FormAkademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk <p>FormAkademisk – forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk –&nbsp;er et fagfellevurdert forum åpent for publisering av forskning innen design og designdidaktikk, slik som industridesign, visuell kommunikasjon, interaksjonsdesign, arkitektur, landskapsarkitektur og urbanisme, og utdanning på alle nivå fra barnehage til doktorgrad. FormAkademisk har som mål å skape et forum for utveksling av forskningsresultater og konsepter på tvers av ulike designkulturer og designpraksiser, innen designteori og designhistorie, praksisbasert forskning og designdidaktikk.&nbsp;</p> OsloMet - Oslo Metropolitan University (prev. Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Sciences) nb-NO FormAkademisk - forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk 1890-9515 <ul> <li class="show">Forfatteren(e) beholder sin opphavs- og kopieringsrett til eget manuskript, men gir tidsskriftet varig rett til 1) å fremføre manuskriptet for offentligheten i den opprinnelig publiserte digitale form, og 2) å registreres og siteres som første publisering av manuskriptet.</li> <li class="show">Forfatteren må selv forvalte sine økonomiske kopieringsrettigheter overfor eventuell tredjepart.</li> <li class="show">Tidsskriftet gir ingen økonomisk eller annen kompensasjon for innsendte bidrag, medmindre det er gjort særskilt avtale om dette med forfatteren(e).</li> <li class="show">Tidsskriftet plikter å arkivere manuskriptet (inklusive metadata) i den opprinnelig publiserte digitale form, i minst ett dertil egnet åpent tilgjengelig langtidsarkiv for digitalt materiell, som for eksempel i de norske universitetenes institusjonsarkiv innen rammen av <a href="http://www.ub.uio.no/nora/" target="_blank" rel="noopener">NORA</a>-samarbeidet.</li> <li class="show">Lesere av tidsskriftet kan ta utskrift av de fremførte manuskriptene under samme betingelser som gjelder ved kopiering av fysiske eksemplar. Dette innebærer at masseframstilling av fysiske eksemplar, eller framstilling av eksemplar for kommersielle formål, ikke er tillatt uten etter avtale med forfatteren(e).</li> </ul> Navigating methodological perspectives in Doctoral research through creative practice https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3704 <p>Academic research in crafts, conducted by crafts persons from an insider perspective and through practice-led approaches, is still just emerging and ways of conducting research is developing with each research project. Through this article, we try to navigate the field from a doctoral candidate’s perspective, presenting the research field and some central issues commonly confronted with in regards to epistemology, methodology and methods. We exemplify the arguments made through our own doctoral projects to make our points more concrete. The article discusses the methodological perspectives of these research projects, how and why they developed and changed over time and influences posed by outer circumstances. We especially point to the challenges and opportunities of practice-led research in crafts and highlight the relevance and type of contribution to be had and its meaningfulness for the practice field and related education.</p> Kirstine Riis Camilla Groth Opphavsrett 2020 Kirstine Riis, Camilla Groth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-10-02 2020-10-02 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3704 Enigmatic epistemic things https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3543 <p>The aim of this article is to discuss epistemology, focusing on the epistemic role of artwork in research projects. Porcelaneous is the initial phase of a three-year artistic research project with an artistic component comprising the making of porcelain boards. The &nbsp;porcelain boards and the making process in this initial phase are used as examples from practice. At the core of the epistemological discussion is Hans-Jörg Rheinberger’s theory on experimental systems and epistemic things. Rheinberger advocates for an objective and practice-oriented approach rather than a theoretical approach to experimental research. In his setting, epistemic things are material. This article has concluded that Rheinberger’s theory is about attitudes rather than research methods and that this attitude to epistemological questions is relevant for artistic research.</p> Anne Solberg Opphavsrett 2020 Anne Solberg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3543 Tanatologiens poetikk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3539 <p class="FASammendragBrdtekst">Essayet har vært en måte å tolke mitt skapende arbeid på. Jeg tar utgangspunkt i egen kunstnerisk praksis, dvs. kunstnerisk utviklingsarbeid, og en fotografiserie med tittelen The Poetics of Thanatology. Teksten reflekterer over, og undersøker temaer som potensielt berøres gjennom fotografienes visuelle språk og den skapende prosessen. Jeg utforsker hvilke forbindelser som finnes mellom en hendelse i barndommen min, døden og fotografiet. Den antroposentriske tilnærmingen til virkeligheten sitter dypt i vår kultur og har skapt hierarkiske relasjoner - Vi og De andre. Gjennom stilleben-fotografi av døde planter og insekter undersøker jeg menneskets opplevelse av empati i forhold til ikke-menneskelige organismer. Jeg ser på mitt praktiske arbeid i fotostudio som et rom for kritisk refleksjon og som uerstattelige, meningsfulle og langsomme, sansende erfaringer. Disse erfaringene har utfordret min og mine kunststudenters antroposentriske tilnærming til verden.</p> Jadwiga Blaszczyk-Podowska Opphavsrett 2020 Jadwiga Blaszczyk-Podowska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3539 Digitale ferdigheiter som ferdigrett eller råvare? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3696 <p>I det digitaliserte samfunnet i dag skjer ei betydeleg endring i læringa sine materielle føresetnader, frå konkrete og analoge læringsmiljø til digitale og virtuelle. Parallelt med den massive digitale satsinga i nordiske utdanningssystem har det vekse fram ei global rørsle kalla the maker movement. Denne artikkelen undersøker korleis rørsla kan bidra til ei breiare og fleirfasettert tilnærming til digital kompetanse i Kunst og handverk (KogH), enn den skjerm­tunge praksisen som til no har dominert. Gjennom studie av læreplanar, læringsteoriar, eigen praksis i feltet, praktiske døme og den stadig veksande ‘makerrørsla’, vert det undersøkt om utdanningssystemet i større grad burde støtte seg til den faglege og forskingsmessige kunn­skapen om kropp og materialet si rolle i barn si læring når viktige avgjersler om skuleutvikling og digitalisering av KogH-faget skal takast.</p> <p><em>Nøkkelord: <br></em>Digitale ferdigheiter, handverk, kroppsleg erkjenning, maker movement, demokrati.</p> Ingrid Holmboe Høibo Morten Henrik Lerpold Opphavsrett 2020 Ingrid Holmboe Høibo, Morten Henrik Lerpold https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3696 Narrativ strategi https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3545 <p>Faget kunst og håndverk har en lang tradisjon i norsk lærerutdanning og bygger på ulike målformuleringer, teoretiske forankringer og metodiske tilnærminger. I denne artikkelen vil jeg både rette oppmerksomheten på faget og på undervisningen i en nett- og samlingsbasert studieform. Jeg analyserer et empirisk materiale fra to gjennomførte undervisningsforløp med lærerstudenter i valgfaget kunst og håndverk innenfor en nett- og samlingsbasert studiemodell i lærerutdanningen. Det empiriske materialet bygger på observasjonsnotater fra et undervisningsforløp hvor narrativ strategi danner grunnlaget for aksjonsforskning. I analyse av datamaterialet anvender jeg, Jerome Bruner sitt prinsipp om spirallæring og Albert Bandura sin teori om modellæring som stedfortredende forsterkning.</p> Ellen Kathrine Baskår Opphavsrett 2020 ellen kathrine baskår https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3545 Children’s sense-making through exploration https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3534 <p>A child’s sense-making is grounded in his or her bodily interactions with the environment and tied to the body’s sensory experience. Digital technologies are being introduced into children’s learning environments and they experience virtual materialities to a greater extent now ever before. This study aimed to uncover how young children make sense of the world through explorative touch interactions with physical and virtual materialities. Children’s sense-making was studied through an explorative inquiry that was supported by video documentation. This article discusses how the combination of materials, digital technologies and experiences of different materialities offers new opportunities for explorative interaction, transforming and shaping children’s experience of the world through joint sensemaking. It also identifies how children’s past experience of material touch is important for them in their process of grasping virtual materiality.</p> <p>Keywords:<br>sense-making, touch interaction, virtual materiality, arts and crafts education, embodied cognition</p> Lovise Søyland Opphavsrett 2020 lovise søyland https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3534 More-than-human perspectives in understanding embodied learning https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3549 <p>Evner til å lære gjennom kroppslig samhandling med miljøer er iboende hos mennesker og andre arter, og sikrer artenes overlevelse. Ved å kombinere data fra studier fra erfaringslæring hos små barns og hos et føll (en nyfødt hest), viser forfatteren hvordan både mennesker og andre arter lærer gjennom kroppslige samhandling med sine omgivelser. Slike samhandlinger er avhengige av eget initiativ og utfordrer en rekke valg. Artikkelen argumenterer for kroppslig læring som avgjørende for overlevelse på tvers av arter. Den viser videre hvordan en slik forståelse av kroppslig læring kan motivere dekonstruksjon av dualismer mellom kroppslige og verbale læringsformer, og mellom menneske og andre arter, på denne måten kan bidra til en mer helhetlig forståelse av læring. I verden med mange økologiske utfordringer, kan kroppslige former for læring føre til økt økologisk bevissthet og kan bidra til utdanning for økologisk bærekraft.</p> Biljana Culibrk Fredriksen Opphavsrett 2020 Biljana Culibrk Fredriksen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3549 Editorial https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3934 <p>This special issue on embodied making and learning is dedicated to aspects of embodied cognition that goes on in the field of art, craft and design. The contributors to this issue were invited from the Embodied Making and Learning (EMAL) research group at the University of South-Eastern Norway, where aspects of learning in creative practices have been studied from many different angles throughout the institutions nearly 80 years existence, and amplified since the formation of the group in 2014. With its 50 members, divided into five thematic clusters related to embodied making and learning, this research group is one of the largest in the field. It involves both experienced and early career researchers, as well as experienced university teachers, from several disciplines.</p> Camilla Groth Kirstine Riis Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Opphavsrett 2020 Camilla Groth, Kirstine Riis, Marte Sørebø Gulliksen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3934 Underlying the carver’s experience https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3581 <p>Woodcarvers often report their experiences as having an intense internal focus, and feeling of a close connection to the material. This article explore key processes in cells and organs that underlies these experiences, emphasizing the sensorymotor modulation in cerebellum. The article has two aims: To bring neurobiological knowledge into the making disciplines to better understand the making process; To mediate terminological differences between disciplines and open up new research-based hypotheses and theoretical foundations for future interdisciplinary studies. Findings include three topics for further exploration: 1) The overflow of information in cerebellum and the maker’s experience of intense internal focus. 2) Cerebellum’s function as generator of deliberate actions without involving the conscious self and the so-called preconscious element of the maker’s negotiation. 3) The priority of neural circuits between sensory input and muscle output in Cerebellum at the cost of neural circuits to cerebral cortex’ monitoring and self-reflection and the maker’s experience as being close to the material. These findings expand upon previous knowledge developed in studies of making processes from sociocultural and philosophical point of view, and are useful for researchers and teachers interested in understanding and advancing the making disciplines and arts and craft education.</p> Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Opphavsrett 2020 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3581 Å fange med blikket og kjenne med hendene https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3536 <p>Ei utstilling med konkrete produkt, kan gi studentar større nærleik til materiale og kunnskap om teknisk utføring enn ved å møte produkt gjennom visuelle og digitale presentasjonar. Å presentere konkrete produkt og materiale gjennom undervisningsbasserte utstillingar er eit kreativt grep og ei viktig støtte for undervisning og veiledning. Etter bruk av utstilling som didaktisk grep eit bestemt semester, vart det gjennomført ei undersøking der ti studentar svara på spørjeskjema om kva utbyte dei hadde hatt av utstillinga. Fleirtalet svar at dei hadde blitt inspirerte til eige arbeid og tileigna seg kunnskap både om materiale og teknikkar. Studien viser at å hente fram aktuelle produkt og presentere dei på ein god visuell måte, gir motivasjon til å være kreativ.</p> Astrid Hus Kirstine Riis Opphavsrett 2020 Astrid Hus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-09-25 2020-09-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3536 Urban tissue transformation under the densification policy https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2605 <p>Based on the case of Oslo, this paper focuses on the physical results of the implementation of the densification policy in Norway. By applying the urban morphological approach, the paper examines transformation of urban tissue at the intermediate spatial scale (buildings – plot – street – urban block). It covers 71 cases of multi-family residential buildings and analyses the pre-existing tissues where they occur as well as the principles of intervention. The results reveal a myriad of tissue types (mixed tissues being dominant) and a significant number of entirely new urban blocks. Tissues are investigated in terms of conditions and challenges, and new blocks are analysed for their morphological characteristics and application in densification.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Gordana Zurovac Opphavsrett 2020 Gordana Zurovac https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-06-25 2020-06-25 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2605 Kvalitet og kunstnerisk kvalitet i kulturskolens fagplan for visuell kunst https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3484 <p>I denne artikkelen gjøres en kritisk diskursorientert lesning av kulturskolen rammeplan for å belyse hvordan begrepene <em>kvalitet</em> og <em>kunstnerisk kvalitet</em> opptrer i kulturskolens fagplan for visuell kunst. Hensikten med artikkelen er å bidra med kunnskap om hvordan sentrale tekster i kulturskolens kontekst i og gjennom språket former forståelser om kvalitetsbegrepet og kunstnerisk kvalitet. Når kvalitetsbegrepet bringes inn i kulturskolens kontekst er det interessant å undersøke ulike forståelser som deles og forhandles mellom kulturskolens aktører. Gjennom å analysere fagplanen for visuell kunst i lys av fagplanens høringsutkast, Norsk kulturskoleråds strategi 2020, generell del i <em>Rammeplan for kulturskolen :</em> <em>Mangfold og fordypning</em>, veiledning for lokalt rammeplanarbeid og hjemmesiden www.kulturskoleradet.no forsøker jeg å vise hvordan kvalitetsbegrepet og forståelse for <em>kvalitet</em> og <em>kunstnerisk kvalitet </em>løftes frem som et strategisk grep for å sikre god undervisning i kulturskolens mange klasserom.