<em>. The participants were divided into three groups of different ages and experiences. The study exemplifies what experiences may occur in some selected creative processes: joy, presence and deep concentration. The results are discussed in light of Czsikmyhali’s flow theory </em><em>and Hans-Georg Gadamer’s hermeneutical theory, and further it is reflected on the term </em>creative space<em>.</em><em><br /></em></pre><div> </div> 2017-11-01T10:24:26+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The domestication of planning ideas – the case of Shared Space 2018-08-21T01:29:53+02:00 Sebastian Peters <p><strong></strong>New planning ideas of diverse types, ranging from new design concepts to large-scale development policies, are inherently challenging because they involve changes to prevailing thought and practice. As they are passed on, though, they are subjected to translation, adjusting them to discourses prevailing in different contexts, and often resulting in conceptual distortion. This article seeks to contribute to the theorization of the translation of planning ideas, by proposing the concept of domestication as a means of understanding such distortion. An analysis of one such challenging idea - <em>Shared Space</em> - serves to illustrate this concept and assess its usefulness.</p> 2017-10-23T17:54:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book review: Critical discourse analysis 2018-08-21T01:29:54+02:00 Petter Næss <p>There are not very many books written by Nordic writers about discourse analysis, despite the great interest of discourse perspectives and discourse theoretical concepts among researchers and students in social studies. Sociologist Joar Skrede’s book Kritisk diskursanalyse (Cappelen Damm Academic, 2017) is one of the few recent contributions. The book is about a specific direction within the discourse analytical landscape. As the book's title reveals, it is about critical discourse analysis.</p> 2017-10-16T19:42:38+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reflecting Contemporary Design Research 2018-08-21T01:29:55+02:00 Ida Engholm <p><em>In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present article addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The article's underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the article discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets and methodological practices. </em></p><p class="Pa1"> </p> 2017-10-16T09:22:02+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Learning for Tomorrow 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Nina Scott Frisch Silje Bergman <p>This special issue of Form Akademisk consist of four selected peer reviewed articles developed from papers held at <em>The 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers - DRS/CUMULUS learnxdesign conference</em> held in Chicago from the 28<sup>th</sup> of June – 30<sup>th</sup> of June 2015.  The conference was implemented through close cooperation between the Design Research Society (DRS) and the International Association of Universities and Schools of Design, Art and Media (CUMULUS). It was hosted by School of the Art Institute of Chicago. </p> 2017-09-18T11:48:09+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Visual strategies for co-design with a community partner 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Aaron Fry Carol Overby Jennifer Wilson <p class="Abstract">Deficient financial literacy is an important international problem, and research suggests the potential effectiveness of narrative visualizations. This paper presents a case study: a collaboration between a class of design students and a community-based financial-counseling organization to develop financial-literacy comic strips for use with the organization’s low-income clients. We describe and examine the communication challenges between a community partner and an academic institution, detailing the several communication modes employed.  These modes include questionnaire and surveys of the counsellors; emails directly between students and counsellors; and most successfully, a hands-on visualization workshop with counsellors. The visualizations engaged counsellors with generated (based) design practices, which resulted in superior communication with design students.  Lessons from this experience may be broadly useful for any collaborative efforts among academic institutions, design students and community partners. </p> 2017-09-13T10:56:24+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparing the way for mainstream sustainable product design 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Vicky Lofthouse <p class="Abstract">This paper proposes that there is a need to prepare undergraduate design students to be responsible practitioners when they enter the workplace. The multi-faceted approach adopted by the Design School at Loughborough University to achieve this is presented. The paper outlines and reflects on the differences between the idealistic environment provided within an educational setting and the actual situation in the design industry, where there is little evidence of mainstream sustainable design practice. The paper concludes that it is valuable to provide students with a range of skills that support sustainable design thinking, even if they are not currently required by the design industry because doing so turns the students into informed individuals with the potential to lead the next generation of design practitioners.</p> 2017-09-11T14:54:58+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Intuition, Reflection and Reflexivity 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Kathrina Dankl <p class="Abstract">This paper synthesises findings from a design method course that focused on a design brief in shared medical decision making. In the paper, design methods is a term describing any action undertaken for a forward movement in the design process. The course is based on a selection of assignments that target intuition, reflection and reflexivity. Although many science disciplines strive to include more elements of active and practice-based learning, design education faces the challenge of integrating theory in a ‘designerly’ way. The current curriculum offers little opportunity to train these skills together with traditional practice-based ones. However, the complexity of design tasks in interconnected systems with manifold stakeholders and users requires a cohesive design research approach to govern its inherent complexity. Using the findings of this case study, design students can integrate theory in their practical work and welcome the confrontation found in current design research literature, helping them contextualise the meaning of design, be inspired and develop an individual stance on the purpose of design.</p><div> </div> 2017-09-04T12:38:26+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Advancing Design Thinking Towards a Better Understanding of Self and Others 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Meredith James <p><em>In teaching Design Thinking, two key aspects of the discipline continue to emerge: design's move away from materialism; and augmenting better problem-solving skills through self-awareness. The first anchors design in a process rather than a product, something that is native to the concept of Design Thinking. Whereas the second, anchors the designer (the problem-solver, or change agent) within a context. Designers who have a strong understanding of themselves, their own roles in problem-solving, and which perspective within the larger context they inhabit, are better equipped to understand the nuances and difficulties of solving problems for others.</em></p> 2017-09-04T10:41:20+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relating Systems Thinking and Design III 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Jodi Forlizzi Birger Sevaldson Alex Ryan <p>This special issue of Form Akademisk captures some of the systemic design thinking and research presented at the RSD3 conference, held in Oslo, Norway in 2014, and the RSD4 conference, held in Banff, Canada in 2015. These two conferences offered a range of submissions encompassing the fields of design, systemics, public policy, healthcare, and other domains. This body of work explores the emerging renaissance of systems thinking in design. The papers presented here are responses to the world we live and design in, a world that is increasingly complex and increasingly problematic for those in government, industry and academia alike.</p><p>            We believe that the thinking and intervention developed at RSD3 and RSD4 is well poised to meet these challenges. In this issue, we offer two sets of papers; the first set focuses on frameworks and organizing concepts, and the second set focuses on methods and tools to aid in systemic design.</p> 2017-05-24T12:09:06+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic Design for Second-Order Effects 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Evan Barba <p class="Abstract"><em>Second-order effects refer to changes within a system that are the result of changes made somewhere else in the system (the first-order effects). Second-order effects can occur at different spatial, temporal, or organizational scales from the original interventions, and are difficult to control. Some organizational theorists suggest that careful management of feedback processes can facilitate controlled change from one organizational configuration to another. Recognizing that skill in managing feedback processes is a core competency of design suggests that design skills are potentially useful tools in achieving organizational change. This paper describes a case study in which a co-design methodology was used to control the second-order effects resulting from a classroom intervention to create organizational change. This approach is then theorized as the Instigator Systems approach.</em></p> 2017-04-19T11:26:03+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Marie Davidova <p><em>First-hand experiences in several design projects that were based on media richness and collaboration are described in this article. Although complex design processes are merely considered as socio-technical systems, they are deeply involved with natural systems. My collaborative research in the field of performance-oriented design combines digital and physical conceptual sketches, simulations and prototyping. GIGA</em><em>-mapping </em><em>- is applied to organise the data. The design process uses the most suitable tools, for the subtasks at hand, and the use of media is mixed according to particular requirements. These tools include digital and physical GIGA-mapping, parametric computer aided design (CAD), digital simulation of analyses, as well as sampling and 1:1 prototyping. Also discussed in this article are the methodologies used in several design projects to strategize these tools and the developments and trends in the tools employed.  The paper argues that the digital tools tend to produce similar results through given pre-sets that often do not correspond to real needs. Thus, there is a significant need for mixed methods including prototyping in the creative design process. Media mixing and cooperation across disciplines is unavoidable in the holistic approach to contemporary design. This includes the consideration of diverse biotic and abiotic agents. I argue that physical and digital GIGA-mapping is a crucial tool to use in coping with this complexity. Furthermore, I propose the integration of physical and digital outputs in one GIGA-map and the participation and co-design of biotic and abiotic agents into one </em>rich design research space<em>, which is resulting in an ever-evolving research-design process-result </em>time-based design<em>.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> 2017-04-19T11:05:26+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Many Faces of Design 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Perin L.Z. Ruttonsha <p><em>In light of contemporary global pressures, designers have been considering how to apply their thinking and practice more broadly within the enterprise of sustainability. Given the often wicked nature and cross-scale dynamics of related challenges, there is reason to reassess the role of design in processes of systems transformation amidst complexity. In this </em><em>manuscript, the author contemplates the diversity of ‘designerly ways’, in interpretation of designers’ encounters with complex adaptive systems. These interactions are classified here using the three lenses of adaptive response, creative agency and emergent engagement.</em></p><p><em><br /></em><em></em></p> 2017-04-05T12:19:35+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Redesigning Systems Thinking 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Birger Sevaldson <p><em>The resent movement of Systemic Design seeks for new synergies between Design and Systems. While the usefulness of systems approaches in design has been fairly obvious, this paper argues that many core concepts in design are beneficial in systems thinking. This seems reasonable when it comes to the concept of Design Thinking. However, as this paper argues, the more practical core concepts of design are equally important. Designerly skills have been regarded as belonging mainly in the realm of traditional commercial design, whereas design thinking has been regarded as useful in strategic management settings. This paper argues against the idea of separating design thinking from design action. The skills and competences of design, such as the composition of the shape and form that are obvious in product design, are central to Systems Oriented Design (SOD). SOD is a version in the emerging pluralistic field of Systemic Design. The Systemic Design movement should recognise the core values of design and integrate them in systems thinking. This integration would contribute to innovation in both Systemic Design and systems thinking. Among the core competences of design discussed in the paper are composition, choreography, orchestration, the notion of the Gesamtkunstwerk and open-ended multi-scalar design strategies that allow for both structural and organic development. The paper provides examples to support its proposal for the use of concrete aesthetic principles to guide Systemic Design processes. This paper expands the working paper entitled “Holistic and dynamic concepts in design: What design brings to systems thinking”, which was presented at the RSD3 symposium (2014). </em></p> 2017-03-21T12:50:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Co-designing with relationships in mind 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Manuela Aguirre-Ulloa Adrian Paulsen <p><em>We need to move from object-oriented thinking towards relational thinking for many reasons. As public services become more complex, their design increasingly focuses on the relationships between people.  The role of the traditional service staff is shifting from a ‘provider’ to an ‘enabler’ and ‘facilitator’ of relationships between service users, their peers, family or members of the civil service.  Many agree that the future of public services relies on relational services, relational welfare and a relational state. Yet we don’t have a shared vocabulary to describe good relationships nor materials to </em><em>design for services that support meaningful relationships</em><em>. We visually perceive the world as fragmented parts rather than seeing the connection amongst the parts. This perception is integrated with cognition, therefore when mapping complex systems, nodes are emphasized over their relations in-between. Categorizing and color-coding types of systemic relations are useful to understand but not sufficient to shape complex social relationships. </em><em>We propose a multi-sensory relational tool that aids public servants, designers and users in understanding social relationships through the use of material properties as new design materials</em><em>. Testing this tool revealed that people are enabled, within a short timeframe, to create a shared relational vocabulary and use </em><em>the tool to co-design new service concepts</em><em>. However, future research needs to address how to move from theory to practice, hence from concepts to prototyping.</em></p> 2017-03-15T15:55:57+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Introducing systems oriented design for complex societal contexts in design engineering education 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Jairo da Costa Junior Ana Laura Rodrigues dos Santos Jan Carel Diehl <p class="Normal1"><em>As our society faces large-scale wicked problems like global warming, resource depletion, poverty and humanitarian emergencies, problem solvers are required to apply new reasoning models more appropriate to deal with these complex societal problems. Dealing with these problems poses unfamiliar challenges in contexts with poor financial and infrastructural resources. Systems Oriented Design (SOD) has been recognized in the literature as a promising approach, capable to support design engineers to deal with these complex societal problems. This paper explores the application of SOD in the development of Product-Service System (PSS) concepts by student teams in a multidisciplinary master course. The course resulted in twelve concepts that were analysed using a case study approach with the support of protocol analysis. The analysis results in a description of advantages, context- and process-related challenges of using SOD. From an education point-of-view, the results demonstrate that even though SOD provides students with a broad knowledge base and skills to deal with problems in complex societal contexts, there is still the need to introduce the appropriate scope and depth in the design engineering curricula, making the transition from traditional product design, a challenging one.</em></p> 2017-03-14T14:32:49+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integrating Systems Thinking and Storytelling 2018-07-19T10:50:59+02:00 Maggie Ollove Diala Lteif <p class="HeadingAbstract"><em>This paper explores the role of design in conflict resolution when doing so means balancing burdened pasts with present uncertainties. To prove its relevance in today’s complex problem spaces, design cannot remain stagnant; it must evolve alongside the pace of development. Designing within complexity is unprecedented. Yet, design can define structures that guide an understanding of this complexity. The methodology and case study described in this paper explore how systems thinking, storytelling and grounded theory can contribute to this understanding. The methodology aims to combine subjective perspectives with systemic analyses to create a collective narrative that reveals the multitude of individual understandings of conflicts. Ultimately, this methodology does not attempt to resolve conflict; instead, it  aims to provide an in-depth diagnosis of a wicked problem and question the role of design therein.</em></p> 2017-03-14T13:40:07+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teachers scheduled classes in the subject Art and crafts - The background for the existence of an outdated teaching load in lower secondary school 2017-01-13T10:11:30+01:00 Catrine Lie Liv Merete Nielsen <p><em>A teacher in the subject Art and crafts in lower secondary schools in Norway have less time for preparation of his teaching than teachers within other subjects. In this article we are looking for the background of this differentiation of teachers' scheduled classes, and find it in the ‘Teaching load Commission's report’ (Lesepliktutvalget) from 1977. There is, however, no good reasons </em>why<em> subjects receive different teaching load. Ten years later the committee appointed to consider teaching staff's future working conditions (UFA-utvalget) adds descriptions from each subjects curriculum as a foundation for the estimation of their teaching load. Even after the introduction of the curriculum L97, where the contents of the subject Art and crafts was made more explicit and the teachers got a heavier workload, the differences in teachers' scheduled classes were not changed. Teachers have called attention to this imbalance, but the teaching load has remained unchanged. School leaders, however, have expressed that the difference in teaching load is fair. In this article we discuss what can be the background for the maintenance of this outdated teaching load.</em></p> 2016-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Open access to scientific publishing 2017-01-12T14:17:33+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p>Interest in open access (OA) to scientific publications is steadily increasing, both in Norway and internationally. From the outset, FORMakademisk has been published as a digital journal, and it was one of the first to offer OA in Norway. We have since the beginning used Open Journal Systems (OJS) as publishing software. OJS is part of the Public Knowledge Project (PKP), which was created by Canadian John Willinsky and colleagues at the Faculty of Education at the University of British Columbia in 1998. The first version of OJS came as an open source software in 2001. The programme is free for everyone to use and is part of a larger collective movement wherein knowledge is shared. When FORMakademisk started in 2008, we received much help from the journal Acta Didactic (n.d.) at the University of Oslo, which had started the year before us. They had also translated the programme to Norwegian. From the start, we were able to publish in both Norwegian and English. Other journals have used FORMakademisk as a model and source of inspiration when starting or when converting from subscription-based print journals to electronic OA, including the Journal of Norwegian Media Researchers [Norsk medietidsskrift]. It is in this way that the movement around PKP works and continues to grow to provide free access to research. As the articles are OA, they are also easily accessible to non-scientists. We also emphasise that the language should be readily available, although it should maintain a high scientific quality. Often there may be two sides of the same coin. We on the editorial team are now looking forward to adopting the newly developed OJS 3 this spring, with many new features and an improved design for users, including authors, peer reviewers, editors and readers.</p> 2016-12-21T13:21:48+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Criteria for architect selection and satisfaction among first-time private sector clients 2017-01-12T14:17:33+01:00 Adedapo Adewunmi Oluwatayo <p><em>For sustained profitability, architects must position themselves to attract new clients. This involves understanding potential clients’ choices and how these might impact on subsequent satisfaction. The study ranked criteria for architect selection and how these predict satisfaction among first-time private sector clients in Lagos, Nigeria. Data from a questionnaire survey were analysed using descriptive statistics, relative importance index and categorical regression, identifying timely delivery, cost of service and quality of previous services as the most important criteria. Although personal relationship has been said to influence selection of a professional service provider, this criterion was found to be of relatively low importance here. To attract private sector clients, architects should prioritise improved service delivery and construction skill development.</em></p><div><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /></div><p><em><br /></em></p> 2016-11-30T11:04:02+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Universal design as a theme in higher education 2017-01-29T12:51:20+01:00 Ulf Rydningen Dorte Lybye Norenberg Inger Marie Lid <p>To ensure opportunities for the participation and welfare for all, society is dependent on the development of knowledge and interaction between different sectors of society. Universities and university colleges are arenas for education where knowledge is developed, trained and applied to enable students to deal with challenges that must be resolved for the benefit of society. Universal design is adopted in several laws and regulations as an obligation to carry out new measures. This requires knowledge of how to work with universal design in practice. In this article we describe the experiences of a three-year collaboration in education in universal design between programs in occupational therapy and civil engineering. The purpose was to provide students with knowledge of each other's field of knowledge and methods to contribute to a shared knowledge base of universal design within each subject. By analyzing specific areas or tasks students should justify and critically reflect on universal design. Further, the purpose is to strengthen universal design as a theme in research and education. Students valued highly to get to know and work with each other, and they found that their own profession did not have a knowledge monopoly on universal design. Students found that other professions have different knowledge base, and that the interdisciplinary cooperation gave insight into the complementary knowledge that can be valuable in a future professional work with universal design.</p> 2016-10-18T14:32:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book review: Architecture Beyond Criticism 2017-01-18T13:20:19+01:00 Beata Sirowy 2016-09-06T09:53:05+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Integrating Sensitizing Labs in an Educational Design Process for Haptic Interaction 2017-01-12T14:17:33+01:00 Cheryl Akner-Koler Parivash Ranjbar <div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><em>New design methods for educating designers are needed to adapt the attributes of haptic interaction to fit the embodied experience of the users. This paper presents educationally framed aesthetic sensitizing labs: 1) a material-lab exploring the tactile and haptic structures of materials, 2) a vibrotactile-lab exploring actuators directly on the body and 3) a combined materials- and vibrotactile-lab embedded in materials. These labs were integrated in a design course that supports a non-linear design process for embodied explorative and experimental activities that feed into an emerging gestalt. A co-design process was developed in collaboration with researchers and users who developed positioning and communications systems for people with deafblindness. Conclusion: the labs helped to discern attributes of haptic interactions which supported designing scenarios and prototypes showing novel ways to understand and shape haptic interaction.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p><p><span><br /></span></p></div></div></div> 2016-08-19T14:19:31+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Embodied Making and Design Learning - Special Issue from the Learn X Design-conference DRS/CUMULUS, Chicago 2015 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Catharine Dishke Hondzel Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Tellervo Härkki <p><em>This issue of FORMakademisk features selected articles developed from papers presented at the symposium Embodied Making and Design Learning at the DRS/CUMULUS-conference LearnXDesign in Chicago, Illinois, June 28–30, 2015. </em><em>This special issue was developed as an initiative by the symposium conveners.</em> <em>The symposium was developed by researchers from research groups in Norway, Finland and Canada to explore various aspects of embodied making in relation to design learning. The symposium was a full-day event with four sessions, seven paper presentations, a roundtable discussion, a plenary discussion and a workshop. The symposium received positive feedback, attracting many participants and stimulating engaged discussions throughout the conference. This indicates a growing awareness of the topic of embodied making and design learning. This special issue features five articles that together highlight a variety of approaches and examples of current research endeavours in relation to the theme.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p><p> </p> 2016-06-27T17:08:59+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How can neuroscience help understand design and craft activity? The promise of cognitive neuroscience in design studies 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Minna Huotilainen Maarit Mäkelä Camilla Groth Kai Hakkarainen <p> </p><p class="Abstract"><em>Designing and making crafts is a complex, multifaceted process that requires sophisticated, professional thinking and competence, described as reflection in action and as an embodied process in which the hand, eye and mind collaborate. This article discusses these cognitive and embodied aspects central to designing and making crafts in light of cognitive neuroscience. Understanding the specific cognitive processes and forms of knowledge used in creative practices is essential. In this article, we propose that cognitive neuroscience provides valuable tools for analysing thinking and acting processes relevant to designing and making. We discuss the challenges and opportunities that the use of brain imaging methods, in particular, provides for understanding design activities, skills and cognition. Additionally, we present two neuroscientific experimental settings from our empirical studies in which the methods of cognitive neuroscience are applied to study and detect the interrelations between drawing, forming, skill learning and the functional activities of the brain and its subareas. We argue that cognitive neuroscience provides valuable instruments and methods which complement traditional design research.