</p> Mari-Ann Letnes Opphavsrett 2020 Mari-Ann Letnes https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-04-20 2020-04-20 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3484 Samskaping til glede og besvær https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2959 <p>Samskaping er ikke et nytt fenomen, men utfordringer rundt eierskapet virker å tilspisses. Hvordan kan forskjellige samskapingsprosesser vurderes utfra et designfaglig perspektiv? Bakteppet er rettsakene rundt et av de mest kjente artefaktene i Norge: Il Tempo Gigante, først brukt i filmen Flåklypa Grand Prix, siden i mange flere sammenhenger før Hunderfossen Familiepark introduserte berg- og dalbanen Il Tempo Extra Gigante. Artikkelen presenterer forslag til hvordan en samskapingsprosess kan vurderes, gjennom fire linser; opprinnelse, prosess, gjenkjennelse og eierskap.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> Monika Hestad Steinar Killi Opphavsrett 2020 Steinar Killi, Monika Hestad https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-04-07 2020-04-07 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2959 In proportion https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3367 <p>Avoiding the worst impacts of global warming is a matter of systemic change and political will. An easily adaptable political system would be resilient to the effects of climate change, since a government could maintain effective control by implementing incremental changes. However, except for the United Kingdom (UK), Israel and New Zealand, all other states have rigid codified constitutions. Drawing on cybernetics and variety engineering, the study of New Zealand’s constitutional system presented in this article suggests that a rigid codified constitution has merits for addressing long-term problems, such as climate change and sustainable development.</p> <p>Cover image photo: <span style="font-size: 11.0pt;" lang="EN-US">Christoph Strässler</span></p> Luke Feast Opphavsrett 2020 Luke Feast https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3367 Synergy in the systemic approach to architectural performance https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3387 <p>This article integrates a series of diverse projects that together exemplify and interpret the Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance (SAAP) that has been developed by the author. SAAP is a fusion of several process-based fields and their media and agency, namely: a) Systems oriented design; b) Performance oriented architecture; 3) Prototypical urban interventions; d) Time-based design; e) Service design; and f) Co-design, co-creation and DIY. The article presents SAAP’s relations to these fields and concludes with their integration and synergy in a ‘Real Life Co-Design Laboratory’, where collaborative and collective processes are seen as the resulting design objects or rather, objectives.</p> Marie Davidova Opphavsrett 2020 Marie Davidova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3387 Design of an ecosystem to foster systemic eco-innovation https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3408 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The current global environmental situation, with its interconnected problems, requires holistic approaches to provide a cultural paradigm shift and a different economy to overcome the linear one. Systemic Design (SD) can represent a solution creating opportunities for eco- and system innovation, especially in the manufacturing sector, which will soon face a revolution in the production model. Thus, SD can help achieve environmental and economic sustainability at the local level. A multiple case study analysis on SD projects was developed to understand the significant eco-entrepreneurial opportunities that have emerged and the barriers for their implementation. Finally, an ecosystem is designed to foster systemic innovation based on helix innovation models and identify the facilitator for its creation, namely, the ‘local systemic network booster’.</span></p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span></p> Chiara Battistoni Silvia Barbero Opphavsrett 2020 Chiara Battistoni, Silvia Barbero https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3408 Leverage analysis https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3384 <p>Many systemic design processes include the development and analysis of systems models that represent the issue(s) at hand. In causal loop diagram models, phenomena are graphed as nodes, with connections between them indicating a control relationship. Such models provide mechanisms for stakeholder collaboration, problem finding and generative insight and are powerful . These functions are valued in design thinking, but the potential of these models may yet be unfulfilled. We introduce the notion of “leverage measures” to systemic design, adapting techniques from social network analysis and systems dynamics to uncover key structures, relationships and latent leverage positions of modelled phenomena. We demonstrate their utility in a pilot study. By rethinking the logics of leverage, we make better arguments for change and find the place from which to move the world.</p> Ryan Murphy Peter Jones Opphavsrett 2020 Ryan Murphy, Peter Jones https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-01-28 2020-01-28 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3384 Ethics of technology and design ethics in socio-technical systems https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2201 <p>This paper addresses many of the issues deriving from both design activity itself and the introduction of technology into everyday life. Relevant authors like Papanek (1984), Thackara (2005) and Manzini (2006) warned about the risks of design activity, as well as the consequences of bringing products to the world. Papanek defined design as the second most harmful profession one can practice, while Thackara claims that design is the cause of many troubling situations in our world (Mink, 2016). Manzini advocates the imminent need for a paradigm shift towards both a more sustainable design and way of living. In , Papanek pointed out that designers have a social and moral responsibility for the consequences of their innovations (Mink, 2016). For this reason, first we cannot ignore the advice, but also, we genuinely believe that designers should include ethical principles in their education. This paper seeks to address design ethics focusing on socio-technical systems and the new challenges introduced by both the Internet of things and artificial intelligence. The methodological framework combines the developed in human computer interaction () <span style="text-decoration: line-through;">&nbsp;&nbsp;</span>and computer ethics with a methodology based on need, requirements and performances developed in architecture. This approach is applied to the development of connected appliances, to conduct our reflections on an applied case study. Some guidelines are drawn at the end of this paper to guide designers in achieving a greater understanding of the ethical implications involved in the design process, establishing the responsibilities and limits of the designer.</p> Eleonora Fiore Opphavsrett 2020 Eleonora Fiore https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-01-27 2020-01-27 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2201 Relating systems thinking and design (VI) https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3691 <p>This special issue of <em>FormAkademisk</em> comprises a selection of articles developed from presentations at the seventh Relating Systems Thinking and Design (RSD7) symposium, held at Politecnico di Torino, Turin,&nbsp;23th-26th October 2018 (Barbero, 2018). A second collection from RSD7 is also planned to be published in <em>FormAkademisk</em> during 2020, continuing the close relationship between the journal and the RSD conference series (Forlizzi, Sevaldson, &amp; Ryan, 2017; Hensel, Hensel, &amp; Sevaldson, 2019; Jones, 2014; Sevaldson, 2018; Sevaldson &amp; Ryan, 2014). The occasion of the RSD7 conference was especially important in the development of systemic design, being the occasion of the launch and founding meeting of the Systemic Design Association (SDA). The SDA will act as a membership organisation for the expanding community of practitioners and researchers that has developed through the RSD conferences.</p> Marie Davidova Ben Sweeting Birger Sevaldson Opphavsrett 2020 Marie Davidova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3691 Wicked problems, wicked play https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3378 <p>Design methods need to reconsider ways to avoid othering messiness (or what appears to be contradictory or nonsensical) within wicked problem situations, particularly crisis sites. As such, this paper suggests that play frames (defined as Fun Machines) can be utilised as situated strategies that designers can apply to address paradoxes and contradictions. The paper presents the theoretical framework for a Fun Machine by focusing on second-generation design methods and how they facilitate conversation, while simultaneously exploring an often-neglected playful aspect of conversation that is usually found in fun-making. The applications of a Fun Machine are discussed in the historical context (Cedric Price’s Fun Palace) and with a pilot project conducted at a contemporary crisis site (Dessau).</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Dulmini Perera Opphavsrett 2020 Dulmini Perera https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2020-01-24 2020-01-24 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3378 Hvorfor elever mangler kompetente lærere i Kunst og håndverk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3629 <p>Hele 50% av de lærerne som underviser i faget Kunst og håndverk i grunnskolen har ingen studiepoeng i faget. Det er et svakere resultat enn for 20 år siden, og da er det nærliggende å tro at det svake resultatet skyldes mangel på utdannede lærere i faget. Men slik er det ikke. &nbsp;I spørreundersøkelsen som blir presentert i denne artikkelen oppgir de som utdannet seg til faglærere i design, kunst og håndverk i perioden 2008-2018, at det er vanskelig å få ansettelse i skolen. Og dersom de får jobb i grunnskolen, så viser under­søkelsen at de ofte settes til andre oppgaver enn å undervise i Kunst og håndverk. Når lokale skoleledere unnlater å ansette og bruke kvalifiserte lærere, så får ikke elevene nyte godt av den lærerkompetansen som staten allerede har finansiert utdanningen til. &nbsp;</p> <p><em>Nøkkelord: </em>Kunst og håndverk, lærerutdanning, lærerkompetanse, skoleledere, ansettelse, grunnskolen</p> Liv Merete Nielsen Janne Lepperød Opphavsrett 2019 Liv Merete Nielsen, Janne Lepperød https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2019-12-31 2019-12-31 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3629 Instruktion av hantverkstekniker i slöjden https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2761 <p>Utgångspunkt i denna artikel är två slöjdlärares kommunikation med sina elever i årskurs 6 i den svenska grundskolans slöjdundervisning. Som metod för att dokumentera användandet av olika kommunikationsformer och kommunikativa resurser används videoinspelade klassrums­observationer samt stimulated recall. Slöjdämnet är ett kommunikativt ämne på flera sätt, dels genom möjligheten till både verbala- och icke verbala instruktioner och observationer av andras görande, dels genom användandet av material och den utrustning som finns tillgänglig i salen. Fokus i analysarbetet är slöjdlärarens olika val av kommunikationsform och kommunikativa resurs vid en instruktion. Studien belyser slöjdlärarens möjligheter att skapa förståelser genom ett didaktiskt medvetet val av kommunikationsform och kommunikativ resurs i instruktionens olika delar.</p> Joakim Andersson Opphavsrett 2019 Joakim Andersson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2019-12-16 2019-12-16 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2761 Developing creative product designs inspired by ethnic cultural heritage https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2489 <p>Due to colonisation and globalisation, ethnic cultures are changing and Botswana’s ethnic cultures are no exception to this change. This study aims to explore how the ethnic culture of different tribes in Botswana can be used to inspire the design of new products. A case study was conducted with students at the University of Botswana on particular themes of ethnic cultural knowledge, which inspired them to design futuristic innovative products. Visual analysis was used to assess the student designs for how they informed current trends without distorting their ethnic cultural meaning. The findings indicated that students were able to design using their own cultural heritage, to work in teams, thus, attaining soft skills, and to modernise ethnic cultural symbols to design symbolic, innovative, and futuristic products.</p> Keiphe Nani Setlhatlhanyo Odireleng Marope Richie Moalosi Oanthata Jester Sealetsa Opphavsrett 2019 Keiphe Nani Setlhatlhanyo, Odireleng Marope, Richie Moalosi, Oanthata Jester Sealetsa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-12-03 2019-12-03 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2489 Utfordringer ved bruk og deling av visuelle uttrykk i en digital tidsalder https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2641 <p>De siste tiårenes teknologiske utvikling av bilderedigering og bildedeling har forandret hvordan bilder brukes som medium i kunst, kultur og kommunikasjon. Dette fører med seg andre problemstillinger knyttet til bruk og bearbeidelse av bilder enn det som var vanlig før. Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i utfordringer lærere står overfor når de skal undervise morgendagens konsumenter og produsenter av visuelt materiale, og spør hva lærere må være klar over og ta hensyn til i sin undervisning, slik at elevene tilegner seg de verktøyene de trenger for å være informerte, kritiske og ansvarlige i sine handlinger. Artikkelen har som mål å presentere og åpne opp noe av kompleksiteten i Åndsverkloven, og brette ut ulike temaer som har betydning i en visuell og digital tid, både i en skolekontekst og i samfunnet generelt. Teksten er fagdidaktisk, og ser problemstillingene med et utgangspunkt fra fagområdet design, kunst og håndverk.</p> <p>Omslagsbilde: <em>MarilynMaria</em> by Jugacaro, 2014</p> Silje Bergman Opphavsrett 2019 Silje Bergman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0 2019-10-21 2019-10-21 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2641 Hantverksvetenskap och vetenskapligt hantverk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2310 <p>Artikeln handlar om de nationella utvärderingarna av hantverksinriktade högskoleutbildningar som har genomförts i Högskoleverkets och senare i Universitetskanslersämbetets regi mellan åren 1997 och 2015. Den övergripande frågan är vad akademiseringen gör med utbildningar som har sin grund i ett professionsområde, och hur de nationella utvärderingarna påverkar akademiseringsprocesser. Intresset riktas framförallt mot begrepp om teori och praktik i högre utbildning, och hur dessa tänkta kunskapsformer kommer till uttryck i formella beskrivningar och används i bedömningar. Forskningen visar att utvärderingarna systematiskt bortser från utbildningsområdets professionsinriktning. Den del i högskolelagens portalparagraf som utpekar beprövad erfarenhet som en grundpelare, vid sidan av konst eller vetenskap, väger mycket lätt i dessa utvärderingar. De hantverksinriktade utbildningarna hamnar ofta i konflikt, både med konstens krav på subjektivitet och vetenskapens krav på objektivitet.</p> Gunnar Almevik Opphavsrett 2019 Gunnar Almevik https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-10-07 2019-10-07 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2310 Hvor var det det butta, hvor er det blitt av alle gutta? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3239 <p>I denne artikkelen søker vi svar på hvilke kjønns- og likestillingsrelaterte utfordringer kunst og håndverk står overfor i dag. Vi ser på faget, lærerne og elevene som historiske aktører, som på ulike måter kan bidra til å vedlikeholde eller endre kjente historiske trekk ved faget. Dette gjør vi i lys av sosiologen Pierre Bourdieu, som påpeker at skolen som samfunnsinstitusjon gjerne reproduserer historiske oppfatninger og inndelinger i samfunnet. Ved hjelp av den didaktiske trekant som analyseverktøy undersøker vi hvordan læreplaner, institusjonelle praksiser og debatter har preget faget fram mot i dag. Gjennom artikkelen reiser vi en del spørsmål og peker på kunnskapsbehov i faget.