</em></p><p><em><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><br /></span></span></em></p> 2016-06-23T11:00:13+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design- and Craft thinking analysed as Embodied Cognition 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Camilla Groth <p><em>Through the concept of design thinking the act of designing is presented as an intellectual activity, and the act of planning the design is elevated over the making process. However, the importance of materiality and the embodied sense-making that occurs in this context should not be forgotten. In this study, embodied cognition in design and craft practices was investigated through three case studies. The study takes on an enhanced tactile perspective as a methodological platform; thus, the cases involve 1) deafblind makers in ceramics, 2) a practice-led self-study report on tactile experiences while working with clay and 3) a study on design students’ use of their tactile sense during material exploration. The results show that the act of thinking design involves the body as a knowledge provider. </em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> 2016-06-22T09:10:07+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Material knowledge in collaborative designing and making - A case of wearable sea creatures 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Tellervo Härkki Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Kai Hakkarainen <p><em>This article is based on a study of novice designers’ knowledge of materials in a challenging collaborative assignment. We approached material knowledge from two complementary viewpoints: the dimensions of knowledge shared during designing, and how student teams built new knowledge during making. We found that both modalities studied—namely, words and gestures—contributed to advancement in designing. The modalities became specialised: While words served mainly to identify materials and to describe visual qualities, gestures conveyed information about size, shape, location and dynamic dimensions, such as movement and change over time, as well as signature qualities based on embodied experience. During making, ambitious teams took material decisions and the challenge of authenticity seriously, but the tight timeframe and budget compelled them to favour pragmatic choices. </em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> 2016-06-21T20:56:43+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Personal exploration: Serendipity and intentionality as altering positions in a creative process 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Maarit Mäkelä <p><em> <em>Artists and designers have recently begun to take an active role in contextualising the creative process in relation to their practice. Thus, understanding how the creative mind proceeds has been supplemented with knowledge obtained inside the creative process. In this way, the spheres of knowledge, material thinking and experience that are fostered through creative work have become entangled and embedded as elemental parts of the research process. This article is based on documentation and reflection of the author’s creative practice in contemporary ceramic art at the beginning of 2015. The article discusses how the creative process proceeds by alternating between two positions: serendipity and intentionality. By describing the different phases of the process, it reveals the interplay between the diverse range of activities and how these gradually construct the creative process</em> </em></p> 2016-06-21T14:08:11+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Embodied Making, Creative Cognition and Memory 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen <p class="Abstract">This article revisits previous research on the maker’s experience when working with materials, and discusses this in light of new research on creative cognition and the neurobiological basis of making. It is one in a series of four articles, which draw on neurobiological knowledge to expand our understanding of the woodcarver’s experience. The aim of this article is to present and discuss one element of the creative cognition of the woodcarver: memory. It reviews the basics of the nervous system and its function, cognition, and attention. I argue that one of the reasons why the woodcarver cherishes the experience of carving is that he or she can recall and relive many details in the memory of it. I will specifically discuss the role of the hippocampus in storing and recollecting declarative episodic memories. The article concludes with a short discussion of why this knowledge is useful in understanding the woodcarver’s experience and, in turn, if – and, if so, why – woodcarving could be an important activity in which to engage in the twenty-first century.</p> 2016-06-21T13:52:08+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From Gender-segregated Subjects to Multi-material Craft: Craft Student Teachers’Views on the Future of the Craft Subject 2016-01-08T08:56:31+01:00 Jaana Lepistö Eila Lindfors <p><em>This paper describes the views of student teachers of craft about the future of craft as a school subject. The study was conducted at the University of Turku, Department of Teacher Education, in Rauma in 2014. The literature review revealed that the subject of craft in Finnish basic education is understood as a dialog between the maker and the materials. However, teaching and learning craft in schools and in teacher education has a strong gender-based tradition.</em> <em>The aim of this study is to investigate student teachers’ understanding of craft as a school subject in the future and their solutions to teaching craft in basic education. </em><em>The data were collected from essays (N = 20) written by student teachers of craft. The essays </em><em>were analyzed qualitatively using content analysis.</em><em> The results showed that the student teachers<strong> </strong>of craft viewed holistic craft, reflective action readiness, entrepreneurial behaviour, multiple skills, the use of versatile materials, and craft as sources of pleasure and the main solutions for the future of craft as a subject. </em></p> 2015-12-31T17:14:38+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Critical reflection and system-oriented design – Awareness and amending expertise through education for sustainable consumption 2017-02-01T09:40:45+01:00 Eva Lutnæs <p>Education is promoted as a powerful tool in the transformative process deemed necessary to limit climate change. The article explores five texts on reflective inquiry (Dewey, Freire, Schön, Mezirow and Brookfield) and asks how each of them might inform the education of aware, critical and empowered consumers. Across different agendas, the texts share a structure of four phases in how they describe reflective inquiry as a distinctive operation of thought. The texts provide descriptions on how to unearth the current state of the art, but there is less elaboration on how to get from awareness and criticism to transformation. To trigger an exploration of new modes of production, trade and consumption, the article proposes a model that coins the four phases of reflective inquiry with methods from Systems Oriented Design. <em></em></p> 2015-12-31T09:48:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Drawing and terminology – A critical look at textbooks in drawing used in specialised teacher education 2016-01-05T06:39:58+01:00 Clara Christina Myhr Stavnås Liv Merete Nielsen The article is based on an analysis of the textbooks that were used in the foundation program in specialised teacher education in Oslo academic year 2014/2015 and how contour and line are described and related to expression in books (Stavnås, 2015). Most of these books are translated textbooks released for the first time from 1983 to 1988. Only one of the books, <em>Billedrom</em> by Per Rauset (1989), is written by a Norwegian author. Teachers at specialised teacher education in Oslo, Notodden and Volda state that they use their own unpublished compendiums when they teach. Towards the end of the article, what might underlie the lack of Norwegian-based educational resources for drawing published for the university level, is discussed. Studies of books on students' reading lists are an indicator of the program's profile and to what extent the program is research-based. 2015-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial. FORMakademisk – Leading academia and actively recruiting 2016-01-04T09:26:45+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p>Some published articles in <em>FORMakademisk</em> are frequently accessed and cited. PhD candidates are publishing increasing numbers of articles in journals for their article-based theses. We believe that <em>FORMakademisk </em>has helped to make article-based dissertations in design and design education possible and see this as a recognition of FORM<em>akademisk.</em></p><p><em></em>We wish to maintain and further strengthen our position as the premier publication channel for students and researchers in the design and design education field. We invite the most established scientists to contribute to FORM<em>akademisk, </em>but we also want to help younger researchers publish in the journal. This year, we have invited masters’ students to publish based on their theses, together with their supervisors. We see this as essential to ensure quality through building ‘critical mass’. The first article that is a result of this invitation is published in this Issue. </p> 2015-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FORMakademisk 8-3 2015 HELE NUMMERET 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan 2015-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Oslo Art and Design Education (University) College 1966–1994 – An educational institution with corporate responsibility and sustainability in focus 2016-01-04T09:26:44+01:00 Randi Veiteberg Kvellestad The artile chronicles the Department of Art, Design and Drama at Oslo and Akershus University College ca. 1950 to 1990. The school bore the name Oslo Art and Design Education College (SLFO) from 1966 to 1975 and Oslo Art and Design Education University College from 1975 to 1994. The institution had a clear teaching focus while running extensive programs on professional training, pilot projects and guidance service. The tradition of quality in the choice of material as well as work with engineering and design was strong, but greater emphasis was eventually placed on experimentation with material, tools and techniques. The students were both encouraged and challenged to be creative and rely on their own ideas in experimentation. The article set its focus on change and training in textiles needlework teacher education. The source materials are annual reports, published texts found in the Institute's history collection and interviews of seven employees who worked at the school in part or the whole period. Informants’ arguments and the analysis of texts are related to recent research in Sweden and Norway. The article shows that the institution once stood for attitudes that one would today call sustainable, with strong quality requirements. Thus, the institution showed social responsibility through education and industrial initiatives. 2015-12-30T16:54:51+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## How to Understand Disorderly Boys - An Exchange of Didactic Experiences Among Textile-Sloyd Teachers in an Internet-based Community of Practice 2016-01-15T13:39:45+01:00 Marcus Samuelsson This paper reports on a case study in which a textile-sloyd teacher sent a message to an internet-based community of practice seeking advice from other textile-sloyd teachers regar­ding how to cope with unruly boys. Two major themes emerged from a interview and the discu­­ssion on the Internet: 1) behaviour analysis and 2) coping attempts The analysis also reve­­aled two themes related to the exchange of experiences: 1) descriptions of the problem as pertaining to the pupils, the process, classroom management, freedom of choice, or conne­ction to everyday life and 2) suggested solutions, such as area of activity, competences, leader­­ship and techniques. The article concludes with a discussion demonstrating that the collegial exch­ange about disorderly boys appears to have strengthened and challenged this internet-based community of practice. 2015-10-30T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ripples on water. Research-based art and crafts teaching 2016-01-15T13:39:45+01:00 Torunn Paulsen Dagsland <p>The article focuses on how classroom research from primary and secondary schools can be implemented in, have influence on, change and provide instruction on the subject Art and Crafts in the College of Education and in practice in primary and secondary schools. This article presents and discusses some selected research findings from a project on the subject of Art and Crafts, where students at the secondary level are in a dialogue with art. The results of the study, which are based on a pupil’s perspective, call for a subject didactic reorientation related to young people’s meeting with art in school, towards content that are more related to youth culture and relational meetings with art that are narrative-oriented, interpretation-orientated, experience-orientated, dialogic and multi-voiced. The article also shows how these research findings have become an important part of the teaching of subject didactics, art history and practical aesthetic work in the College of Education.</p> 2015-10-30T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book reviews: About the art of conveying art! 2016-01-15T13:39:45+01:00 Thurid Vold <p>Three books about the art of convey art are reviewed: <em>Formidling av kunst til barn og unge</em> (Dissemination of art to children and young people) by <em>Arne Marius Samuelsen</em>, <em>Dialogbasert Undervisning. Kunstmuseet som læringsrom</em> (Dialog Based Teaching. The Art museum as learning space) by <em>Olga Dysthe, Nana Bernhardt </em>and<em> Line Enskjønn</em>, and <em>Kunsten å formidle</em> (The Art to convey) by <em>Alfred Oftedal Telhaug</em>. The reviewer writes that all three books are great contributions to the literature on art mediation and are indispensable for all who teach children and youth in schools and museums. The books should have a prominent place on the bibliography for teacher students in Art and Crafts, Primary and Secondary Teacher Education and Early Childhood Education and for museum educators.</p> 2015-10-27T22:48:25+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Cultural Rucksack - Quality education or culture arrogance? 2016-01-15T13:39:45+01:00 Ingvild Digranes <p class="HeadingAbstract">In the programme Visual Arts in Den kulturelle skulesekken (DKS) (The Cultural Rucksack), the aim at the launch was an equitable collaboration between the education and cultural sectors. Ten years down the road, there remains a disagreement regarding the aims and content in relation to collaborative school projects. Two different professions with differing ideologies and subject views are expected to share the same work. The framework and work division becomes unclear and this in turn gives rise to professional dilemmas, both regarding the value and knowledge base for the programme but also regarding who carries the responsibility for the subject Art and Crafts in the regular school hours. To reconcile the charismatic values of the art world with the democratic principles of education can seem a daunting task. The mythical art and the concrete learning outcomes in schools can seem irreconcilable in an inter-professional quality discussion that activates ideologies. The media and document analysis presented here seem to suggest that the media represents DKS practice in a way that buries relevant questions surrounding the programme, rather than that creates a climate for discussions throughout the collaboration.