</p> Ingvard Bråten Jorunn Spord Borgen Opphavsrett 2019 Ingvard Bråten, Jorunn Spord Borgen http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-09-23 2019-09-23 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3239 Landscape of participatory city makers https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2706 <p>Today, citizens, professionals, civil servants, social enterprises, and others form different types of coalitions to overcome the challenges facing our modern cities. In this paper, the particularities of these types of groups are characterised and categorised into ten different types of city makers. Generally, these types of city makers bring value to cities, but we conclude that this value could be enriched through more participatory approaches that stimulate crossovers and accelerate the transition towards sustainable futures. Therefore, we characterise the different identified types as potential ‘participatory’ city makers. However, these participatory approaches and the networks between them still need to be developed, while improving conditions and dynamics that can enable and enhance innovation in urban environments. Design and systems thinking could contribute valuable methods and perspectives to the development of these participatory and systemic approaches. Finally, the categorisation presented in this paper must enable a better understanding of the transformative capacity of these different types of city makers, necessary for flourishing and sustainable communities.</p> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">&nbsp;</span></p> Jotte Ilbine Jozine Charlotte de Koning Emma Puerari Ingrid Mulder Derk Loorbach Opphavsrett 2019 Jotte Ilbine Jozine Charlotte de Koning, Emma Puerari, Ingrid Mulder, Derk Loorbach https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-08-12 2019-08-12 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2706 Architecture as a system and innovation design discipline https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3077 <p>Talking about architecture means talking not only about buildings but also about processes or systems. In the latter context, architecture is a way of thinking and looking at people, spaces, interrelations and interactions. Proclaimed by IDEO’s Tim Brown as one of the best system design forms of education available, architecture has potential in fields beyond the physical. In keeping with the views of renowned systems thinker Russell Ackoff, who graduated in architecture before focusing on operations research, the question arises whether the skills of architects can be applied more broadly in system and innovation design. This paper describes how architects deal with context and complexity from the perspective of the practice-oriented architectural programming method. From its early days in the 1960s, it offered architects a viable basis for an applied architectural design thinking method, but did not receive widespread attention from practitioners and academics. The method is critically assessed and compared to the known forms of design thinking from the viewpoint of industrial design. By describing a real-life project and students’ work from a newly created seminar in a department of architecture, the paper investigates the current and future relevance of an advanced version of architectural programming for architectural practice and education. It stresses the desirability of reinforcing the core skills of architects by developing a design thinking method rooted in architecture, which needs to be taught, developed and disseminated. In the long term, it is argued, architecture should be considered and integrated as a ‘systems and innovation design discipline’ in the fields of systems thinking and innovation research.</p> Christos Chantzaras Opphavsrett 2019 Christos Chantzaras http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3077 Crafting futures in Lebanese refugee camps https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2696 <p>The initiative at the Burj El Barajneh camp is run by a network of local associations and aims at improving living conditions, services, infrastructure and livelihoods for the inhabitants. Burj El Barajneh has a large number of active associations and many highly educated professionals. However, in this complex hyperdense context, any kind of change needs to be carefully considered; there are no simple recipes, and existing professional expertise does not necessarily match the specific conditions of the locality.&nbsp;By working with collective design and collaboration between the camp's inhabitants, it becomes possible to envisage larger coordinated efforts and to solve issues that remain blocked at an individual level.</p> Helen Avery Nihal Halimeh Opphavsrett 2019 Helen Avery, Nihal Halimeh https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-08-05 2019-08-05 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2696 Developing design literacy for sustainability https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1725 <p>This article discusses the case study Case Keramikk, examining students’ use of experiential learning from a craft-based design practice in life cycle thinking on their products. Data were constructed through semi-structured group interviews with students of a Norwegian lower secondary school and thematic analysis based on the principles and practices of design for sustainability (DfS). The interview questions engaged the students to assess their practice and products and to estimate environmental considerations. The students used experiential learning that correspond with the DfS practices of eco-efficiency, eco-effectiveness and product durability in the production phase, as well as the distinctive characteristics of materials, products and production decisive for practice of these in the material extraction and use and disposal phases. These reflections enhance students’ development of design literacy for sustainability and strengthen their democratic participation in research for development of education in craft-based design for sustainability.</p> Ingvill Gjerdrum Maus Opphavsrett 2019 Ingvill Gjerdrum Maus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-30 2019-07-30 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1725 Performance-oriented architecture and urban design https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2963 <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-GB">This article discusses a performance-oriented approach to architectural and urban design that seeks to intensify the interaction between architectures and their specific settings and environments. The overarching aim is to expand performance-oriented design in architecture to urban design and to integrate architectural, urban design and landscape design into a multi-scalar and multi-domain approach. This effort is currently comprised of three distinct research by design efforts: [i] designs for urban areas with a focus on demographic and environmental aspects, [ii] designs for peripheral areas with a focus on preserving or restoring vital local bio-physical conditions and interrelations, and [iii] designs for rural areas that elaborate an integrative approach towards constructions and correlating land uses. In order to facilitate this approach, computational information-based design is linked with systems-thinking. The portrayed research was undertaken at the Research Centre for Architecture and Tectonics and the Advanced Computational Design Laboratory at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design over a period of five years from 2014 to 2018.</span></p> Michael Ulrich Hensel Søren S. Sørensen Opphavsrett 2019 Michael Ulrich Hensel, Søren S. Sørensen http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-17 2019-07-17 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2963 Editorial RSD6 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3406 <p>The sixth Relating Systems Thinking and Design Symposium (RSD6 2017) was held at the Oslo School of Architecture and Design in Norway in October 2017. The central theme of the symposium was “Environment, Economy, Democracy: Flourishing Together”, and called for contributions on democratic participation and policy innovation, sustainable business innovation, flourishing communities, and related systems-thinking-oriented approaches to architecture, settlements and the built environment. A wide range of contributions addressed themes, such as social impact in flourishing and change programs, health and population wellness, ecological design and bioregion development, human-scaled and regional economies, related sociotechnical and technological systems, etc. Yet, while the five earlier symposia did receive a number of papers that were focused on architecture and urban design, RSD6 was the first RSD symposium with a dedicated paper session on architecture and urban design. This special issue of Formakademisk collects together five of the papers that focus on architecture and urban design from a linked systems-thinking and design-thinking perspective. Each article pursues a distinct theme concerning the development of the profession, performance-oriented architecture and urban design, the role of exterior space in rethinking the architectural envelope, and questions of participation and community building. This breadth of themes in the selected articles indicates the increasingly deep impact of systems-thinking in the fields of architecture and urban design.</p> Michael Ulrich Hensel Defne Sunguroğlu Hensel Birger Sevaldson Opphavsrett 2019 Michael Ulrich Hensel, Defne Sunguroğlu Hensel , Birger Sevaldson http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-07-17 2019-07-17 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3406 Envelopes and exteriority https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2717 <p>This article discusses the relationship of architecture to its surrounding environment. The objective of the article is i) to reposition the relationship of architecture and its surrounding exterior by expanding the understanding of architectural envelopes, and ii) to systematically define exterior space as design input. The notion of the envelope encompasses a spatial recognition defined by interactions between interior and exterior environments that affects an inhabitant’s experience of architectural space. This research is organised in three sections: a) a literature review to systematically examine the terminologies of this research, b) selected case studies that consider exteriority as a design criterion, and c) research through design inquiry to combine a systematic approach with design thinking. The study applies both conceptual and method-oriented approaches to develop an integrated design approach focused on the climatic and atmospheric performances of architectural envelopes.</p> Sareh Saeidi Opphavsrett 2019 Sareh Saeidi Derakhshi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-06-05 2019-06-05 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2717 Eksperimentelle utforskinger av materialer og materialitet i transmaterielle landskaper https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2648 <p>Artikkelen bygger på et forskningsprosjekt forankret i en formingsfaglig undervisningskontekst i barnehagelærerutdanninga. Gjennom en A/r/tografisk tilnærming undersøkes det hva som skjer når det åpnes for eksperimentelle, rhizomatiske og uforutsette prosesser som transformerer fysiske og digitale materialer og fenomener i skapende handlinger. Rammeplan for barnehagen fra 2017 forutsetter en fornyet digital praksis i barnehagen og i barnehagelærerutdanninga. Gjennom koblinger av materialer og digitale transformasjoner oppstår nye materielle uttrykk, og nye handlingsmuligheter i skapende prosesser produseres. I artikkelen vises det videre til hvordan skapende prosesser i et kollektivt læringsmiljø kan akkumulere mer kunnskap gjennom delt kunnskap ut fra en rhizomatisk forståelse av kunnskapsprosesser.</p> Ann-Hege Lorvik Waterhouse Lovise Søyland Kari Carlsen Opphavsrett 2019 Ann-Hege Lorvik Waterhouse, Lovise Søyland, Kari Carlsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-08 2019-05-08 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2648 Leder. Finansiell støtte til FormAkademisk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3236 <p><em>FormAkademisk sender i disse dager ut brev om finansiell støtte for de kommende årene til institusjoner som i stor grad bruker tidsskriftet som publiseringskanal.</em></p> <p>FormAkademisk er det eneste vitenskapelige tidsskriftet i Norden som publiserer artikler innen alle de fagområder som Profesjonsråd for designutdanning og Profesjonsråd for arkitektur- og landskapsarkitekturutdanning i Universitets- og høgskolerådet (UHR) dekker. I tillegg publiserer FormAkademisk artikler innen designdidaktikk fra barnehage til doktorgrad. Profesjonsråd for designutdanning sin støtte, som ble vedtatt på deres møte 13.oktober 2008 var svært viktig under etableringen av tidsskriftet og i prosessen mot vitenskapelig godkjenning på nivå 1 i 2008 og når tidsskriftet nå feirer sitt 10-års jubileum er støtten minst like viktig. FormAkademisk er også blitt nominert av Profesjonsråd for designutdanning til nivå 2 i Norsk vitenskapsindeks (NVI).</p> Janne Beate Reitan Opphavsrett 2019 Janne Beate Reitan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-04 2019-03-04 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3236 Skrivelek https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1753 <p>Artikkelen presenterer designet av utstillingen Are You Experienced? (2012), og er en delstudie i et forskningsprosjekt som studerer tidlig litterasitet fra kunstnerens (A), forskerens (r) og utdannerens (t) perspektiver (=Art i A/r/t-ografi, heretter artografi). Ni barn fra en barnehage deltok i skrivelek i ni verkstedmiljøer som tilbød forskjelligartede skriveflater og håndverktøy. For å synliggjøre skrivelek som en kunstdidaktisk variant av begrepet lekeskriving, ble empiri fra skrivelekens prosesser og produkter organisert i tre utstillingskomponenter som samlet dannet en estetisk formasjon i et offentlig rom. Parallelt med designprosessen presenteres det hermeneutiske spillet mellom utstillingsrommet, publikum og utstillingens innhold. Artikkelen peker på hvordan utstillingsdesignet kan bidra til en kunstfagdidaktikk der det i større grad kan tas utgangspunkt i barns egne kulturuttrykk.</p> <p><span style="font-size: medium;">&nbsp;</span></p> Solveig Åsgard Bendiksen Opphavsrett 2019 solveig åsgard bendiksen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-02-04 2019-02-04 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1753 Editorial. Design and Cultural Diversity https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3102 <p>By raising the theme of&nbsp; Design and Cultural Diversity in this special issue of <em>FormAkademisk</em> we hope to stimulate a broad cross disciplinary discussion on the interplay of cultures within the field of design and design education. The main dimensions of the topic might be summarized as:</p> <p>- The dimensions and meanings of cultural diversity<br>- Politics and power<br>- Transmission and transition of cultures<br>- Heritage and innovation<br>- Indigenous and vernacular traditions versus fashion and euro-centered attitudes<br>- Design and learning approaches</p> <p>These matters are complex, deeply interwoven and interdependent. This series of articles discusses how design might support an innovative development that takes care of diverse traditions and attitudes, supports equality and peaceful co-existence.</p> Astrid Skjerven Opphavsrett 2019 Astrid Skjerven https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-01-07 2019-01-07 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3102 Building making scholarship https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3099 <p>Artikkelen beskriver hvordan forskning innen skapende profesjonsfag har blitt drevet fram av professor Halina Dunin-Woyseth. Med bakgrunn som arkitekt har hun hatt et innsideperspektiv på de utfordringene de skapende profesjonsfagene sto overfor. Som en av de få arkitekter som også hadde doktorgrad fikk hun ansvar for utviklingen av doktorgradsprogrammet på Arkitektur- og designhøgskolen i Oslo (AHO). Hun utviklet kunnskapskonseptene ‘the making professions’ og ‘the making disciplines’ for å synliggjøre og håndtere de skapende profesjonenes utfordringer som selvstendige forskbare (researchable) fagfelt i møte med etablerte akademiske disipliner. I 1995 sto hun sentralt i avgjørelsen om å åpne doktorprogrammet på AHO for designere og designdidaktikere, noe som har spilt en avgjørende rolle for framveksten av et designdidaktisk forskningsfelt i Norge. Innsatsen til Dunin-Woyseth går langt ut over det å være én persons innsats, den eksemplifiserer hvordan utdanning og forskning med et innsideperspektiv på kunnskapsutvikling har avgjørende betydning for et demokrati der også representanter for praktiske profesjoner må kunne artikulere sin innsidekunnskap med akademisk troverdighet. Framhevingen av et innsideperspektiv (Ryle, 1945) og viktigheten av aktive fagmiljøer (Becher &amp; Trowler, 2001) setter også Halina Dunin-Woyseths innsats inn i et større perspektiv. Hun har høstet internasjonal anerkjennelse både som teoretiker og feltbygger.</p> Liv Merete Nielsen Opphavsrett 2018 Liv Merete Nielsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3099 Bokanmeldelse: Boka om kunst og håndverk i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/3107 <p><em>Boka om kunst og håndverk i barnehagen</em> har vokst fram ved kunst og håndverksmiljøet ved Dronning Mauds Minne Høgskole for barnehagelærerutdanning (DMMH) i Trondheim. Dette er en grunnbok som skal gi en kunst og håndverksfaglig kunnskapsbase til studenter i kunnskaps­området Kunst, kultur og kreativitet i barnehagelærerutdanningen. Videre henvender boka seg til ansatte i barnehagen. Ved siden av de tre redaktørene, Frisch, Letnes og Moe, har Vigdis Dagsdatter Øien skrevet ett kapittel.</p> Ingvard Bråten Opphavsrett 2018 Ingvard Bråten https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-31 2018-12-31 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.3107 Frå DesignDialog til Design Literacy https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2574 <p>Artikkelen gjev ei historisk framstilling av korleis forskingsfeltet designdidaktikk er utvikla dei siste 20 åra, med vekt på kva rolle professor Liv Merete Nielsen har spelt i arbeidet med å styrke fagfeltet sin intellektuelle identitet. Konseptet «the making disciplines» om korleis akademiske fellesskap blir utvikla gjev eit av dei teoretiske perspektiva til framstillinga. Studiet fortel korleis Nielsen bevegar seg mellom mange roller i dette. Ho er forskar, forskingsentreprenør og forskingsleiar, og bygger ny kunnskap gjennom å integrere «making», «making-knowledge», det akademiske og det fagdidaktiske. Artikkelen har Nielsen sine publikasjonar samt intervju med kollegaer og stipendiatar som kjelde­grunnlag.</p> Karen Brænne Opphavsrett 2018 Karen Brænne https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-29 2018-12-29 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2574 Industrial heritage as a culturally sustainable option in urban transformation https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2927 <p>Industrial heritage represents an opportunity for architects and designers to combine a building’s robust form with creative solutions. A former methanol factory in Skien used as art hall, and a former paper mill in Moss used as a music venue, exemplify the ways in which cultural provisions for a diverse urban population can be accommodated. We examined the kinds of cultural provisions industrial buildings offer and how industrial heritage’s tolerance level is met. The results are discussed in light of the societal responsibility to find long-lasting, sustainable solutions in urban development.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Grete Swensen Joar Skrede Opphavsrett 2018 Grete Swensen, Joar Skrede https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2927 Åtte læreres trearbeidspraksiser https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2246 <p>I denne artikkelen undersøkes forskjeller i åtte barneskolelæreres trearbeidspraksiser i faget kunst og håndverk. Et datamateriale generert i forbindelse med skolebesøk bestående av flersanselige samtaler, fotomateriale og observasjon av trearbeid analyseres gjennom en diffraktiv analyse og begrepet prosjekt for praksis fra teorien om praksisøkologier. Gjennom analysen synliggjøres et komplekst bilde som viser hvordan det ikke bare er læreren som er sentral i forhold til hvordan undervisning blir til. Det tegnes et bilde av et nettverk av relasjoner, både i makro- og mikroperspektiv i konkrete undervisningssituasjoner. Som resultat viser lærernes prosjekter for sine praksiser seg til å bli skapt av blant annet aspekter som deres veldig ulike tilgang til materialer, forskjellige egeninteresse for trearbeid og forskjeller i skolenes prioriteringer.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Pauliina Maapalo Opphavsrett 2018 Pauliina Maapalo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2246 Design-driven innovation in design practice https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1856 <p><em>The aim of this paper is to investigate Verganti’s framework for design-driven innovation (DDI) in the context of design practice and to discuss, elaborate and deepen the understanding of DDI, especially on aspects related to design. To meet this aim, an in-depth longitudinal case study of a DDI project for developing a radical new vision for an offshore ship bridge concept is performed. DDI is generally recognised as an in-depth research process, but we also approach it as a highly creative, generative process of design in which design artefacts serve as knowledge production and exploration</em><em>. Therefore, &nbsp;Verganti’s divide between research and creativity and his critique of user centredness are challenged. The paper adds complementary understandings to Verganti’s framework, particularly regarding the role of design, and the Generative Design-Driven Innovation framework is developed. </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Helge Tor Kristiansen Anne Haugen Gausdal Opphavsrett 2018 Helge Tor Kristiansen, Anne Haugen Gausdal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1856 Characteristics of an effective secondary school design thinking curriculum https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1626 <p>This study examines the effectiveness of course materials, design methods and teaching strategies in a design thinking-based curriculum. As part of a multiple case study, we developed, ran and studied an interaction design course for Canadian students in grade 9 and grade 10 (14–15 years old). We gathered qualitative data in the forms of interviews of students and teachers at the end of each class and at the end of the course, and we observed their activities and performance throughout the course. We also evaluated the curriculum by tracking the changes we made and justifying the intentions behind these curriculum modifications in the context of the research. From this research, three main curriculum characteristics were found to be essential for a design thinking course to be effective and engaging: experiential activities, real-world applications and characterised consequences. We recommend that design educators consider these characteristics.</p> Leila Aflatoony Ron Wakkary Andrew Hawryshkewich Opphavsrett 2018 Leila Aflatoony, Ron Wakkary, Andrew Hawryshkewich https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-10 2018-12-10 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1626 COLridor https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2647 <p><em>The mission of the present trans-disciplinary community environmental project COLridor </em><em>(Davidová, 2017b)</em><em> is to generate a situation of eco-systemic co-living across local species’ and abiotic agency in an urban environment through their co-design. Located in the city centre of Prague, the case study bio-tope is a part of larger bio-corridor that has evolved namely thanks to the adjacent railway and water stream. Though the prevailing opinion of European urbanists stays that cities should remain dense and separate from the rest of nature</em><em>, landscape ecologists and biologists tend to disagree. There is no nature on Earth without human beings and these together evolved reflecting each other’s impact and interaction. A great variety of species have adapted and evolved for the urban environment that, at the moment for many, offers safer and more habitable living environment than agricultural land full of herbicides, pests, antibiotics and antibiotics resistant bacteria. Through systematically co-designed and co-created so called eco-systemic ‘prototypical urban interventions’ </em><em>(Doherty, 2005)</em><em>, the project aims to motivate generation of edible landscape, social, cultural and habitable urban environment across the species. We claim that designers should be no longer designing for- but designing with- the overall eco-system. This case study helps to justify first author’s ratified design field Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance, covering fusion of variety of co-design across eco-system in process based fields.</em></p> <p><em>This is an extended, edited and updated article based on a working paper ‘COLridor: Co-Design and Co-Living for Sustainable Futures’ </em><em>(Davidová &amp; Zímová, 2017)</em><em> for Relating Systems Thinking and Design 6 conference within the theme ‘Environment, Economy, Democracy: Flourishing Together’ </em><em>(Sevaldson, 2017)</em><em>.&nbsp;</em></p> Marie Davidova Kateřina Zímová Opphavsrett 2018 Marie Davidova, Kateřina Zímová https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-19 2018-10-19 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2647 Biodiversity and climate change adaptation through non-discrete architectural spaces and architectures https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2287 <p><em>The research claims that traditions are not static. They develop and adapt based on the present situation. Due to the recent climate extremes coming to formally mild climate locations, their architectures can learn from traditional ones from more climate extreme locations. The present systemic design study on semi-interior, ‘non-discrete spaces’ </em><em>(Hensel, 2013; Hensel &amp; Turko, 2015)</em><em>, of Norwegian traditional architectures, so called ‘svalgangs’ and ‘skuts’ examine its reuse for today climate change adaptation and support of biodiversity that is currently decreasing. Our agricultural land become so toxic, that its species are recently moving and adapting for life in the cities. The discussed traditional spaces offer various boundary penetration of its surrounding environment while providing mediation of its biotic and abiotic agency. These do not cover only anthropocentric benefits for its users such as light and climate comfort but also offer opportunities of communication with other species or their sheltering. </em></p> <p><em>This practitioners’ historical research survey motivated by design co-developes its own systemic process based methodology Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance that originates from ‘Systems Oriented Design’ </em>(Sevaldson, 2013b)<em> and ‘Time Based Design’ </em><em>(Sevaldson, 2004)</em><em>. Where, this ‘non-anthropocentric architecture’ </em><em>(Hensel, 2012)</em><em> is in over-evolving co-design with ambient environment’s abiotic and biotic agents, including humans.</em></p> Marie Davidova Dana Rakova Opphavsrett 2018 Marie Davidova, Dana Rakova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2287 Relating Systems Thinking and Design IV https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2973 <p>The fourth special issue of FormAkademisk on the theme of Systemic Design features articles from RSD5 2016 held at OCADU, Toronto October 13 to 15. The themes of these five full papers are covering development of the design field at large, methodology development and practice of learning and education. The other main thread in this issue is sustainability, circular economy and urban co living strategies.</p> <p>The special issue follows after the publication of the RSD5 proceedings , containing videos, abstracts and working papers from the conference. In these full papers the themes form the presentations and working papers are developed further. The proceedings are found at:</p> <p><a href="https://systemic-design.net/rsd-symposia/rsd5-2016/"><em>https://systemic-design.net/rsd-symposia/rsd5-2016/</em></a></p> <p>Parallel to this special issue a Springer Book is published with Peter Jones as editor presenting an additional set of selected papers.</p> <p>Following the three former special issues it is fair to state that systemic design has developed beyond the initial point where it was still unclear what the notion of Systemic Design was covering and how it should be developed. The current issue demonstrates that systemic design has a wide reach and depth in its explorations.</p> <p>Cover image by <span lang="NO-BOK" style="font-size: 11.0pt; font-family: 'Calibri',sans-serif; color: #1f497d;">Elisabeth Bjørndal Skjelten.</span></p> Birger Sevaldson Opphavsrett 2018 Birger Sevaldson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-18 2018-10-18 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2973 Facing complexity through varying the clarification of the design task https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2621 <p>Today, most challenges designers face are complex. One way industrial design engineers have learned to deal with this complexity is to simplify the problem early on—for example, by focusing on one particular context, e.g. user group. Variations are typically addressed, but preferably inside the simplified design task or even after initial success has been achieved and a path has been set out. A range of authors have suggested ways to address variations during the design process. This paper contributes to exploring this notion of variation by presenting an approach that emphasises contextual variation early on, clarifying the design task before the design process, in a narrow sense, begins. This enables designers to seize opportunities that reveal themselves before a final path is set. Based on real-life cases and discussion of existing literature, the value of this approach for an industrial designer’s arsenal is explored and guidance for next steps is offered.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em><strong>Keywords</strong><strong>:</strong></em> context variation, complexity, design arsenal, variation of the design task, design approach</p> Wouter Carel Kersten Jan Carel Diehl Jo M.L. van Engelen Opphavsrett 2018 Wouter Carel Kersten, Jan Carel Diehl, Jo M.L. van Engelen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2621 Systemic design agendas in education and design research https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2608 <p><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">Since 2014, an international collaborative of design leaders has been exploring ways in which methods can be augmented, transitioning from the heritage legacy focus on products and services towards a broad range of complex sociotechnical systems and contemporary societal problems issues. At the RSD4 Symposium (2015), DesignX co-founder Don Norman presented a keynote talk on the frontiers of design practice and necessity for advanced design education for highly complex sociotechnical problems. He identified the qualities of these systems as relevant to DesignX problems, and called for systemics, transdisciplinarity and the need for high-quality observations (or evidence) in these design problems.&nbsp; Initial directions found were proposed in the first DesignX workshop in October 2015, which were published in the design journal Shè Jì.&nbsp; In October 2016, another DesignX workshop was held at Tongji University in Shanghai, overlapping with the timing of the RSD5 Symposium where this workshop was convened. The timing of these events presented an opportunity to explore design education and research concepts, ideas and directions of thought that emerged from the multiple discussions and reflections through this experimental workshop. The aim of this paper is to report on the workshop as a continuing project in the DesignX discourse, to share reflections and recommendations from this working group.</span></p> Susu Nousala David Ing Peter Hayward Jones Opphavsrett 2018 Susu Nousala, David Ing, Peter Hayward Jones https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2608 Systemic design and policy making https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2219 <p>The paradigm shift from a linear to a circular economic model has been increasingly advocated by many, from the scientific community to governments. The benefits of a Circular Economy (CE) are particularly appealing for Europe, considering the issues Europe is currently facing. Even though the European Union (EU) promotes activities to support the transition to a CE, several economic, social and regulatory barriers hinder this. The full potential of a CE can be realised only after these barriers have been overcome. Given the current European context in relation to policymaking for a CE, the paper provides a case study of the RETRACE Interreg Europe project to argue that the methodology of the Systemic Design approach can support the transition to a Circular Economy, thus overcoming existing barriers. The focus of the discussion will be narrowed to the Piedmont region (Italy) to better support the argument.