</p> 2015-10-27T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial. Design Education for the future in Norway 2016-01-15T13:39:45+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan <p>In addition to focusing on design research, design education from kindergarten to PhD is a primary focus of FORMakademisk. We consider the education of users, purchasers and decision makers in terms of design as equally important as the education of professional designers. It does not help that good design  is made if it is not purchased and used. What most people learn in primary education is important, and here is curricula a foundation.</p><p>The <em>Department of Art, Design and Drama</em> at <em>Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences</em>, in partnership with the interest organisation <em>Art and Design in Education,</em> planned this spring a debate on the future for the subject <em>Art and Crafts</em> in primary education. The main keynote speaker was Sven Ludvigsen, a professor of education at the <em>University of Oslo</em> and a chair of the committee that has studied basic education subjects against competency requirements for society and working life in the future. Additional keynote speakers were Eivind Moe, on behalf of the organisation <em>Art and Design in Education</em>, and Liv Merete Nielsen, on behalf of the undergraduate and graduate education for teacher education in <em>Art and Design </em>at the<em> Department of Art, Design and Drama </em>at<em> Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences.</em></p><p>We are keenly looking forward to the new curricula to be developed for basic education in the future. When it comes to Art and Crafts, it must involve a plan that paves the way for broad tasks that lead to “depth in learning”, and expertise on sustainability must be developed by working creatively with tools and materials in workshops at school. Expertise in design must be included in general education when it comes to preparing students to become users, future decision makers and buyers of design, while providing the basic skills for those who will choose a design-related profession in the future.</p><p>Issue cover photo: Design by David Salafia</p> 2015-10-26T20:23:31+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Profession Dilemmas in the art educational field 2016-01-15T13:39:45+01:00 Eva Lutnæs <p><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">The anthology </span><em>Kunstner eller lærer? Profesjonsdilemmaer i musikk- og kunst­­pedagogisk utdanning </em><span style="font-family: Calibri;"><span style="font-size: medium;">(Artist or teacher? </span><span style="font-size: medium;">Profession Dilemmas in the music and art educational fields) is edited by Elin Angelo and Signe Kalsnes. The reviewer concludes there is a label identity construction through the use of terms, including how you choose to position yourself and how you are categorised by others, which makes the book a very valuable contribution to the discussion of the professional dilemma and professional identity of students, teachers and researchers in the art educational fields.</span></span></p> 2015-10-23T15:55:03+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Didactical ICT-changes in light of the new Qualification Framework 2016-01-15T13:39:45+01:00 Kirsten Klæbo <p>In 2011, the Institute of Art, Design and Drama, at the Oslo and Akershus University College (HiOA) had to develop new course <em>programmes</em> according to the new Qualification Framework issued in autumn 2012. The teachers received a general explanation, but there was little discussion of the implementation of the new framework focusing on learning outcomes versus the old teaching/learning goals. In this paper, the aim is to determine what the Qualification Framework is, where it comes from and what didactical consequences it will have on teaching ICT in art and design at the Institute of Art, Design and Drama. In this article, based on literature studies, the difference has been examined by comparing the old course programmes with the new ones developed in 2012.</p><div> </div> 2015-09-03T18:22:17+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FORMakademisk 8-2 2015 THE WHOLE ISSUE 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan 2015-08-15T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An Audio-visual Approach to Teaching the Social Aspects of Sustainable Product Design 2015-08-04T09:23:36+02:00 Matthew Alan Watkins <p>This paper considers the impact of audio-visual resources in enabling students to develop an understanding of the social aspects of sustainable product design. Building on literature con­cern­ing the learning preferences of ‘Net Generation’ learners, three audio-visual workshops were developed to introduce students to the wider social aspects of sustainability and encour­age students to reflect upon the impact of their practice. The workshops were delivered in five universities in Britain and Ireland among undergraduate and postgraduate students. They were designed to encourage students to reflect upon carefully designed audio-visual materials in a group-based environment, seeking to foster the preferences of Net Generation learners through collaborative learning and learning through discovery. It also sought to address the perceived weaknesses of this generation of learners by encouraging critical reflection. The workshops proved to be popular with students and were successful in enabling them to grasp the complexity of the social aspects of sustainable design in a short span of time, as well as in encouraging personal responses and creative problem solving through an exploration of design thinking solutions.</p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Progressive Development of Creative Design Skills from Kindergarden Education 2015-08-04T09:23:37+02:00 Meryem Yalcin <p>This article offers an alternative view of design education, emphasising on its introduction in kindergarten and proposing a curriculum that covers design issues for introduction in kinder­gar­ten. This approach is suited to developing creative thinking skills. In an environ­ment where children imagine, create, practice, modify, recognise, manipulate and share knowl­edge, experiences and objects are crucial in design education. Early childhood education should be advanced based on basic design issues—such as design principles, conceptuali­zation, 2D/3D spatial allocation and composition—more comprehensively, which will enable children to construct perceptual, critical and analytic view points at an early age and develop these perspectives in the future. Based on this argument, the study model for design education in kindergarten, which will instil in children strong design knowledge, as well as stimulate their cognitive development. </p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Imagining the unknown - Responsible creativity for a better tomorrow 2015-08-04T09:23:37+02:00 Eva Lutnæs <p>This paper explores the scientific discourse on creativity in the field of design education, drawing upon 165 papers presented at the DRS//CUMULUS Oslo 2013 conference. The re­view shows creativity to be a key concept in the scientific discourse and identifies five story­lines that conceptualise creativity as a generic human capacity for which the field of design education eagerly claims responsibility. In the scientific discourse, the fostering of creativity is a leading motive when articulating reasons for design to gain terrain in general education. A multifaceted repertoire of strategies to solve design problems can drive new ideas or arte­facts that contribute to both environmental protection and degradation, human aid or human-made disasters. I discuss how to frame the relevant educational content of creativity as part of a general education that empowers citizens to promote sustainability and meet global chal­lenges ahead.</p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Ecological Literacy in Design Education - A Theoretical Introduction 2015-08-04T09:23:37+02:00 Joanna Boehnert <p>Sustainability educators developed the concept of ecological literacy to provide a basis for understanding environmental problems and developing new capacities and critical skills to respond effectively. This paper presents a theoretical introduction to ecological literacy for design education. It starts with a philosophical overview of why ecological literacy is neces­sary, including details of some of the planet’s vital signs. The paper then describes six ecologi­cal principles (networks, nested systems, cycles, flows, development and dynamic balance) along with associated design concepts (resilience, epistemological awareness, a circular econ­omy, energy literacy, emergence and the ecological footprint). The final section explains why critical ecological literacy is necessary to make the work of transforming unsustainable condi­tions and designing sustainable ways of living possible. </p><p><em>Cover image: Principles, Ecolabs, 2014  </em></p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Global Studio - Incorporating Peer-Learning into the Design Curriculum 2015-10-23T14:14:06+02:00 Aysar Ghassan Erik Bohemia <p>In ‘tutor-led’ design education, lecturers reside at the centre of teaching &amp; learning activi­ties. We argue that tutor-led design education does not prepare graduates sufficiently for working in highly complex professional capacities. We outline an alternative learning envi­­ron­ment named the Global Studio in which lecturers are more ‘distant’ in pedagogical activities. This ‘distance’ opens up learning spaces which expose students to complex project situations in preparation for professional working life. Global Studio projects are ‘student-led’ and contain explicit opportunities for peer tutoring to ensue. Feedback indicates that learners benefitted from engaging in peer tutoring. However, many students struggled with making important decisions when operating outside of the tutor-led learning environment. To maximise their benefit, we argue that student-led projects featuring peer-tutoring should be scaffolded throughout design programmes to provide students with a sufficient level of expo­sure to this mode of learning. </p><p>Image by artist Malcom Jones.</p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Testing keywords internationally to define and apply undergraduate assessment standards in art and design 2015-08-04T09:23:37+02:00 Robert Harland <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">What language should be featured in assessment standards for international students? Have universities adjusted their assessment methods sufficiently to match the increased demand for studying abroad? How might art and design benefit from a more stable definition of standards? These are some questions this paper seeks to address by reporting the results of recent pedagogic research at the School of the Arts, Loughborough University, in the United Kingdom. Language use is at the heart of this issue, yet it is generally overlooked as an essential tool that links assessment, feedback and action planning for international students. The paper reveals existing and new data that builds on research since 2009, aimed at improving students’ assessment literacy. Recommendations are offered to stimulate local and global discussion about keyword use for defining undergraduate assessment standards in art and design.</span></p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Vernacular traditions in Norwegian jewelry design - Past, present, future 2015-08-04T09:23:37+02:00 Astrid Skjerven <p>Living in an era of globalization, the capability of communicating identity has become of greater importance than ever. This has increased our estimation of the vernacular, which represents an expression of a national or local identity. In Norway the vernacular tradition in silver jewelry is particularly strong. It has played an important role not only locally, but also in the constantly changing relation with the outside world, in accordance with the societal situation. It should therefore constitute a reliable indicator of how our country relates to the present process of globalization. The aim of the paper is to throw light on the relation between Norway’s role on the global scene and the use of the vernacular tradition in the development of jewelry design in general. It consists of a historical exploration that leads up to a discussion the present and future situation. Today there is a cleft between consumer behavior and avant-garde practice. In accordance with the global situation and Norway’s geopolitical situation of existing in the outskirts of political and economic decisions, the situation is characterized by a variety of practices, and by a slow acceptance of the vernacular values in the world of avant-garde practitioners.</p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Learning for Tomorrow — Design Education from Kindergarten to PhD 2015-08-04T09:23:37+02:00 Liv Merete Nielsen Karen Brænne Ingvill Gjerdrum Maus <p>This issue of<em> </em>FORM<em>akademisk </em>is built upon papers from the DRS//CUMULUS Oslo 2013 con­fer­ence — <em>2nd International Conference for Design Education Researchers </em>— at Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences (HIOA) 14-17 May 2013 in Oslo. The conference was a cooperative event between the Design Research Society (DRS) and the International Association of Universities and Schools of Design, Art and Media (CUMULUS),<em> </em>and hosted by the Faculty of Technology, Art and Design at HIOA. The theme for the conference was <em>Design Learning for Tomorrow — Design Education from Kindergar­ten to PhD</em>. The conference received an overwhelming response both ahead of the conference, with 225 admitted papers, and during the conference with 280 delegates from 43 countries listening to 165 presentations and having a good time in Oslo. The last day of the conference was the 17<sup>th</sup> of May, Norway National Day, with traditional songs and a children’s parade in the centre of Oslo.</p><p>We see this positive response to the conference as a growing awareness of perceiving design in a broad interdisciplinary perspective in support for a <em>better tomorrow</em>. For years the <em>Design Literacy</em> <em>Research Group,</em> with a base at HIOA in Oslo, has promoted the idea that sustainable design solutions should include more than ‘professional’ designers; they should also include the general public as ‘conscious’ consumers and decision makers with responsi­bility for quality and longevity, as opposed to a ‘throw-away’ society.