</p> Silvia Barbero Agnese Pallaro Opphavsrett 2018 Silvia Barbero, Agnese Pallaro https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2219 Powerful learning at SEA https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2004 <p><em>The Sea Education Association (SEA) has an international reputation for creating powerful learning experiences in semester-long programs that involve conducting scientific research while sailing tall ships. To what extent, how and why these experiences occur was studied through interviews, extant data analysis, and participant observation of the SEA Semester program Marine Biodiversity and Conservation. Themes consistent with past studies of powerful learning emerged, for example, authenticity, openness, relationships with others, and intense engagement, while outcomes continued to be highly individual. Relationships among these themes point toward complexity, design, and systemic design and suggest seeds of a theory of powerful learning systems.&nbsp;</em></p> Gordon Rowland Allison L. Kitchen-Meyer Opphavsrett 2018 Gordon Rowland, Allison L. Kitchen-Meyer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2004 Drawing as performance https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2681 <p><em>The objective of the present article is to re-work and radically reframe a case study on drawing presented at the E&amp;PDE conference, hosted by OsloMet in the early autumn of 2017. The case study was experimental – involving a drawer, </em><em>a furniture designer, an MA student (at the time) and an anthropologist. The present article ventures to draw certain learning outcomes from the experiment. These are presently relevant in the context of the heritage of a drawing school founded in 1818 and in the wake of the current activities in artistic research (AR) at the Oslo National Academy of the Arts (KHiO). The focus is on the educational aspects of ‘doing research’. The article queries the relation between drawing, writing and field research in the history of the school and currently in AR.</em></p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em>:</strong> drawing, writing, field research, process, reframing, case study, comparison, first science, third-party readability, non-philosophy.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Theodor Barth Opphavsrett 2018 Theodor Barth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-09 2018-10-09 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2681 Når tilskueren tegner https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2741 <p><em>Etter 2. verdenskrig har vitnebeskrivelser og fotografier dominert spredningen av kunnskap om holocaust. Bakgrunnen for artikkelen er utfordringer rundt formidling av disse hendelsene i vår tid. Innledningsvis poengteres viktigheten av å opprettholde formidling av holocaust. Teksten henter eksempler fra resepsjonsteori, og etterspør nye måter å fremme tilskuerens aktive engasjement. Den historiske bakgrunnen forklares. Gjennom en serie workshoper utprøves en fenomenologisk tilnærming gjennom tegning for å minnes ofre av holocaust. Tre eksempler fra workshopene viser ulike deltakeres tilnærming, samt mulige utfordringer. Resultater av workshopene, observasjoner og tilbakemeldinger diskuteres underveis. Artikkelen vil ta opp utfordringer ved prosjektet og mulige feilkilder man kan støte på. </em><em>Observasjoner av og tilbakemeldinger fra deltakerne i workshopene ser ut til å bekrefte at en innpakket stein med et nummer fungerte forløsende for flertallet fra posisjonen som passiv betrakter til aktiv, etterforskende tegner.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Nøkkelord: </em></strong>kunstnerisk utviklingsarbeid, tegning, holocaust, deltakerbasert minnekultur, formidlingsmetoder, resepsjonsteori</p> Hilde Kramer Opphavsrett 2018 Hilde Kramer https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-09 2018-10-09 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2741 Participation in hybrid sketching https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2676 <p><em>In the age of digitalisation, the role of the sketch has taken new forms, but it still works as a mediator between people who work to create something together. There is, however, a lack of knowledge about how the sketch can be used as a strategy to increase participation and collaboration in creative processes. Participation in various types of sketching was explored through a case study with a participatory design approach in a public art project for a health centre. The study demonstrated how hybrid materialisations of a sketch have value as a communicative medium. Essential concepts emerged from collaborative learning in fieldwork that created shared understanding based on drawing experiments. The concepts contribute to a typology of hybrid sketches used as creativity skills in the expanded field of art. </em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords: </em></strong>Collaborative learning, participatory design, artistic research, drawing in the expanded field, management of creative processes</p> Arild Berg Opphavsrett 2018 Arild Berg https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-09 2018-10-09 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2676 Striper https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2682 <p>Striper blir i denne studien undersøkt gjennom Friedrich Schillers konsepter om menneskets tre grunndrifter i form; formdrift, stoffdrift og lekedrift. Schillers teoretiske begreper brukes til å fokusere på forskning om form i forhold til menneskets trang og ønske om å forme. Gjennom å vise konkrete eksempler av striper som er materialisert på ulike måter i kunst og design viser artikkelen hvordan Schillers begreper kan brukes til å øve studenter og lærere i design- og kunstutdannelse til å se egen og andres praksis gjennom et kunstteoretisk blikk, og slik gi økt forståelse for sammenheng mellom teori og praksis.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Arild Berg Karen Disen Opphavsrett 2018 Arild Berg, Karen Disen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-09 2018-10-09 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2682 Hvordan øke bevisstheten om den førspråklige dimensjonen av det kroppslige nærværet i tegning? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2829 <p><em>I tillegg til dialogen som organismen fører med den ytre verden ved hjelp sansene, finnes det under tegneprosessen en uartikulert førspråklig kobling mot de stimuli, som kommer fra den «ikke synlige» indre fornemmende kroppen. Forskningsspørsmålet jeg har valgt å arbeide med i artikkelen er: Hvordan øke bevisstheten om den førspråklige dimensjonen av det kroppslige nærværet i tegning? Dette undersøkes gjennom Merleau Ponty sin tenkning rundt kroppsfenomenologi, Derrida sitt syn på tegneren som blind, psykolog Stern sin tenkning om vitalitetsaffekt. Likeledes inspirasjon fra forskere som </em><em>Petitmengin med sin mikrofenomenologiske metode, Berger sin pedagogiske tenkning og studier av kroppens rolle i vitenskapelig forskning og ulike forfattere innen kroppskognisjon teori som fremhever betydningen av det førspråklig i tenkning. Forskningsspørsmålet vil også bli belyst ut fra min erfaring som kunstner og som tegnelærer på Institutt for landskapsarkitektur ved NMBU</em></p> Christian Montarou Opphavsrett 2018 Christian Montarou https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2829 Experimental psychology and visual artwork https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2827 <ol> <li class="p1 show"><span class="s1"><em>This article explores ways in which modern experimental psychology can provide information about aspects of the processes involved in the creation of visual art. Many areas of research in the fields of neuroscience and cognitive neuropsychology yield information that can be used to develop techniques to benefit the production of art. Several phenomena are discussed to provide a comprehensive perspective on the psychological, behavioural and physiological processes that influence the creation of artwork. </em></span></li> </ol> <p class="p1"><span class="s1"><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>: paradoxical facilitation, cognitive psychology, system 1, system 2, verbal overshadowing, perceptual constancy, categorical, coordinate, TMS</em></span></p> Stine Vogt Opphavsrett 2018 Stine Vogt https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2827 Modelling as a fundament for creativity https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2673 <p>The overall setting around this investigation is the writing of a PhD thesis ‘To see the visually controlled’ (Frisch, 2010), where my aim was to document, describe, analyse, compare and theorise formal (teacher-initiated) and informal (children-initiated) visually controlled drawings, also called modelling drawing processes, among 9–12-year-olds. The modernist narrative in art education presented by Wilson (2004) claims that modelling in drawing among children is uncreative. My investigation shows how creative processes can be detected by using Vygotsky’s creativity theory and Kaufmann and Beghetto’s (2009) 4c creativity model within a sociocultural theoretical tradition. The acts of creative processes done by moving modelled elements in a drawing around has not been thoroughly seen as a central strategy in children´s drawing processes. This article is an attempt to shed light on these processes often found when looking at children’s informal drawing processes. The importance of these ‘shifting-around’ processes are not always regarded as valuable and related to both modelling and creativity. The relation between modelling in drawing and creativity as part of children´s drawing learning is explored in this article.</p> Nina Scott Frisch Opphavsrett 2018 Nina Scott Frisch https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2673 Begynnaropplæring i teikning https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2678 <p><em>Artikkelen har begynnaropplæring i teikning som tema. Ved å studere fagstoff om teikneopplæring nytta ved norske grunnskulelærarutdanningar, utviklar denne teksten tre ulike teoretiske kategoriar som skildrar teiknemetodiske tilnærmingar. Kategoriane er forma med støtte frå lese- og skriveopplæringsfeltet og omgrepa analytiske og syntetiske tilnærmingar, samt kunnskapsteoretiske og læringsteoretiske posisjonar. I tillegg blir omgrepet progresjon ved Ralph Tyler (1948) nytta for å utdjupe det som kjem fram. Bidraget er meint å vere ein forsiktig start på å utvikle ei teikneteoretisk plattform til støtte for dei institusjonane som utdannar lærarar for dei minste i skulen.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Karen Brænne Janne Heggvoll Opphavsrett 2018 Karen Braenne, Janne Heggvoll https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2678 Tegneundervisning og (poly)tekniske idealer https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2944 <p><em>Tegneskolen i Christiania ble opprettet i 1818. I undervisningen stod tegneopplæring sentralt. Fra oppstarten i 1818 var dette etter modell fra de europeiske kunstakademiene. Dette endret seg mot slutten av 1800-tallet, i takt med den teknologiske utviklingen i Europa som satte nye krav til tegnefaget. Idealene ble hentet fra École Polytechnique i Paris. </em></p> Mathilde Sprovin Opphavsrett 2018 Mathilde Sprovin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2944 Editorial. Drawing in Artistic Research – Whence and Wherefore? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2945 <p>The topic of this special issue of FormAkademisk is <em>drawing</em>. While the issue is hosted by the Oslo National Academy of the Arts (KHiO), the contributors have come in from different urban locations in Norway, including Volda, Trondheim, Bergen and Oslo. <em>We would like to use this occasion to extend our thanks to the external peer-reviewers</em>. They have helped in bringing the issue to its present level of quality</p> Theodor Barth Opphavsrett 2018 Theodor Barth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2945 FormAkademisk 10 år – med forskning på design og designdidaktikk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2966 <p><em>FormAkademisk</em> – <em>forskningstidsskrift for design og designdidaktikk</em> fyller 10 år omtrent på denne tida. I 2017 feira vi 10. årgang og i år er det 10 år siden den første redaksjonen starta sitt arbeid.</p> Janne Beate Reitan Opphavsrett 2018 Janne Beate Reitan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2966 Make it NOW! – Learning, Exploring and Understanding https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2751 <p><em>This issue of FormAkademisk features selected articles developed from papers presented at the Make it NOW</em><em>! Learning, Exploring and Understanding conference in Rauma, Finland, September 28-30, 2016</em><em>. This NordFo conference was organized by Rauma Unit of Turku University´s Department of Teacher Education. NordFo is a Nordic forum, supported by NordPlus, which since the 1980s has worked towards initiating, stimulating and reporting research and development work within the subject art and craft, textile work and woodwork and the teacher education in these subjects in the Nordic countries. The conference Make it NOW! aimed to “…provide an arena for discussions on craft, design and technology as an innovative combination of knowledge and skills related to eco-social values in altering the world according to human needs and wants”</em> (International NordFo Conference in Rauma, 2016). <em>This special issue of FormAkademisk</em><em> called for articles with an emphasis on the theme Researching embodied making and learning – New methodological vistas on Making, however this did not exclude papers from other sessions. Additionally, this issue contains </em><em>two </em><em>other, </em><em>independent articles that fit</em><em> this special issue’s scope. </em></p> Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Siri Homlong Mari-Ann Letnes Jaana Lepistõ Anniken Randers-Pehrson Opphavsrett 2018 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen, Siri Homlong, Mari-Ann Letnes, Jaana Lepistõ, Anniken Randers-Pehrson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-16 2018-05-16 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2751 Documentation as a practice-led research tool for reflection on experiential knowledge https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1818 <p>Practice-led research has been under debate for three decades. One of its major issues concerns how the researcher who is also the practitioner documents and reflects on her creative process in relation to a research topic. This article reviews and discusses documentation and reflection in practice-led research through three cases of doctoral dissertations that were completed at Aalto University in Finland. Through the cases the article examines the role the documentation and reflection of creative processes and products in these studies. In conclusion, documentation in the practice-led research context functions as conscious reflection on and in action. Any means of documentation, for example diary writing, photographing, or sketching, can serve as a mode of reflection.&nbsp;</p> Maarit Mäkelä Nithikul Nimkulrat Opphavsrett 2018 Maarit Mäkelä, Nithikul Nimkulrat https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-05-16 2018-05-16 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1818 Assessment of textile craft products’ creativity in the Latvian competition for pupils https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1912 <p><em>The purpose of the research is to explore the results of pupils’ creative activity in a competition in textile craft in Latvia and to find trends in the creation of textile craft products. The applied method is the analysis of creative work items made by pupils from Forms 6–7 (N1 = 106) and Forms 8–9 (N2 = 132): photos, designs and textile craft products. Among the hand and foot garments, the most popular products in both age groups were fingerless gloves. The knitting technique was used most frequently, and most of the items were wearable. Creativity predominantly manifested in the combinations of colours, techniques and materials, followed by creative technology solutions and creative product shapes. The results </em><em>regarding creativity were higher for the creation of textile craft products than for creating designs.</em></p> Māra Urdziņa-Deruma Opphavsrett 2018 Māra Urdziņa-Deruma https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-18 2018-04-18 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1912 Visual Ethnography as tool in exploring children's embodied making processes in preprimary education https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1909 <p><em>This article presents and discuss Visual Ethnography as Methodological approach to research on embodied making and learning in preprimary education. Children’s making processes with materials and tools are visible. What children learn in and through these processes is not necessary visible. The article reflect on how visual ethnography (Pink, 2007) contribute to uncover and understand ongoing learning processes through visual documented making situations. The empirical material referred to, includes children from one to six years old and staff in Norwegian kindergarten as participants. Ethnographic methods are frequently used in educational research. Rose (2007) discusses visual methods within different methodological approaches.</em></p> <p><em>Preschools and Early Childhood Centers in Reggio Emilia, Italy (Giudici, Rinaldi, Krechevsky, 2001; Rinaldi, 2006; Vecchi, 2010) has developed various ways of documentation that focus on visual readable material. Norwegian kindergartens inspired by the educational experiences in Reggio Emilia aims to develop pedagogical documentation as didactic tool in daily educational processes, with visual presentations as central part. The article discusses how visual ethnography as method gives the opportunity to present research findings also through visual representations, how these may give another insight in small children’s making than pure written text, and focus on ethical dilemmas concerning visual presentation. The connection between visual ethnography as research method and the presentation of research insights and findings, explore and visualize small children’s learning processes during embodied making with materials and tools, and contribute to research on children’s learning processes in preprimary education. </em></p> <p><em>Key words: </em>Visual ethnography, pictures, video, preprimary education, materials, embodied making and learning, Reggio Emilia atelier</p> Kari Carlsen Opphavsrett 2018 Kari Carlsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-18 2018-04-18 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1909 Colour and form https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1719 <p><em>This article investigates how </em><em>expressions</em><em> of vocational knowing regarding colour and form changed in Swedish upper secondary floristry education between 1990 and 2015. An analytical approach is used which falls within the framework of a sociocultural interpretation of educational activity. During the period studied, subject matter related to colour and form became increasingly formalised. Empirical data was obtained from multiple sources, including two interviews with an experienced senior teacher, which helped to reveal the local history of a leading Swedish floristry school. The findings of the article are as follows: (i) conceptualisation, verbal analysis and reflection have gained prominence in Swedish floristry education since the 1990s, and (ii) these tools have increasingly served to help participants in education make and express aesthetic judgements. Through a discussion of various aspects of contemporary Swedish floristry education, the article illuminates the complexity of long-term changes in vocational knowing.</em></p> Camilla Gåfvels Opphavsrett 2018 Camilla Gåfvels https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-11 2018-04-11 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1719 A continuum of measures of validity for research in the making fields https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2216 <p>With the growth of “making” doctorates in design-related fields comes the need to define how dissertations in these fields achieve doctoral robustness.&nbsp; This paper first suggests that this new category of doctoral degree is justifiable from a historical point of view.&nbsp; A brief survey of how the PhD emerged in the European tradition, and its trajectory through the centuries, reveals there have been previous changes in the areas of study deemed worthy of doctoral distinction.&nbsp; On this view, we can justify awarding doctorates in the “making” fields, from art to architecture, on historical grounds.&nbsp; The aspect that has remained constant through the years, however, is that the doctoral degree signifies inclusion in a community of learners and, in turn, doctoral learning has positively impacted human community in general.&nbsp; Making doctorates should therefore not be so unique and exclusive that they separate themselves from the historic community-building role doctorates have played.&nbsp; The second part of this paper suggests a way towards this inclusivity.&nbsp; This paper proposes a “continuum of measures of research validity” to help researchers (and evaluators) in making doctorates anchor their research logic in measures that have roots in scientific method.&nbsp; The continuum is purposefully broad, beginning with standard measures of scientific research, but stretching those measures all the way to fictive constructions.&nbsp; Within this broad continuum, dissertations in the making fields can comfortably fall within the scope of doctoral research using expanded definitions for measures of validity. The paper concludes with four recommendations for candidates in the making fields, for the committees that guide them, and for the emerging community of making doctoral research as a whole.</p> David Wang Opphavsrett 2018 David Wang https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-04-04 2018-04-04 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2216 Humor supporting preschoolers in designing and making crafts https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1858 <p><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: NO-BOK; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">This study aims to examine how designing and making humorous craft products can be connected to storytelling. The study involved 17 preschoolers who were tasked to design a soft toy that would make others laugh. The brainstorming was supported by collaborative and individual activities (e.g., discussions and sketching). The preschoolers told humorous stories inspired by the craft process. Humor and different activities form an inspiring starting point for the design process. Craft making with humor motivates children, gives them story ideas, and makes learning more holistic. Storytelling makes children’s thoughts on their soft toys visible. Girls’ and boys’ views differ on what makes others laugh. Girls prefer to laugh together, whereas boys’ humor is aggressive, unconventional, and may be based on embarrassing others or laughing at others’ expense. Girls emphasize the significance of cheering up others; thus, they are more product oriented than boys.</span></p> Marja-Leena Rönkkö Juli-Anna Aerila Opphavsrett Marja-Leena Rönkkö, Juli-Anna Aerila https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1858 Why our brains love arts and crafts https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1908 <p><em>Art and craft practitioners have personal experience of the benefits of making: the handling of material can help to regulate our mental states through providing a means to reach flow states. The mirror neuron system helps in skill learning, and the plasticity of the brain ensures that skills may be learned at all stages of life. Arts and crafts play a role in controlling stress and enhancing relaxation. They also enable us to fail safely and handle our emotions. Furthermore, they facilitate social activity for many individuals who are at risk of social isolation. This article aims to integrate knowledge from both the field of neuroscience and the arts by focusing on the implications that flow experience and the mirror neuron system integral to making processes have on our psychophysical well-being.</em></p> Minna Huotilainen Mimmu Rankanen Camilla Groth Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Maarit Mäkelä Opphavsrett Camilla Groth, Maarit Mäkelä, Mimmu Rankanen, Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Minna Huotilainen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-02-12 2018-02-12 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1908 Bærekraftig utvikling gjennom skapende praksis https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1825 <p><em><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: medium;">Faget Kunst og håndverk er grunnskolens linse til gjenstandenes, byggenes og bildenes verden; det allmenndannende faget innen visuell og materiell kultur. Faget rommer praktisk problemløsning, estetiske erfaringer, nærhet til materialer og et vurderende blikk. Kunst- og håndverkslærererne står i verkstedet med materialene i hendene og har mulighet til å sette små dagligdagse handlinger og meninger inn i en større sammenheng og utfordre elever til å ta ansvar for det de gjør og det de kanskje velger å ignorere. Artikkelen søker å forsterke fagets samfunnsmandat gjennom å peke på hvilket potensial det har til å fremme økoliteracy og kimer til å bebo denne verden bedre gjennom fire innganger: estetisk erfaring, innovasjon, praktisk arbeid og kritisk refleksjon. </span></em></p> Eva Lutnæs Nina Fallingen Opphavsrett 2017 Eva Lutnæs, Nina Fallingen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-29 2017-12-29 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1825 Internasjonal anerkjennelse av FormAkademisk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2538 <p>FormAkademisk ble – som eneste designforskningstidsskrift i Norden – invitert til Design Journal Editors’ Meeting på College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP), University of Cincinnati i slutten av oktober. Møtet ble arrangert i forkant av konferansen IASDR 2017, den verdensomspennende organisasjonen for designforskning.</p><p>Liv Merete Nielsen, som opprinnelig tok initiativet til å opprette FormAkademisk og har vært seksjonsredaktør siden oppstarten og jeg, som har vært ansvarlig redaktør hele perioden, reiste sammen til møtet.</p><p>FormAkademisk var i godt selskap – blant de andre som var invitert, kan vi nevne det amerikanske <em>Design Issues</em> og det britiske <em>Design Studies, </em>begge tidsskrift på nivå 2 i Norsk vitenskapsindeks – NVI. Andre anerkjente tidsskrift som var invitert, var <em>International Journal of Design </em>fra Taiwan, <em>She Ji - The Journal of Design, Economics, and Innovation </em>fra Tongji University i Shanghai i Kina<em>, Design and Culture </em>fra USA<em>, Co-Design </em>fra Storbritannia<em>, Information Design Journal </em>utgitt i Nederland med en internasjonal redaksjon<em>, Journal of Design, Business &amp; Society </em>med en internasjonal redaksjon<em>, </em>det franske<em> Sciences du Design </em>og <em>Visible Language </em>ved University of Cincinnati, som var vertskap for møtet<em>.</em></p><p>Mike Zender ved College of Design, Architecture, Art, and Planning (DAAP), University of Cincinnati og redaktør for tidsskriftet <em>Visible Language </em>hadde tatt initiativ til og ledet møtet. Målsettinga var at redaktørene for disse tidsskriftene skulle diskutere felles utfordringer for tidsskriftene.</p><p>Først varmet vi opp ved at hvert tidsskrift beskrev sin redaksjonelle profil. Fra FormAkademisk la jeg vekt på at vi har to bein å stå på – forskning innen design, men også designutdanning av folk flest – <em>design education for the general public</em>. Denne kombinasjonen ser vi ut til å være alene om internasjonalt.</p><p>Felles saker som ble diskutert videre var utfordringer med kvaliteten på innsendte artikler og å få kvalifiserte fagfeller. Vi diskuterte også om vi skulle bli enige om en felles forståelse av hva det innebærer av medvirkning for å stå oppført som artikkelforfatter. Det var enighet om at vi ønsket flere slike møter for å diskutere felles utfordringer for forskningstidsskrift for design og designutdanning framover, gjerne i forbindelse med de største internasjonale designforsker­konferansene. Vi ønsker også kurs i fagfellevurdering og artikkelskriving. Ut fra diskusjonene, kommer FormAkademisk godt ut sammenlignet med de andre internasjonalt ledende forsknings­­tidsskriftene innen design og designutdanning.</p><p>Etter møtet i Cincinnati har det vært livlige diskusjoner på email mellom de inviterte til <em>Design Journal Editors’ Meeting </em>i Cincinnati i oktober. Vi ser fram til neste møte for å diskutere felles utfordringer for tidsskriftene innen designforskning.</p><p>Et felles problem for tidsskriftene er å finne gode fagfeller som kan vurdere artiklene. Vi oppfordrer derfor alle som blir spurt om å si ja til å være fagfeller. Husk at for hver artikkel du sender inn til vurdering er det to fagfeller som stiller opp for deg!</p> Janne Beate Reitan Opphavsrett 2017 Janne Beate Reitan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-12-06 2017-12-06 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2538 Det skapende rom https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1400 <p><em>I denne artikkelen rettes blikket mot selve opplevelsen i den skapende prosess, de ikke-målbare kvaliteter, spesielt i forhold til faget Kunst og håndverk. Artikkelens data består av </em><em>tre ulike utøvergruppers arbeidsprosess i en bestemt type maleoppgave; maling med musikk som inspirasjon. De tre utøvergruppene hadde ulik alder, bakgrunn og skolering. Disse tre gruppene skal eksemplifisere hvilke opplevelser som kan oppstå i noen utvalgte skapende prosesser. Teorigrunnlaget er Czsikmyhalis flow-teori og Hans-Georg Gadamers hermeneutiske teori. Intensjonen er å bringe inn et perspektiv for å øke bevissthet og omtanke av enkelte forhold vedrørende tilrettelegging for skapende aktiviteter i skolen.</em><strong></strong></p><p><em><br /></em></p> Solveig Toft Kari Holte Opphavsrett 2017 Solveig Toft, Kari Holte https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-11-01 2017-11-01 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1400 The domestication of planning ideas – the case of Shared Space https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1675 <p><strong></strong>New planning ideas of diverse types, ranging from new design concepts to large-scale development policies, are inherently challenging because they involve changes to prevailing thought and practice. As they are passed on, though, they are subjected to translation, adjusting them to discourses prevailing in different contexts, and often resulting in conceptual distortion. This article seeks to contribute to the theorization of the translation of planning ideas, by proposing the concept of domestication as a means of understanding such distortion. An analysis of one such challenging idea - <em>Shared Space</em> - serves to illustrate this concept and assess its usefulness.</p> Sebastian Peters Opphavsrett 2017 Sebastian Peters https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-10-23 2017-10-23 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1675 Bokanmeldelse: Kritisk diskursanalyse https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2300 <p>Det er ikke skrevet særlig mange bøker av nordiske forfattere om diskursanalyse, trass i den store interessen for diskursperspektiver og diskursteoretiske begreper blant forskere og studenter i samfunnsfagene. Sosiologen Joar Skredes bok <em>Kritisk diskursanalyse</em> (Cappelen Damm Akademisk, 2017) er et av de få nyere bidragene. Boka tar for seg en spesiell retning innenfor det diskursanalytiske landskapet. Som bokas tittel signaliserer, dreier det seg om såkalt kritisk diskursanalyse.