</p> 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Working memory and background knowledge - Cognitive science in the design classroom 2015-08-04T09:23:37+02:00 Pino Trogu This article discusses two universal principles from cognitive psychology, and proposes some ways in which those principles relate to graphic design. The two most important principles are first, the strict constraints of working memory, a function which persists for only a few seconds, and second, the finding that perceptions and meanings are mediated by the cultural knowledge of viewers, including their knowledge of design conventions and genre. Better de-signs are likely to emerge from the designer’s familiarity with these psychological and cultur-al principles. Visual examples, including maps and student projects, illustrate how the two principles are useful for classroom instruction. 2015-07-13T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FORMakademisk 8-1 2015 THE WHOLE ISSUE 2017-01-12T14:17:32+01:00 Janne Beate Reitan 2015-07-08T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teaching Systemic Design in the Context of Organizational Communication 2015-08-04T09:28:15+02:00 Gordon Rowland <p>Courses emphasizing systemic design are taught in the Communication Management and Design program at Ithaca College for undergraduate students who seek to positively impact organizations and society through communication and learning. In a first-year course, students engage in a wide variety of learning activities and challenges through which they come to a basic understanding of systems thinking, design, and systemic design. This understanding creates a broad foundation for, and begins to develop connecting threads across, their studies of corporate communication, and workplace learning and performance. Then in their senior year capstone course students engage in a systemic design inquiry, which combines research and design in an attempt to address a critical current issue in organizations. Described here is the pedagogical approach for these courses, including underlying assumptions, links to strategy, and a rich set of concepts and tools that promote systems thinking in design, and which have potential applications beyond pedagogy. Also described is how these have all been informed by research.</p><p> </p> 2015-01-12T11:48:20+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Before and after Lightfoot/León. Using rich pictures to illustrate an educational journey through the world of opera and ballet 2015-08-04T09:25:47+02:00 Laurence Habib Elisabeth Juell <p>In this article, we describe part of an action research project carried out during a classroom-based art course at a higher education institution. We gave the students themed collaborative drawing assignments, with the purpose of achieving a rich picture of what they associated with the notion of “going to the opera”. They completed assignments before and after attending a guided tour and a ballet performance at a famous opera house. We aimed to address two main research questions: a) How can the students’ understanding of opera and ballet develop through their experience of a ballet performance? and b) How can drawing activities in the classroom support collaborative learning and the students’ personal development? The data gathered involved three main elements: 1) the rich pictures themselves, 2) the teachers’ observations of the students and 3) the students’ reflections on the process. The study points towards a significant transformation of the students’ representation of the concept of opera, as illustrated in their drawings. We discuss how the students’ drawings may reflect their development in terms of attitude and their newly acquired knowledge of an artistic genre they knew little about, and suggest new avenues for further research.</p><br /> 2014-12-31T18:34:16+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Preparatory Knowledge: A Hub in Teacher Education in Arts and Crafts 2015-08-04T09:25:47+02:00 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen <p>Concurrent teacher education involves a double challenge: the students learn one (or more) subjects while they learn to teach those subjects. In Arts and Crafts, this debate often contains questions of how teacher-students, taking short courses on a subject, can acquire enough academic depth in the different areas of the subject. The first part of the article presents earlier research on Arts and Crafts and the concept of ‘pedagogical content knowledge’, understood as a re-negotiation of subject content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge (Shulman). The qualification width (the number of areas) and inner tension (between the areas) in the subject of Arts and Crafts is discussed, ending with the conclusion that a reduction of qualification width will not lead to reduced tension or complexity in teacher education within the subject. The second part of the article proposes the concept of ‘preparatory knowledge’ as an alternative way to manage complexity in teacher education in Arts and Crafts: as a possible basic principle for choosing content and methods. The discussion is linked to the broader educational question of how teacher education in Arts and Crafts can best equip students for a long life as professional practitioners in an unknown future. The article proposes that preparatory knowledge can be understood as a hub in a principle of lifelong learning for teachers in Arts and Crafts, and thus as an overarching goal of teacher education in general.</p> 2014-12-31T16:11:40+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Developing a research community of art and design education. Looking back at the early phase of the master’s programme in art and design education 2015-08-04T09:25:47+02:00 Laila Belinda Fauske <p class="Abstract">In 1976, a master’s programme in art and design education was established at two teacher-training institutions in Norway. This differed from other master’s programmes because it acknowledged the students’ creative work as part of their final thesis. Until 1973, only universities were able to offer master’s programmes. However, a new law related to teacher-training changed this: it demanded the same quality in pedagogical master’s programmes as in traditional programmes at universities. At this time, the community of art and design education had not yet developed an academic tradition of its own. This article explores the early phase of the master’s programme in art and design education with an emphasis on the challenges of including students’ creative work. It examines how creative work is described in the 1976 curriculum. Written sources and interviews form the basis for a discussion on actions taken during the early phase to develop a research community of art and design education. The concept of ‘Knowledge Building’ represents the point of departure for the discussion. The article sheds light upon the co-operation between universities and related art and design communities in the Nordic countries, arguing that the community strove to develop a fruitful academic milieu that challenged former ideas about ‘best practises’.</p> 2014-12-31T13:55:07+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Taswir – an introduction to a scholarly debate on figurative representation in Sunni-Islam 2015-08-04T09:25:47+02:00 Birte Brekketo <p>In recent times Taswir has been associated with a debate amongst Islamic scholars regarding the use of figurative representation in visual communication. Why would this scholarly debate be a concern within communications today? We are living in the age of modern media, and, consequently, visual messages are rapidly distributed to beholders with a variety of cultural backgrounds. An increasing number of us master the latest means of communication, but our knowledge of differences in visual traditions has not kept up with our technological skills. This article focuses on features of Islamic visual tradition that most likely are unfamiliar to a secular-minded western-oriented public. At the same time, these features, at regular intervals, are rising to the surface in our open and world-embracing communication setting. The aims of the article are twofold: first, it gives the reader an idea of how conceptions of the visual are tested and consolidated within an Islamic traditional context; Second, it places Taswir in a global contemporary context, in a position that displays the need to pose questions about competence and sensibility suited for future communication.</p> 2014-12-31T13:10:59+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Location tendencies for new secondary schools and arguments put forward for city centre location 2015-08-04T09:25:47+02:00 Else Margrethe Lefdal <p>There is a growing tendency in Norway to build new secondary schools in the city centre. Collected information about the location of the most recent school facilities, and school facilities that are going to be built, confirms this. In this article, I ask why the city centre is a preferred choice of location, and I analyse the arguments put forward for city centre location. When it comes to students’ choice of secondary schools, it shows that they prefer city schools. “The Education Association” in Oslo has requested pedagogical reasons why several secondary schools are now being located in the city centre. It should be expected that a learning perspective or educational perspectives would be emphasised in arguments for the centre location of new school facilities. However, it seems that some of the arguments are based on the needs of external users, or that different stakeholders value the potential synergies. Some driving forces claim that secondary schools must be located in the city centre to strengthen the trade activity and café business. The article discusses challenges related to the point that schools, which primarily should be good learning contexts for students, apparently are so much more than just schools.</p> 2014-12-31T12:39:59+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial. Yes, Please - Both Crafts and Digital Tools in Basic Education 2015-08-04T09:25:47+02:00 Liv Merete Nielsen Janne Beate Reitan <p>The Ludvigsen Committee (Ludvigsen-utvalget), which aims to assess primary and secondary educational subjects in terms of the competence Norwegian society and its working life will need in the future, has published an interim report entitled <em>Pupils’ Learning in the School of the Future – A Knowledge Foundation</em> (Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research, 2014). The committee wrote the following about arts and crafts: “That subject will contribute to personal development and simultaneously strengthen opportunities to participate in a democratic society, which can be seen as a desire to protect both individual-oriented and community-oriented training. The breadth of the subject can restrict the ability to delve into individual topics” (NOU 2014: 7, 2014, p. 89, our translation from Norwegian). This will be an important challenge for the team in the near future. The committee shall submit their principal report by June 2015.</p><p>Practical work with materials must not be removed from primary school. It should be required that qualified teachers are employed on the lower grades. Practical/hands-on work can give the trades a boost, encourage students to choose vocations and prevent dropouts in vocational education programmes. We need skilled craftsmen in the future, and good teaching in Arts &amp; Crafts in compulsory education could provide an important basis for both future craftsmen and customers of good craftsmen.</p> 2014-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book review. Smart læring. Hvordan IKT og sosiale medier endrer læring (Smart learning. How ICT and social media are changing learning). 2015-08-04T09:25:47+02:00 Peter Haakonsen <p><em>Smart læring. Hvordan IKT og sosiale medier endrer læring </em>(Smart learning. How ICT and social media are changing learning)<em>.</em> Haakonsen believes that it is a concise, informative and useful book that makes a case for how we can and why we should use ICT and digital media more in schools. Having given a general overview of various theories of learning and teaching paradigms that have relied upon in the past few decades (referred to as ‘industrial society’), the author discusses how the learning potential of the internet and social media is not fully utilised in schools today. Krokan is concerned that ICT works on its own terms, rather than mimicking and replacing operations that have been undertaken in analogy earlier. A computer is more than a digital typewriter, and this is a point that is used in the discussion about how fruitful it can be to ensure that the internet and social media are used more often in teaching.</p> 2014-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Methodological Unboundedness of Limited Discovery Processes 2015-08-04T09:27:04+02:00 John Benjamin Cassel <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-CA">Though designers must understand systems, designers work differently than scientists in studying systems.  Design engagements do not discover whole systems, but take calculated risks between discovery and intervention. For this reason, design practices must cope with open systems, and unpacking the tacit guidelines behind these practices is instructive to systems methodology. This paper shows that design practice yields a methodology which applies across forms of design.  Design practice teaches us to generate ideas and gather data longer, but stop when the return on design has diminished past its cost.  Fortunately, we can reason about the unknown by understanding the character of the unbounded.  We suppose that there might as well be an infinite number of factors, but we can reason about their concentration without knowing all of them.  We demonstrate this concept on stakeholder systems, showing how design discovery informs systems methodology. Using this result, we can apply the methods of parametric design when the parameters are not yet known by establishing the concentration of every kind of factor, entailing a discovery rate of diminishing returns over discovery activities, allowing the analysis of discovery-based trade-offs.  Here, we extend a framework for providing metrics to parametric design, allowing it to express the importance of discovery.<strong></strong></span></p> 2014-12-17T13:38:47+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Design Flaws and Service System Breakdowns: Learning from Systems Thinking 2015-08-04T09:27:04+02:00 David Ing In what ways might systems thinking be helpful to designers?  In the 21st century, the types of project with which designers have become engaged has expanded to include service systems.  Service systems are typically composites of mechanisms, organisms, human beings and ecologies.  Systems thinking is a perspective with theories, methods and practices that enables transcending disciplinary boundaries.  Application of systems thinking in designing a service system can aid in surfacing potential flaws and/or anticipating future breakdowns in functions, structures and/or processes. Designers and systems thinkers should work together to improve the nature of service systems.  As a starter set into these conversations, seven conditions are proposed as a starting context.  These conditions are presented neither as rigourously defined nor as exhaustive, but as an entry point into future joint engagement. 