</p> Petter Næss Opphavsrett 2017 Petter Næss https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-10-16 2017-10-16 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2300 Reflecting Contemporary Design Research https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1721 <p><em>In recent years, design research has been the object of growing attention in universities and academies throughout the world. The present article addresses the heterogeneous character of design research and the current need for reflection on the various approaches and interests. For this purpose, the paper follows two steps. First, it proposes a categorization of the field in the form of a position model. The article's underlying assumption is that design research as a discipline exists in many different forms that cannot necessarily be brought together under one common academic research tradition; instead it is necessary to attempt to define the field in order to initiate discussions about what constitutes the various research bases for design. Second, the article discusses the implication for future design research when it is an interdisciplinary field that involves many disciplines, mindsets and methodological practices. </em></p><p class="Pa1"> </p> Ida Engholm Opphavsrett 2017 Ida Engholm https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-10-16 2017-10-16 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1721 Design Learning for Tomorrow https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2271 <p>This special issue of Form Akademisk consist of four selected peer reviewed articles developed from papers held at <em>The 3rd International Conference for Design Education Researchers - DRS/CUMULUS learnxdesign conference</em> held in Chicago from the 28<sup>th</sup> of June – 30<sup>th</sup> of June 2015. The conference was implemented through close cooperation between the Design Research Society (DRS) and the International Association of Universities and Schools of Design, Art and Media (CUMULUS). It was hosted by School of the Art Institute of Chicago. </p> Nina Scott Frisch Silje Bergman Opphavsrett 2017 Silje Bergman https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-09-18 2017-09-18 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2271 Visual strategies for co-design with a community partner https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1727 <p class="Abstract">Deficient financial literacy is an important international problem, and research suggests the potential effectiveness of narrative visualizations. This paper presents a case study: a collaboration between a class of design students and a community-based financial-counseling organization to develop financial-literacy comic strips for use with the organization’s low-income clients. We describe and examine the communication challenges between a community partner and an academic institution, detailing the several communication modes employed. These modes include questionnaire and surveys of the counsellors; emails directly between students and counsellors; and most successfully, a hands-on visualization workshop with counsellors. The visualizations engaged counsellors with generated (based) design practices, which resulted in superior communication with design students. Lessons from this experience may be broadly useful for any collaborative efforts among academic institutions, design students and community partners. </p> Aaron Fry Carol Overby Jennifer Wilson Opphavsrett 2017 Aaron Fry, Carol Overby, Jennifer Wilson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-09-13 2017-09-13 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1727 Preparing the way for mainstream sustainable product design https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1657 <p class="Abstract">This paper proposes that there is a need to prepare undergraduate design students to be responsible practitioners when they enter the workplace. The multi-faceted approach adopted by the Design School at Loughborough University to achieve this is presented. The paper outlines and reflects on the differences between the idealistic environment provided within an educational setting and the actual situation in the design industry, where there is little evidence of mainstream sustainable design practice. The paper concludes that it is valuable to provide students with a range of skills that support sustainable design thinking, even if they are not currently required by the design industry because doing so turns the students into informed individuals with the potential to lead the next generation of design practitioners.</p> Vicky Lofthouse Opphavsrett 2017 Vicky Lofthouse https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-09-11 2017-09-11 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1657 Intuition, Reflection and Reflexivity https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1643 <p class="Abstract">This paper synthesises findings from a design method course that focused on a design brief in shared medical decision making. In the paper, design methods is a term describing any action undertaken for a forward movement in the design process. The course is based on a selection of assignments that target intuition, reflection and reflexivity. Although many science disciplines strive to include more elements of active and practice-based learning, design education faces the challenge of integrating theory in a ‘designerly’ way. The current curriculum offers little opportunity to train these skills together with traditional practice-based ones. However, the complexity of design tasks in interconnected systems with manifold stakeholders and users requires a cohesive design research approach to govern its inherent complexity. Using the findings of this case study, design students can integrate theory in their practical work and welcome the confrontation found in current design research literature, helping them contextualise the meaning of design, be inspired and develop an individual stance on the purpose of design.</p><div> </div> Kathrina Dankl Opphavsrett 2017 Kathrina Dankl https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1643 Advancing Design Thinking Towards a Better Understanding of Self and Others https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1649 <p class="Normal1"><em>In advancing the design discipline, two key themes repeatedly emerge: design's move away from materialism and augmenting better problem-solving skills through self-awareness. The first anchors design in a process rather than a product, something that is native to the concept of design thinking. The second anchors the designer in ethics. Designers who have a strong sense of self-awareness, understanding their own roles, biases and influences and the larger contexts they inhabit, are overall better equipped to solve problems. If we continue to advance design away from materialism and towards self-awareness, what models can we follow in this change? </em></p><div> </div> Meredith James Opphavsrett 2017 Meredith James https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-09-04 2017-09-04 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1649 Relating Systems Thinking and Design III https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/2137 <p>This special issue of Form Akademisk captures some of the systemic design thinking and research presented at the RSD3 conference, held in Oslo, Norway in 2014, and the RSD4 conference, held in Banff, Canada in 2015. These two conferences offered a range of submissions encompassing the fields of design, systemics, public policy, healthcare, and other domains. This body of work explores the emerging renaissance of systems thinking in design. The papers presented here are responses to the world we live and design in, a world that is increasingly complex and increasingly problematic for those in government, industry and academia alike.</p><p> We believe that the thinking and intervention developed at RSD3 and RSD4 is well poised to meet these challenges. In this issue, we offer two sets of papers; the first set focuses on frameworks and organizing concepts, and the second set focuses on methods and tools to aid in systemic design.</p> Jodi Forlizzi Birger Sevaldson Alex Ryan Opphavsrett 2017 Jodi Forlizzi, Birger Sevaldson, Alex Ryan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-05-24 2017-05-24 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.2137 Systemic Design for Second-Order Effects https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1690 <em>Second-order effects refer to changes within a system that are the result of changes made somewhere else in the system (the first-order effects). Second-order effects can occur at different spatial, temporal, or organizational scales from the original interventions, and are difficult to control. Some organizational theorists suggest that careful management of feedback processes can facilitate controlled change from one organizational configuration to another. Recognizing that skill in managing feedback processes is a core competency of design suggests that design skills are potentially useful tools in achieving organizational change. This paper describes a case study in which a co-design methodology was used to control the second-order effects resulting from a classroom intervention to create organizational change. This approach is then theorized as the Instigator Systems approach.</em> Evan Barba Opphavsrett 2017 Evan Barba https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-04-19 2017-04-19 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1690 Systemic Approach to Architectural Performance https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1713 <p><em>First-hand experiences in several design projects that were based on media richness and collaboration are described in this article. Although complex design processes are merely considered as socio-technical systems, they are deeply involved with natural systems. My collaborative research in the field of performance-oriented design combines digital and physical conceptual sketches, simulations and prototyping. GIGA</em><em>-mapping </em><em>- is applied to organise the data. The design process uses the most suitable tools, for the subtasks at hand, and the use of media is mixed according to particular requirements. These tools include digital and physical GIGA-mapping, parametric computer aided design (CAD), digital simulation of analyses, as well as sampling and 1:1 prototyping. Also discussed in this article are the methodologies used in several design projects to strategize these tools and the developments and trends in the tools employed. The paper argues that the digital tools tend to produce similar results through given pre-sets that often do not correspond to real needs. Thus, there is a significant need for mixed methods including prototyping in the creative design process. Media mixing and cooperation across disciplines is unavoidable in the holistic approach to contemporary design. This includes the consideration of diverse biotic and abiotic agents. I argue that physical and digital GIGA-mapping is a crucial tool to use in coping with this complexity. Furthermore, I propose the integration of physical and digital outputs in one GIGA-map and the participation and co-design of biotic and abiotic agents into one </em>rich design research space<em>, which is resulting in an ever-evolving research-design process-result </em>time-based design<em>.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> Marie Davidova Opphavsrett 2017 Marie Davidova https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-04-19 2017-04-19 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1713 The Many Faces of Design https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1458 <p><em>In light of contemporary global pressures, designers have been considering how to apply their thinking and practice more broadly within the enterprise of sustainability. Given the often wicked nature and cross-scale dynamics of related challenges, there is reason to reassess the role of design in processes of systems transformation amidst complexity. In this </em><em>manuscript, the author contemplates the diversity of ‘designerly ways’, in interpretation of designers’ encounters with complex adaptive systems. These interactions are classified here using the three lenses of adaptive response, creative agency and emergent engagement.</em></p><em><br /></em> Perin L.Z. Ruttonsha Opphavsrett 2017 Perin Ruttonsha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-04-05 2017-04-05 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1458 Redesigning Systems Thinking https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1755 <p><em>The resent movement of Systemic Design seeks for new synergies between Design and Systems. While the usefulness of systems approaches in design has been fairly obvious, this paper argues that many core concepts in design are beneficial in systems thinking. This seems reasonable when it comes to the concept of Design Thinking. However, as this paper argues, the more practical core concepts of design are equally important. Designerly skills have been regarded as belonging mainly in the realm of traditional commercial design, whereas design thinking has been regarded as useful in strategic management settings. This paper argues against the idea of separating design thinking from design action. The skills and competences of design, such as the composition of the shape and form that are obvious in product design, are central to Systems Oriented Design (SOD). SOD is a version in the emerging pluralistic field of Systemic Design. The Systemic Design movement should recognise the core values of design and integrate them in systems thinking. This integration would contribute to innovation in both Systemic Design and systems thinking. Among the core competences of design discussed in the paper are composition, choreography, orchestration, the notion of the Gesamtkunstwerk and open-ended multi-scalar design strategies that allow for both structural and organic development. The paper provides examples to support its proposal for the use of concrete aesthetic principles to guide Systemic Design processes. This paper expands the working paper entitled “Holistic and dynamic concepts in design: What design brings to systems thinking”, which was presented at the RSD3 symposium (2014).</em></p> Birger Sevaldson Opphavsrett 2017 Birger Sevaldson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-03-21 2017-03-21 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1755 Co-designing with relationships in mind https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1608 <p><em>We need to move from object-oriented thinking towards relational thinking for many reasons. As public services become more complex, their design increasingly focuses on the relationships between people. The role of the traditional service staff is shifting from a ‘provider’ to an ‘enabler’ and ‘facilitator’ of relationships between service users, their peers, family or members of the civil service. Many agree that the future of public services relies on relational services, relational welfare and a relational state. Yet we don’t have a shared vocabulary to describe good relationships nor materials to </em><em>design for services that support meaningful relationships</em><em>. We visually perceive the world as fragmented parts rather than seeing the connection amongst the parts. This perception is integrated with cognition, therefore when mapping complex systems, nodes are emphasized over their relations in-between. Categorizing and color-coding types of systemic relations are useful to understand but not sufficient to shape complex social relationships. </em><em>We propose a multi-sensory relational tool that aids public servants, designers and users in understanding social relationships through the use of material properties as new design materials</em><em>. Testing this tool revealed that people are enabled, within a short timeframe, to create a shared relational vocabulary and use </em><em>the tool to co-design new service concepts</em><em>. However, future research needs to address how to move from theory to practice, hence from concepts to prototyping.</em></p> Manuela Aguirre-Ulloa Adrian Paulsen Opphavsrett 2017 Manuela Aguirre-Ulloa, Adrian Paulsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-03-15 2017-03-15 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1608 Introducing systems-oriented design for complex societal contexts in design engineering education https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1460 <em>As our society faces large-scale wicked problems like global warming, resource depletion, poverty and humanitarian emergencies, problem solvers are required to apply new reasoning models more appropriate to deal with these complex societal problems. Dealing with these problems poses unfamiliar challenges in contexts with poor financial and infrastructural resources. Systems Oriented Design (SOD) has been recognized in the literature as a promising approach, capable to support design engineers to deal with these complex societal problems. This paper explores the application of SOD in the development of Product-Service System (PSS) concepts by student teams in a multidisciplinary master course. The course resulted in twelve concepts that were analysed using a case study approach with the support of protocol analysis. The analysis results in a description of advantages, context- and process-related challenges of using SOD. From an education point-of-view, the results demonstrate that even though SOD provides students with a broad knowledge base and skills to deal with problems in complex societal contexts, there is still the need to introduce the appropriate scope and depth in the design engineering curricula, making the transition from traditional product design, a challenging one.</em> Jairo da Costa Junior Ana Laura Rodrigues dos Santos Jan Carel Diehl Opphavsrett 2017 Jairo da Costa Junior, Ana Laura Rodrigues dos Santos, Jan Carel Diehl https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-03-14 2017-03-14 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1460 Integrating Systems Thinking and Storytelling https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/874 <em>This paper explores the role of design in conflict resolution when doing so means balancing burdened pasts with present uncertainties. To prove its relevance in today’s complex problem spaces, design cannot remain stagnant; it must evolve alongside the pace of development. Designing within complexity is unprecedented. Yet, design can define structures that guide an understanding of this complexity. The methodology and case study described in this paper explore how systems thinking, storytelling and grounded theory can contribute to this understanding. The methodology aims to combine subjective perspectives with systemic analyses to create a collective narrative that reveals the multitude of individual understandings of conflicts. Ultimately, this methodology does not attempt to resolve conflict; instead, it aims to provide an in-depth diagnosis of a wicked problem and question the role of design therein.</em> Maggie Ollove Diala Lteif Opphavsrett 2017 Maggie Ollove, Diala Lteif https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2017-03-14 2017-03-14 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.874 Lærernes arbeidstid i Kunst og håndverk – grunnlaget for gammeldags leseplikt i grunnskolen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1845 <p class="Abstract">En lærer i faget Kunst og håndverk på ungdomstrinnet har mindre tid til for- og etterarbeid enn lærere i andre fag. I denne artikkelen søker vi etter opphavet til denne differensieringen av lærernes arbeidstid og finner det i Lesepliktutvalgets utredning fra 1977. Der er det imidlertid ingen gode begrunnelser for hvorfor fagene får ulik leseplikt. Ti år senere legger <span>Utvalget til å vurdere undervisningspersonalets fremtidige arbeidssituasjon</span> (UFA-utvalget) beskrivelsene i de enkelte fagplanene til grunn for vurdering av lærernes leseplikt. Selv ikke etter innføringen av L97, der faget Kunst og håndverk fikk tydeligere innhold og lærerne større arbeidsbyrde, ble forskjellene i lærernes tid til for- og etterarbeid endret. Lærere har påpekt skjevheten, men leseplikten har forblitt uendret. Skoleledere har imidlertid gitt uttrykk for at leseplikten er rettferdig. I denne artikkelen drøfter vi hva som kan ligge til grunn for opprettholdelsen av denne gammeldagse leseplikten.</p> Catrine Lie Liv Merete Nielsen Opphavsrett 2016 Catrine Lie, Liv Merete Nielsen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-12-30 2016-12-30 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1845 Åpen tilgang til vitenskapelig publisering https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1880 <p>Interessen for åpen tilgang – open access – til vitenskapelig publisering er stadig økende, både i Norge og internasjonalt. FORMakademisk har helt fra starten blitt publisert som et <em>digitalt</em> vitenskapelig tidsskrift og var et av de første med <em>open access</em> i Norge. Vi har helt siden starten brukt Open Journal Systems (OJS) som publiseringsprogram. OJS er en del av Public Knowledge Project (PKP), som ble opprettet av canadiske John Willinsky og kretsen rundt han ved Faculty of Education ved University of British Columbia i 1998. Den første versjonen av OJS kom som open source software i 2001. Programmet er gratis å bruke for alle og er en del av en større kollektiv bevegelse, der kunnskap deles. Da FORMakademisk startet i 2008 fikk vi mye hjelp fra tidsskriftet Acta Didactica (u.å) ved Universitetet i Oslo, som hadde startet opp året før oss. De hadde også oversatt programmet til norsk. Vi kunne derfor helt fra starten publisere både på norsk og engelsk. Andre tidsskrift har brukt FORMakademisk som modell og inspirasjonskilde når de har startet opp sine tidsskrift – eller konvertert fra abonnementsbasert trykket tidsskrift til elektronisk open access, blant annet tidsskriftet til Norsk Medieforskerlag. Det er slik bevegelsen rundt PKP fungerer, og fortsetter å vokse, for å gi fri tilgang til forskning. Siden artiklene ligger åpent på nettet, er de også lett tilgjengelige for ikke-forskere. Vi legger også vekt på at språket skal være lett tilgjengelig, sjøl om det holder en høy vitenskapelig kvalitet. Ofte kan det være to sider av samme sak. Vi i redaksjonen ser nå fram til å ta i bruk den nyutviklede OJS 3 i løpet av våren – med mange nye funksjoner og bedre design for brukerne; forfattere, fagfeller, redaktører og lesere.</p> Janne Beate Reitan Opphavsrett 2016 Janne Beate Reitan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-12-21 2016-12-21 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1880 Criteria for architect selection and satisfaction among first-time private sector clients https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/761 <p><em>For sustained profitability, architects must position themselves to attract new clients. This involves understanding potential clients’ choices and how these might impact on subsequent satisfaction. The study ranked criteria for architect selection and how these predict satisfaction among first-time private sector clients in Lagos, Nigeria. Data from a questionnaire survey were analysed using descriptive statistics, relative importance index and categorical regression, identifying timely delivery, cost of service and quality of previous services as the most important criteria. Although personal relationship has been said to influence selection of a professional service provider, this criterion was found to be of relatively low importance here. To attract private sector clients, architects should prioritise improved service delivery and construction skill development.</em></p><div><hr align="left" size="1" width="33%" /></div><p><em><br /></em></p> Adedapo Adewunmi Oluwatayo Opphavsrett 2016 Adedapo Adewunmi Oluwatayo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-11-30 2016-11-30 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.761 Universell utforming som tema i høyere utdanning https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1330 <p><em>For å sikre muligheter for deltakelse av og velferd for alle, er samfunnet avhengig av stadig kunnskapsutvikling og samhandling mellom ulike samfunnssektorer. Universiteter og høgskoler er arenaer hvor kunnskap skapes, læres og anvendes for å sette studenter i stand til å håndtere situasjoner som må løses til beste for samfunnet. Universell utforming er nedfelt i flere lover som en plikt å gjennomføre for nye tiltak. Dette krever kunnskap om hvordan arbeide med universell utforming i praksis. I denne artikkelen beskriver vi erfaringer med et treårig samarbeid mellom utdanningene i ergoterapi og byggingeniørfag om universell utforming. Hensikten var å gi studentene kjennskap til hverandres kunnskapsfelt og fagmetoder for å kunne bidra til felles kunnskapsbase om universell utforming innen hvert fagområde. Gjennom å analysere konkrete områder/oppgaver skulle studentene begrunne og kritisk reflektere over universell utforming. Videre er formålet med samarbeidet å styrke universell utforming som et tema i forskning og utdanning. Studentene verdsatte høyt å bli kjent med og samarbeide med hverandre, og de erfarte at egen profesjon ikke hadde kunnskapsmonopol på universell utforming. Studentene erfarte at andre yrkesprofesjoner har ulike kunnskapsgrunnlag, og at samarbeidet gav innsikt i kompletterende kunnskap som kan være verdifull i senere yrkesutøvelse i forbindelse med universell utforming. </em><strong></strong></p> Ulf Rydningen Dorte Lybye Norenberg Inger Marie Lid Opphavsrett 2016 Ulf Rydningen, Dorte Lybye Norenberg, Inger Marie Lid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-10-18 2016-10-18 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1330 Book review: Architecture Beyond Criticism https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1625 Beata Sirowy Opphavsrett 2016 Beata Sirowy https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-09-06 2016-09-06 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1625 Integrating Sensitizing Labs in an Educational Design Process for Haptic Interaction https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1269 <em>New design methods for educating designers are needed to adapt the attributes of haptic interaction to fit the embodied experience of the users. This paper presents educationally framed aesthetic sensitizing labs: 1) a material-lab exploring the tactile and haptic structures of materials, 2) a vibrotactile-lab exploring actuators directly on the body and 3) a combined materials- and vibrotactile-lab embedded in materials. These labs were integrated in a design course that supports a non-linear design process for embodied explorative and experimental activities that feed into an emerging gestalt. A co-design process was developed in collaboration with researchers and users who developed positioning and communications systems for people with deafblindness. Conclusion: the labs helped to discern attributes of haptic interactions which supported designing scenarios and prototypes showing novel ways to understand and shape haptic interaction.</em> Cheryl Akner-Koler Parivash Ranjbar Opphavsrett 2016 Cheryl Akner-Koler, Parivash Ranjbar https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-08-19 2016-08-19 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1269 Embodied Making and Design Learning - Special Issue from the Learn X Design-conference DRS/CUMULUS, Chicago 2015 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1739 <p><em>This issue of FORMakademisk features selected articles developed from papers presented at the symposium Embodied Making and Design Learning at the DRS/CUMULUS-conference LearnXDesign in Chicago, Illinois, June 28–30, 2015. </em><em>This special issue was developed as an initiative by the symposium conveners.</em> <em>The symposium was developed by researchers from research groups in Norway, Finland and Canada to explore various aspects of embodied making in relation to design learning. The symposium was a full-day event with four sessions, seven paper presentations, a roundtable discussion, a plenary discussion and a workshop. The symposium received positive feedback, attracting many participants and stimulating engaged discussions throughout the conference. This indicates a growing awareness of the topic of embodied making and design learning. This special issue features five articles that together highlight a variety of approaches and examples of current research endeavours in relation to the theme.</em></p><p><em><br /></em></p><p> </p> Marte Sørebø Gulliksen Catharine Dishke Hondzel Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Tellervo Härkki Opphavsrett 2016 Marte Sørebø Gulliksen, Catharine Dishke Hondzel, Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Tellervo Härkki https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-06-27 2016-06-27 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1739 How can neuroscience help understand design and craft activity? The promise of cognitive neuroscience in design studies https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1478 <p> </p><p class="Abstract"><em>Designing and making crafts is a complex, multifaceted process that requires sophisticated, professional thinking and competence, described as reflection in action and as an embodied process in which the hand, eye and mind collaborate. This article discusses these cognitive and embodied aspects central to designing and making crafts in light of cognitive neuroscience. Understanding the specific cognitive processes and forms of knowledge used in creative practices is essential. In this article, we propose that cognitive neuroscience provides valuable tools for analysing thinking and acting processes relevant to designing and making. We discuss the challenges and opportunities that the use of brain imaging methods, in particular, provides for understanding design activities, skills and cognition. Additionally, we present two neuroscientific experimental settings from our empirical studies in which the methods of cognitive neuroscience are applied to study and detect the interrelations between drawing, forming, skill learning and the functional activities of the brain and its subareas. We argue that cognitive neuroscience provides valuable instruments and methods which complement traditional design research.</em></p><p><em><span style="font-size: medium;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><br /></span></span></em></p> Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Minna Huotilainen Maarit Mäkelä Camilla Groth Kai Hakkarainen Opphavsrett 2016 Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-06-23 2016-06-23 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1478 Design- and Craft thinking analysed as Embodied Cognition https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1481 <p><em>Through the concept of design thinking the act of designing is presented as an intellectual activity, and the act of planning the design is elevated over the making process. However, the importance of materiality and the embodied sense-making that occurs in this context should not be forgotten. In this study, embodied cognition in design and craft practices was investigated through three case studies. The study takes on an enhanced tactile perspective as a methodological platform; thus, the cases involve 1) deafblind makers in ceramics, 2) a practice-led self-study report on tactile experiences while working with clay and 3) a study on design students’ use of their tactile sense during material exploration. The results show that the act of thinking design involves the body as a knowledge provider. </em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> Camilla Groth Opphavsrett 2016 Camilla Groth https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-06-22 2016-06-22 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1481 Material knowledge in collaborative designing and making - A case of wearable sea creatures https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1480 <p><em>This article is based on a study of novice designers’ knowledge of materials in a challenging collaborative assignment. We approached material knowledge from two complementary viewpoints: the dimensions of knowledge shared during designing, and how student teams built new knowledge during making. We found that both modalities studied—namely, words and gestures—contributed to advancement in designing. The modalities became specialised: While words served mainly to identify materials and to describe visual qualities, gestures conveyed information about size, shape, location and dynamic dimensions, such as movement and change over time, as well as signature qualities based on embodied experience. During making, ambitious teams took material decisions and the challenge of authenticity seriously, but the tight timeframe and budget compelled them to favour pragmatic choices. </em></p><p><em><br /></em></p> Tellervo Härkki Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Kai Hakkarainen Opphavsrett 2016 Tellervo Härkki, Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Kai Hakkarainen https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-06-21 2016-06-21 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1480 Personal exploration: Serendipity and intentionality as altering positions in a creative process https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/formakademisk/article/view/1461 <p><em> <em>Artists and designers have recently begun to take an active role in contextualising the creative process in relation to their practice. Thus, understanding how the creative mind proceeds has been supplemented with knowledge obtained inside the creative process. In this way, the spheres of knowledge, material thinking and experience that are fostered through creative work have become entangled and embedded as elemental parts of the research process. This article is based on documentation and reflection of the author’s creative practice in contemporary ceramic art at the beginning of 2015. The article discusses how the creative process proceeds by alternating between two positions: serendipity and intentionality. By describing the different phases of the process, it reveals the interplay between the diverse range of activities and how these gradually construct the creative process</em> </em></p> Maarit Mäkelä Opphavsrett 2016 Maarit Mäkelä https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2016-06-21 2016-06-21 13 3 10.7577/formakademisk.1461