2014-12-16T22:19:18+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The strengths / limits of Systems Thinking denote the strengths / limits of Practice-Based Design Research 2015-08-04T09:27:04+02:00 Wolfgang Jonas <p class="Abstract">If we focus on Practice-Based Design Research (PBDR) in its various forms and terminologies one can consider Design Research as a process of “generating the unknown from the known” or of “organizing the transition from knowns to unknowns” (Hatchuel, 2013: 5). It is thereby confronted with the fundamental problems of control (non-reducible complexity in design situations), of prediction (not-knowing of evolutionary emerging futures) and of incompatible domains of knowing. The problems become apparent in causal gaps between bodily, psychic and communicative systems and between the phases of evolutionary development. PBDR explores the possibilities of bridging these gaps in the medium of design projects and thereby creates new knowledge. This is necessarily done with scientific support, but in a situated, “designerly” mode, which means that the designer is part of the design / inquiring system. This is the epistemological characteristic of design. The text argues for a strong coupling of PBDR and advanced systems thinking to face the problems mentioned above.</p> 2014-12-16T22:13:52+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Teaching Systems - Getting future IT entrepreneurs to see the full picture 2015-09-18T12:48:11+02:00 Andrea Resmini Bertil Carlsson <p class="Textbody"><span lang="EN-US">Information is going everywhere. It is bleeding out of the Internet and out of personal computers, and it is being embedded into the real world. Mobile devices, networked resources, and real-time systems are making our interactions with information constant and ubiquitous. Information is becoming pervasive, and products and services are becoming parts of larger systems, many of these emergent, complex information-based ecosystems where participants are co-producers and where relationships between elements, channels and touchpoints are messy and non-linear. Still, by and large, within the area of informatics and information systems we teach management and design as if they were linear processes where cause and effect are easily ascertained and a solution readily provided. Could we try something different? How would that work and what results could it produce in terms of both learning outcomes and student satisfaction? This paper details the approach we followed and the early results we achieved in introducing business and informatics students to entrepreneurship and innovation through a holistic approach in the 2-year Master in IT, Management and Innovation at Jönköping International Business School (JIBS), in Jönköping, Sweden.</span></p><p> </p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relating Systems Thinking and Design I. Practical Advances in Systemic Design 2015-08-04T09:28:15+02:00 Birger Sevaldson Alex J. Ryan <p>This issue, <em>Relating Systems Thinking and Design I –</em> <em>Practical Advances in Systemic Design</em>, along with Issue 7:4, <em>Relating Systems Thinking II – Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design</em>, together form a double special issue of <em>FORMakademisk</em> on the theory and practice of Systemic Design.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## System Design for Sustainable Energy for all. A new challenging role for design to foster sustainable development 2015-08-04T09:28:15+02:00 Carlo Vezzoli Emanuela Delfino Lorraine Amollo Ambole <p>This paper argues that Product-Service System Design for Sustainability applied to Distributed Renewable Energy DRE) is a promising approach to help achieve the goal of “Sustainable energy for all” (United Nation). Firstly, two understandings are presented: 1) Distributed Renewable Energy (DRE) is a key leverage for sustainable development and; 2) Product-Service System (PSS) is a promising model for sustainable development. Based on those understandings two consequent research hypotheses are presented: 1) S.PSS is a promising model for DRE and is particularly relevant for the distributed and informal economies in low-middle income (all) contexts; 2) (Product-Service) System Design for Sustainable energy for all is a new challenging role for design. The recently awarded LeNSes (Learning Network on Sustainable energy system) EU project (bi-regional with Africa) is based on these hypotheses and it is introduced in terms of its aims and expected results, i.e. to deepen and diffuse the knowledge-base and know-how of system design for sustainable energy for all. Finally, two best practices of DRE-based S.PSS are described, one is the recently awarded (2014 International Ashden) project ‘M-POWER Off-grid electric services in Arusha, Tanzania’ and the second is the pilot implementation of the ‘Sunride sustainable mobility system in Cape Town’.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic Design: Two Canadian Case Studies 2015-08-04T09:28:15+02:00 Alex Ryan Mark Leung <p class="Abstract">This paper introduces two novel applications of systemic design to facilitate a comparison of alternative methodologies that integrate systems thinking and design. In the first case study, systemic design helped the Procurement Department at the University of Toronto re-envision how public policy is implemented and how value is created in the broader university purchasing ecosystem. This resulted in an estimated $1.5 million in savings in the first year, and a rise in user retention rates from 40% to 99%. In the second case study, systemic design helped the clean energy and natural resources group within the Government of Alberta to design a more efficient and effective resource management system and shift the way that natural resource departments work together. This resulted in the formation of a standing systemic design team and contributed to the creation of an integrated resource management system. A comparative analysis of the two projects identifies a shared set of core principles for systemic design as well as areas of differentiation that reveal potential for learning across methodologies. Together, these case studies demonstrate the complementarity of systems thinking and design thinking, and show how they may be integrated to guide positive change within complex sociotechnical systems.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## From Product to Service Design: A Thinking Paradigm Shift 2015-08-04T09:28:15+02:00 Liliana Rodriguez Carlos Peralta <p>Society, industry and the economy are all experiencing changes caused by a shift from products to services. While a “problem-solving” approach is commonly used for the development of products, new design approaches are needed as the primary unit of exchange moves from goods to services.  This research argues that a fundamental transformation in the design world is taking place, manifested in a thinking paradigm shift from problem solving (designing products) towards systems thinking (designing services). This paper draws on design literature to identify concepts of systems thinking and problem solving to help understand core elements in the shift from product to service design. It also reports on a series of semi-structured interviews with designers working in five design consultancies that have moved from product design to services design. The results show a change in the way designers think and approach projects when facing the challenges of designing services, confirming a movement from problem solving to systems thinking. However, systems thinking is not replacing problem solving but complementing it. The results also indicate that the growing complexity of the issues designers deal with influences the adoption of systems thinking in responding to service design challenges, as well as current changes in people’s ideas about sustainability and  society.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systems Design Perspective of Healthcare Provision in Humanitarian Aid 2015-08-04T09:28:15+02:00 Ana Laura Santos Linda S.G.L. Wauben <p>This study focuses on the role of Systems Design in addressing the challenges of healthcare provision by international emergency relief organizations in developing countries. More specifically the challenges related to the safety and performance of medical equipment that is transferred in the aftermath of a humanitarian crisis. The aim of this paper is to describe the transfer of medical equipment and its associated challenges from a systems perspective and to reflect on the value of Systems Design as an approach to humanitarian innovation, addressing the identified systemic challenges. The concepts of Human Factors and Ergonomics, and Product-Service Systems will be presented as valuable contributions to support designers in handling a larger degree of complexity throughout the design process and to support them to make informed choices regarding this particular context.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book review. Design for Care: Innovating Healthcare Experience 2015-08-04T09:28:15+02:00 Manuela Aguirre Ulloa <p><em>Adapted from a review on the same book published by The Design Observer Group on April 4<sup>th</sup>, 2014. You can access the original publication online at </em><a href=""></a></p> <p>Peter Jones´ recently published book represents a timely and comprehensive view of the value design brings to healthcare innovation. The book uses an empathic user story that conveys emotions and life to a structure that embraces the different meanings of Design for Care: Spanning from caring at the personal level to large-scale caring systems. The author has a main objective for each of its three main target audiences: Designers, companies and healthcare teams. Firstly, it allows designers to understand healthcare in a holistic and patient-centered way, breaking down specialized silos. Secondly, it shows how to design better care experiences across care continuums. Consequently, for companies serving the healthcare sector, the book presents how to humanize information technology (IT) and services and meet the needs of health seekers. Finally, the book aims to inform healthcare teams (clinical practitioners and administrators) the value design brings in research, co-creation and implementation of user and organizational experiences. It also proposes that healthcare teams learn and adopt design and systems thinking techniques so their innovation processes can be more participatory, holistic and user-centered.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Relating Systems Thinking and Design II. Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design 2015-08-04T09:27:04+02:00 Peter Jones <p>We have joined two issues of <em>FORMakademisk</em> to accommodate two sets of articles developed from remarkable early work presented at the 2013 Relating Systems Thinking to Design Symposium in Oslo. We organized these papers into a theory set, and a set for practice of systemic design, although most of these theoretical works are deeply informed by design and planning practices. The theory issue, Theoretical Evolution in Systemic Design, comprises the perspectives of scholars contributing new work crossing the former boundaries between systems theory and design thinking.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Interliminal Design: Understanding cognitive heuristics to mitigate design distortion 2015-08-04T09:27:04+02:00 Andrew McCollough DeAunne Denmark Donald Harker <p>Cognitive heuristics are mental shortcuts adapted over time to enable rapid interpretation of our complex environment. They are intrinsic to human cognition and resist modification. Heuristics applied outside the context to which they are best suited are termed cognitive bias, and are the cause of systematic errors in judgment and reasoning. As both a cognitive and intuitive discipline, design by individuals is vulnerable to context-inappropriate heuristic usage. Designing in groups can act positively to counterbalance these tendencies, but is subject to heuristic misuse and biases particular to social environments. Mismatch between desired and actual outcomes– termed here, design distortion – occurs when such usage goes unnoticed and unaddressed, and can affect multiple dimensions of a system. We propose a methodology, interliminal design, emerging from the Program in Collaborative Design at Pacific Northwest College of Art, to specifically address the influence of cognitive heuristics in design. This adaptive approach involves reflective, dialogic, inquiry-driven practices intended to increase awareness of heuristic usage, and identify aspects of the design process vulnerable to misuse on both individual and group levels. By facilitating the detection and mitigation of potentially costly errors in judgment and decision-making that create distortion, such metacognitive techniques can meaningfully improve design. <strong></strong></p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systems Thinking in Design: Service Design and self-Services 2015-08-04T09:27:04+02:00 John Darzentas Jenny Siobhane Darzentas <p class="Abstract">The purpose of this paper is twofold. Firstly, it seeks to use a practical real-world example to demonstrate the power of a systems thinking perspective in design, and more specifically in the design of services. It makes use of the paradigm of e-accessibility, in the application domain of publicly available self-services. Secondly, the benefits of this perspective will be discussed, through some theoretical tenets of systems thinking, such as the use of emerging properties, the law of requisite variety and notions of second order cybernetics, in terms of the richness that they offer to the conceptualisation and praxis of design in general, and service design in particular. Finally, we speculate on the implications of systems thinking to question the nature of the interdisciplinarity and even transdisciplinarity of design.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book Review: The Design Way. Intentional Change in an Unpredictable World (second edition) 2015-08-04T09:27:04+02:00 Salvatore Cucchiara <p>The premise of <em>The Design Way</em> is that in today’s rapidly changing world, current intellectual traditions are becoming increasingly inadequate – if still important – approaches to managing human affairs.  For example, hard and soft sciences can help us understand how the world works, but generally offer little guidance on intentionally changing it.  To address this shortcoming, the authors advance design as a distinct tradition that finds its key feature in making a novel idea concrete.</p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## A Framework for Systemic Design 2015-08-04T09:27:04+02:00 Alex Ryan <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-CA">As designers move upstream from traditional product and service design to engage with challenges characterised by complexity, uniqueness, value conflict, and ambiguity over objectives, they have increasingly integrated systems approaches into their practice. This synthesis of systems thinking with design thinking is forming a distinct new field of systemic design. This paper presents a framework for systemic design as a mindset, methodology, and set of methods that together enable teams to learn, innovate, and adapt to a complex and dynamic environment. We suggest that a systemic design mindset is inquiring, open, integrative, collaborative, and centred. We propose a systemic design methodology composed of six main activities: framing, formulating, generating, reflecting, inquiring, and facilitating. We view systemic design methods as a flexible and open-ended set of procedures for facilitating group collaboration that are both systemic and designerly. </span></p><p class="Abstract"> </p> 2014-12-16T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Systemic Government and the Civil Servant. A New Pattern for Systemic Design 2015-08-04T09:28:15+02:00 Jonathan A Veale <p class="Abstract">This article examines the emerging application of systemic design methodology within government as practiced by the Alberta Public Service in Edmonton, Canada. A case study, from a practitioner’s perspective, for systemic policy design is presented as an innovation facing approach useful for cultural change and decision-support.  Lessons about applying systemic design within government and essential capabilities and qualities of practitioners are outlined. For some systemic designers, government might be the best place to effect systemic change especially those particularly concerned about advancing stewardship and innovation within the culture of government. This article is useful to public sector practitioners interested in applying systemic methodology to complex and long-term policy predicaments.</p> 2014-09-14T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial Research for improved practice in art, design and crafts [Formgiving, kunst og håndverk] 2015-08-04T09:29:03+02:00 Liv Merete Nielsen Janne Beate Reitan <p>We share the fear of many teachers that practical, creative work may be abandoned in the subject of art and crafts in primary schools or in the programme for art, crafts and design studies in upper secondary schools in Norway. Current curricula do entail practical, creative work; so, this fear must come from sources outside these curricula.</p> Some have argued that increased research in art, design and crafts contributes to the theorization of practice. We believe that this is a myth. In recent years, both master and doctoral theses within our field have had the opposite effect: They have helped to improve practice. 2014-08-19T21:55:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## FORMakademisk 7-2 2014 THE WHOLE ISSUE 2015-08-04T09:29:03+02:00 Janne Beate Reitan 2014-08-19T00:00:00+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Investigative Practice [Undersøkende praksis/UP]. Theme- and project-oriented visual arts education 2015-08-04T09:29:02+02:00 Erling Framgard <p>Based on a critical approach and inspired by Danish Visual Arts Education, I have developed what I call Investigative Practice [Undersøkende praksis/UP]. UP refers to theme- and project-oriented visual arts education, and it can be characterized as both processual and problem solving, such that artwork is attributed meaning and visualisations are perceived as meaningful and communicative. A fundamental understanding is that pictorial meanings are affected by the physical process of making. UP, therefore, pursues a conscious relationship between expressed content and ways of expression. UP seeks to synthesize individual- and discipline-oriented traditions within visual arts education. This synthesis is connected to a third tradition, which I name “The third way of visual arts education” [Den tredje vei i bildepedagogikken]. UP includes pictorial didactics, pictorial theory and pictorial creation. As a visual arts pedagogy, UP aims to contribute to a new or renewed practice of pictorial education.</p> 2014-08-18T15:25:54+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Art, Design and Crafts Education [Formgiving, design og håndverk]. From Reform94 to the Knowledge Promotion Reform [Kunnskapsløftet] 2015-08-04T09:29:02+02:00 Bjørn Magne Aakre <p>This article is about the areas of arts, design and crafts in Norwegian upper secondary education, with a particular focus on the changes that were implemented with the Knowledge Promotion Reform [Kunnskapsløftet] in 2006. The starting point is the arts, design and crafts programme [Formgivingsfag] that was introduced in 1994 as a combined study with common basic training, in which some disciplines led to a university admissions certification, but most craft disciplines led to an apprenticeship certificate. With the Knowledge Promotion Reform, these groups were separated: the Programme for Specialisation in General Studies with Arts, Crafts and Design [Formgivingsfag] continued as a program within the Programme for Specialisation in General Studies. Craft trades continued in a new vocational education program with the designation of Vocational Study Programme for Design and Crafts [Design og håndverk]. How profound were the changes in structure and content, and how have students and teachers experienced these changes in practice? These questions have been answered through the support of two quantitative surveys, one before and one after the introduction of the Knowledge Promotion Reform. The study suggests that the natures of the two programs have remained fairly similar in terms of content, learning and assessment methods, especially in basic education. Both programs are still dominated by girls, and design is perceived to be central to both programs.<br /> <br /></p> 2014-08-15T10:31:24+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Urban routes and commuting bicyclist’s aesthetic experience 2015-08-04T09:29:03+02:00 Harpa Stefansdottir <span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi; mso-bidi-font-style: italic;" lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-size: small;">The present study examines whether and in what way aesthetic experience is involved in the judged quality of bicyclist’s route which they have chosen to ride between home and work. In this respect it is considered important to distinguish aesthetic experience from experience that is related to the influence of instrumental or functional features. The aesthetic impact is primarily related to features that stimulate emotional well-being when cycling. An online survey was conducted in three Nordic cities, Odense, Trondheim and Reykjavík, concentrating on cycling in different urban surroundings. The interpretation of the meanings and values associated with certain features or characteristics that influenced the commuting cyclists’ aesthetic experience is in this paper based on three theoretical viewpoints: (1) the phenomenology of perception and experience, (2) urban design theory and (3) environmental aesthetic theories and methods. The last theory involves the interpretation of experience from the environment into aesthetic meaning. The results of the survey indicate that aesthetic experience is of value to most of the respondents and is, therefore, of importance in developing the quality of bicycle routes for commuting. Greenery and contact with the natural environment and distance from motorised traffic are the most important influences on pleasurable aesthetic experience.</span></span></p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span> 2014-08-15T10:00:22+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Available outdoor space and competing needs in public kindergartens in Oslo 2015-08-04T09:29:02+02:00 Askild Hjelkerud Nilsen To be able to plan a diverse and flexible environment in kindergartens, available and adequate space is needed, preferably an open and coherent space adaptable to change. Hence, size itself is a factor to control and regulate to ensure that children’s needs are met. The aim of this study was to investigate how the utilization of outdoor space responded to changes in applied norms and law over time. The hypothesis was that needs for space of a more administrative nature, such as parking, have been prioritized over play area. To test this hypothesis, 201 public kindergartens in Oslo’s outer city that offer full-day service were studied. The main findings were that the gross size of kindergartens in Oslo decreased by 12.6 m2 per child for those built after 2006 compared to those built before 1975, due to legal changes in these time intervals, and that play space per child constituted more than half of this decrease. In the same time period, the reduction in space for parking and roads on the premises decreased by only 1.6%. This finding suggests that norms founded in laws win the battle over space, even if this indirectly compromises the meeting of children’s needs for an adequate outdoor play area. 2014-08-15T09:58:15+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## What We Talk About When We Talk About Design. Toward a Taxonomy of Design Competencies 2015-08-04T09:29:03+02:00 Øivind Røise Håkan Edeholt Andrew Morrison Cato Alexsander Bjørkli Thomas Hoff <p class="Abstract">What is it that designers talk about as mattering in their professional competencies? In this article, we empirically investigated industrial designers’ own assumptions on their design practice in relation to innovation. In applying a method potentially suitable for design research, interview statements from design professionals (n=17) were categorised according to 12 pre-selected categories of potential design core competencies. Of a total of 2,267 statements, 1,990 were classified as related to design competence. A qualitative classification of the statements revealed that 1,259 (63.3%) of these could be classified under the pre-set categories. The results showed that out of the 12 categories, ‘creativity’, ‘particular design methods and techniques’ and ‘user’ were emphasised. From the remaining statements, two additional categories were revealed: ‘teamwork’ and ‘project management’. These results can be used to reveal design professionals’ self-understanding of their contributions to innovation processes.</p> 2014-08-14T19:36:20+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Choosing architects for competitions - experiences from the selection of design teams in Sweden 2015-08-04T09:29:39+02:00 Magnus Rönn <p><em>This article presents results from a study of prequalification in architectural competitions. The aim is to develop knowledge of how the organizer appoints candidates to restricted competitions in Sweden. Prequalification is a selection procedure used early in the competition process to identify suitable candidates for the following design phase. The overall research question in the study is about how organizers identify architects / design teams. The methodology includes an inventory of competitions, case studies, document review and interviews of key-persons. Ten municipal and governmental competitions have been examined in the study. The invitation emerges during negotiation at the organizing body. General conditions, submission requirements and criteria for the evaluation of applications by architect firms are part of an established practice. All clients have an assessment procedure made up of two distinct stages. First they check whether applications meet the specific "must requirements" in the invitation. Thereafter follows an evaluative assessment of the candidate's professional profile, which is based on the criteria in the invitation. Reference projects and information from the referees are important sources of information in this stage. Decisive in the final assessment is the organizer's perception of the candidates' ability to produce projects of architectural quality, the ability to combine creative solutions with functional requirements and aptitude to work with developers and contractors. </em></p> 2014-03-12T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial. Architectural Competitions II. The dynamics of competing and organising competitions in architecture and urban design 2015-08-04T09:29:38+02:00 Jonas E Andersson Magnus Rönn Leif Östman <p>In this issue, we present four papers that discuss competitions in architecture and urban design. The papers were initially presented at the International conference<em> Architecture as H</em><em>uman Interface</em> in Helsinki, 26-27 October 2012. The conference was organised by the Finnish Association of Architects, together with the departments of architecture at the Aalto University, Oulu University and Tampere University of Technology in Finland, the Department of Construction at Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland and KTH/Architecture, Sweden. Kimmo Lapintie, Professor at Aalto University, closed the conference, and summarised it by the formulation of a four-point statement, <em>The Helsinki declaration on Architectural Research.</em> The declaration forwards creativity and criticism as the fundaments for architectural research.</p> 2014-03-12T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Who - or What - "Wins" an Architectural Competition? A Model and a Case Study 2015-08-04T09:29:39+02:00 Carlo Menon David Vanderburgh <p><em>Architectural competitions are usually seen as a game with only one winner: the architect or team whose proposal is the most convincing. That is certainly a part of the reality, but we argue here for a broader and more nuanced model. In our vision, architectural competitions are a stage upon which a myriad of actors and elements play out a scenario that involves both competition and collaboration on several levels. Depending on the </em>results<em>, the "winners" may be multiple and of very different natures. We call this model "total competition", and are convinced that it has some application not only to competitions, but to architecture in general. After a brief explanation of this conception of things, we will look more closely at a recent Belgian competition (for a Juvenile Detention Center at Fraipont, Belgium, 2011), in order to elucidate its functioning in light of our model. Two findings from this examination are worth underlining. We notice, first of all, a particular and somewhat surprising role played by the nature of the program or brief, where its relative openness seems to have had paradoxical results. Second, we find in the winning entry a strong interaction between different "modes of representation" that seems to have been critical to its success. We conclude with some questions about the generalisability of the model.</em></p> 2014-03-12T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## An explorative study of municipal developer competitions in Helsinki 2015-08-04T09:29:39+02:00 Leif Östman <p><em>This paper discusses the central features of so-called ‘site allocation competitions’, as organized by the City of Helsinki Real Estate Department (Kiinteistövirasto in Finnish). Site allocation competitions are developer competitions where the municipality sells or leases plots of land to developers or contractors, but where the ‘bidding’ is based on competing on the basis of architectural and urban quality factors. The focus in this paper is on the Finnish context, but as its legal framework is constituted by European competition law. In these competitions the proprietor expects the contractor or developer to create a design team and in turn the proprietor receives multiple proposals for a site without really paying for them. It seems important to examine this rather new type of architectural competition, as it is often an integral part of important large projects in terms of both financial investments and architectural design. It also constitutes a new tool in the practices of urban planning. The present study is explorative, based mainly on a close study and analysis of written material, such as reports, as well as three interviews with experienced organizers. The aim of the paper is to clarify the concept of developer competition, and discuss its possible benefits and problems. The core issue in the study is how architectural quality is produced within the legal framework, as well as to discuss the relation of the developer competition to the aims of urban planning and professional agents.</em></p> 2014-03-12T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Unheimliche Approach in the Making of Interiors 2015-08-04T09:33:43+02:00 Karel Deckers <span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p><em>‘The (Re)Creative Workings of Existential Anguish in Interior Architecture’ aims to understand, and potentially incorporate, the unheimliche into interior-architectural design teaching. My inquiry addresses a paradoxical and disquieting force inside interiors that does not intimidate, but rather stimulates, the growth of imagination and creativity through design. How can one define the limits of one’s own certainties and how to overcome them even if they cause existential anguish? I will argue that existential anguish in interiors emerges in the tension between a particular belonging to existing affiliations and the fresh unfamiliarity of unexpected encounters. My inquiry complements prevailing values and norms in interior architecture as preset by society (identity, commodities, light, sight, and so on). Interior-architectural unheimlichkeit may engage in a disruptive design approach that triggers and allows the growth of other values, such as empathy, in interior architecture. The unheimliche may specify a small yet existential part of interior architecture as a discipline. How can existential anguish become a (re)creative agency in design teaching? It can be argued that a series of pedagogic experiments entitled ‘Onheimelijk Studios’, as collectively organized with and by student co-researchers at the St Lucas School of Architecture, Belgium, contributes to the research of existential anguish through the designing and making of interiors.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span> 2013-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Making design representations as catalysts for reflective making in a collaborative design research process. 2015-08-04T09:33:44+02:00 Jessica Schoffelen Selina Schepers Liesbeth Huybrechts Laura Braspenning <p class="normal"><em>The role of making may seem self-evident in a design context. However, in developing an educational design research course at the </em><em>[</em><em>institute name</em><em>]</em><em>, we experienced that when design and research are intertwined, students tend to lose their focus on making. Therefore, this paper reflects on a research trajectory that explores how to </em><em>support students in intertwining making and reflecting throughout the design research process. During this trajectory, we redeveloped design research methods making use of design representations – representations of design, i.e. field studies, insights, experiments, prototypes, and so on – as a means to connect making and reflecting throughout the design process. Design representations have informing and inspiring qualities and are made by designers to open up their design process and to enable communication, collaboration and reflection with others, throughout the making process. We will argue that combining design representations with structuring rules of play in a design research method and using them throughout the whole design process can improve collaborative reflection-in-action (</em><em>Schön, 1983)</em><em>,</em><em> or reflection-in-making, since it allows students to work in a more iterative manner. We describe how we – in eight case studies - recreated and evaluated a design research method, making use of design representations and structuring rules of play.</em></p> 2013-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book review. Ann-Hege Lorvik Waterhouse: In the material world: Perspectives and practices in kindergarten art activities 2015-08-04T09:32:16+02:00 Nina Scott Frisch <p>In the review of Ann-Hege Lorvik Waterhouse<em>’s</em> book <em>I materialenes verden; perspektiver og praksiser i barnehagens kunstneriske virksomhet </em>(In the material world: Perspectives and practices in kindergarten art activities),  Frisch states that despite the fact that the author is in some ways critical of the impact Reggio Emilia has had on Norwegian kindergartens, in her opinion, the book's content rests on the shoulders of the exploratory child-centred educational philosophy. The book offers great, relevant images related to new reflective concrete ideas, and it has a beautiful layout. Waterhouse points out her core argument several places in the text: a good kindergarten teacher is a creative kindergarten teacher – and the book reviewer adds, a good kindergarten teacher is a reading, reflecting kindergarten teacher.</p> 2013-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Book Review. Inger Marie Lid: Universal design. Core values​​, knowledge, and practices 2015-08-04T09:32:16+02:00 Sigmund Asmervik <p><strong><em>Sigmund Asmervik</em></strong>, Professor emeritus, Norwegian University of Life Sciences (UMB), has reviewed <em>Inger Marie Lid’s </em>book Universell utforming: Verdigrunnlag, kunnskap og praksis (Universal design: Core values​​, knowledge, and practices). He states that this book provides very good suggestions about topics relating to issues such as how people should be able to develop in the community with others and how to look after issues relating to dignity and bodily vulnerability. This expands and challenges the discourse around the concept of universal design, and is the book's most important contribution. As a textbook aimed at students of architecture and engineering, occupational therapy and physiotherapy studies, and otherwise to anyone who is engaged in universal design in practice, as it says on the publisher's website, it has some significant challenges.</p> 2013-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Universal design and the difficult definition of "all" 2015-08-04T09:32:16+02:00 Lars Christian Risan Siri Nørve <p class="Abstract">Universal design is “the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design”. During the last 15 years this principle has been promoted in Norway as an unequivocal step forward. It may, however, be dangerous to believe that a pure technical solution in itself can bridge political controversies, to reach “universality” (Imrie 2012), and in this paper we unravel important ideological biases that are hidden under the umbrella of universality. Our empirical field is Norwegian housing policy. Within this field we see that some versions of universal design have been advocated for the last 40 years, under various headings, and we see that it has changed from having a social democratic content before it was renamed as “universal design”, to be advocated within a neoliberal paradigm in the last 15 years. Within the social democratic area, the predecessors of “universal design” were advocated as a further development of a housing policy of social justice and economic equity.  With the advent of the term “universal design”, the last 15 years, the broad social frame disappeared, but under the cover of “universality” and progress this political change has been silenced.</p> 2013-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Drawing with Metaphors. Mediating ideational content in drawing through metaphors 2015-08-04T09:32:16+02:00 Berit Ingebrethsen <span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p><em>It is not easy to express abstract concepts, such as time and society, in a drawing. The subject of this article is rooted in the educational issue of visually expressing themes represented by abstract concepts. However, it is possible to find means and devices to express such ideas. This article shows how metaphors can be used to express such ideas visually. Cognitive linguistic research argues that metaphors are crucial in the verbal communication of abstract concepts. This article also attempts to show that metaphors are important in visual communication. The cognitive linguistic metaphor theory of George Lakoff and Mark Johnson is used here to investigate how metaphors are used to construct meaning in the drawings of cartoonist and illustrator Finn Graff and artist Saul Steinberg. The article presents<strong> </strong>a few examples of how visual devices structure the abstract concept of time. It then proceeds to explain how symbols function as metonymies and provides an overview of the different types of metaphors and how they are used to express meaning in drawings. The article concludes by attempting to provide new insights regarding the use of visual metaphors. </em></p><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; text-align: justify; line-height: normal; text-justify: inter-ideograph;"><em style="mso-bidi-font-style: normal;"><span style="font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 12pt; mso-bidi-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; mso-bidi-theme-font: minor-bidi;" lang="EN-GB"> </span></em></p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span> 2013-12-31T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Art and crafts - one subject or a cross disciplinary field? 2015-08-04T09:32:16+02:00 Kjetil Sømoe <p>The introduction of the curriculum subject, Forming, later renamed Kunst og håndverk (Art and Crafts), is often described as a merging of the three earlier curriculum subjects handicrafts for boys (mainly woodwork), handicrafts for girls (mainly textile based activities) and drawing. This article use the curriculum subject history, as well as different descriptions of the controversy which has existed in Forming/Art and Crafts since the merging, to argue that Art and Craft is better to be described as a cluster of subjects rather than a subject in its own right. Through two national surveys, the School Subject Inspection 2009 and 2011, the practice and attitude among Norwegian primary- and secondary school teachers have been mapped. The findings suggest that different teachers fill their teaching with very different content, and also that high educated teachers, especially in the secondary school, tend to emphasize one of the historical roots of the subject, such as woodwork, textile or drawing. The article argues that the different traditions in Art and Crafts should be made visible at a formal level in the Norwegian teacher education, and it suggests there should be left some room for specialization within the subject in the national teacher 1-7 and 5-10 education curriculums.</p> <p> </p><br /> 2013-12-30T21:18:46+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Premises of the Event. Are architectural competitions incubators for events? 2015-08-04T09:31:01+02:00 Loïse Lenne <p>Around 1980, two important competitions were launched on both sides of the Channel. One led to the Grande Arche in La Défense (Johann Otto von Spreckelsen, 1982–1989) and the other to the Lloyd’s building of London (Richard Rogers Partnership, 1977–1986). Recalling the history of these two projects, we will try, in this article, to show how the programmes, their formulation, the methods used and, above all, the culture of the various actors influenced both the decisions and the built results. At the end of the paper, we propose to see these buildings as events. Based on the analysis of these competitions, we will show that these buildings can then be considered as belonging to two different categories – historical and spatial event – that we will define.</p> 2013-12-30T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Contemporary large-scale international design competitions1 in China. A case study of Baietan, Guangzhou 2015-08-04T09:31:00+02:00 Zheng Liang Raine Mäntysalo <p class="Abstract">The importance of contemporary design competitions has been increasingly recognized in fast-growing China in the course of World Trade Organization (WTO) integration and globalization. However, scientific and systematic analysis is rare on how international design competitions are introduced, and how they interact and transplant in the Chinese context. The well-known Chinese-Western culture gap and complicated social and political background make this topic more challenging. Herein, the authors focus on how the international design competitions were “translated” into both international and local perspectives with a compara­tive analysis on development of international design competitions between the Chinese and the Finnish model. To fully exemplify the design-completion procedure and the different roles of Chinese stakeholders and their perspectives on design competitions, the authors study the Baietan case, which was chosen due to its specific relationship with the city’s strategic plan, its representativeness in using international design competitions in connection to large-scale urban projects in China and its public access to the relevant documentation. The preliminary findings suggest that Chinese-style design competitions, acting as ‘designed trading zones’, with less-defined competition rules compared to the Finnish model, may foster the settings of local transformation in adopting international urban planning and design knowledge. However, an integrated approach is required to address subsequent implementation.</p> 2013-12-20T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Competing in Architecture. Crowdsourcing as a Research Tool 2015-08-04T09:31:00+02:00 Clare Newton Sarah Backhouse <p>Architectural competitions are powerful strategies for generating visual ideas for new futures. Academic research generates new knowledge based on rigorous investigations of informed propositions. This paper describes an unusual merging of a research process with a competition process using crowdsourcing to leverage knowledge. The Australian Research Council (ARC) is the pre-eminent funding body of academic research for universities across Australia. In 2010 a multidisciplinary academic team, with twelve industry partners including six education departments, successfully sought ARC research funding.  The application proposed an unprecedented strategy to include an open Ideas Competition in the middle year of a three-year research program as a form of crowdsourcing to leverage knowledge between academia and industry. The research project, entitled Future Proofing Schools, was focused on Australia’s relocatable school buildings.</p> 2013-12-20T00:00:00+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##