Tidsskrift for Nordisk barnehageforskning https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf <p><strong>Nordisk Barnehageforskning</strong><strong> (NBF)</strong> er et akademisk forum for publisering av vitenskapelig dokumentasjon av barnehagefaglig forsknings- og utviklingsarbeid. Tidsskriftet gir ut vitenskapelige artikler og essays på skandinaviske språk (norsk, svensk og dansk) og engelsk. Norsk er tidsskriftets redaksjonsspråk.</p> nb-NO <p>Forfattere som publiserer med dette tidsskriftet må være enige i følgende vilkår: <strong> </strong></p><p>a) Forfattere beholder opphavsrett, men gir tidsskriftet rett til første publikasjon med arbeidet, samtidig som artikkelen er lisensiert under en <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/">Creative Commons Attribution-lisens</a> som tillater andre å dele arbeidet med en anerkjennelse og referanse til forfatterskap og første publikasjon i dette tidsskriftet.</p><p>b) Forfattere må ikke inngå separate, ytterligere kontraktsmessige ordninger for eksklusiv distribusjon av artikkelens publiserte versjon av arbeidet (for eksempel legge det til et institusjonelt arkiv eller publisere det i en fagbok), uten referanse en anerkjennelse av hvor artikkelen først ble publisert. Dette gjelder for eksempel artikler som publiseres i Nordisk Barnehageforskning og som senere blir del av et doktorgradsarbeid. Da er det viktig å ha tydelige referanser til hvor og når artikkelen er publisert første gang.</p><p>c). Forfattere kan ikke legge inn sine arbeid på nettet eller publisere dem i en doktoravhandling (for eksempel i institusjonelle arkiv eller på en hjemmeside) <span style="text-decoration: underline;">før eller under</span> innsendings- og fagfellevurderingsprosessen, da dette kan skape uorden i referansesystemet til artikkelen.</p> nina.rossholt@oslomet.no (Ansvarlig redaktør Nina Rossholt) Kristin.HolteHaug@oslomet.no (Kristin Holte Haug - Redaksjonsleder) ma., 22 jan. 2018 09:33:09 +0100 OJS 3.1.1.2 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Democratic Participation in Early Childhood Education and Care - Serving the Best Interests of the Child https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2319 <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 150%;">Abstract: The meaning of democratic participation in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) remains<br>vague and difficult to implement. Thus, the aim of this paper is to contribute to this gap of knowledge by shed light on the meaning of democratic participation in relation to the best interests of the child, by analysing General Comment No. 14 (2013). The research uses theories on democracy in ECEC to discuss the results (Biesta, 2014, 2015; Moss, 2007, 2011; Pettersvold, 2013; Einarsdottir, Purola, Johansson, Broström, &amp;<br>Emilson, 2015). The study investigates how key terms (rights, participation, unity/collective, equality, influence and responsibility) relate to democratic participation. Findings indicate that these terms are used to align with ideas about the “best interests of the child”. Furthermore, the study identified specific groups of children who can be in vulnerable situations and their explicit right to express their views and to influence decisions affecting them in ECEC institutions. I therefore argue that understanding democracy in ECEC must focus on inclusion of children who can be in vulnerable situations because this is in the best interests of the child.</p> <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 150%;"><br>Keywords: Best Interests of the Child, Democratic Participation, Document Analysis, General Comments</p> Evelyn Eriksen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2319 on., 27 juni 2018 13:58:56 +0200 Evaluation of the Lamer Social Competence in Preschool Scale https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2424 <p>Abstract: The Lamer Social Competence in Preschool Scale (LSCIP) has been widely used in Norway to assess children’s social competence; however, the six-factor structure has not been validated since the scale was developed. The aim of this study is to evaluate the structure of the LSCIP using confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. The results show that the original model has a nearly adequate fit according to model fit criteria, but also suggest the need for revisions to achieve a better model. The study contributes to the further development of the LSCIP as a measurement tool that can be used to measure children’s social competence in&nbsp;both research and practice.</p> <p>Keywords: assessment; evaluation; Lamer Social Competence in Preschool Scale; social competence.</p> Ingrid Midteide Løkken, Martine Louise Broekhuizen, Thomas Moser, Elisabeth Bjørnestad, Maren Meyer Hegna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2424 to., 21 juni 2018 10:43:05 +0200 Barn och vårdnadshavares minnen av deltagande i pedagogisk dokumentation https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2342 <p>Sammandrag: Syftet med artikeln är att bidra till kunskapandet om pedagogisk dokumentation med specifikt fokus på dokumentationens betydelse ur ett demokratiperspektiv. Trots många studier kring pedagogisk<br>dokumentation finns det få studier som explicit utgår ifrån barn och vårdnadshavares perspektiv. I artikeln<br>analyseras barns och vårdnadshavares samtal utifrån minnesbilder, vilka framträder i fokusgruppssamtal, från förskoletiden i relation till pedagogiskt dokumentationsarbete. Resultatet visar att den pedagogiska<br>dokumentationspraktiken bidrog till skapandet av en praktikgemenskap på förskolan vilket i sin tur möjliggjorde en demokratisk undervisning.</p> <p>Nyckelord: demokrati, pedagogisk dokumentation, praktikgemenskap, social kontroll</p> Karin Alnervik, Charlotte Öhman, Eva Lidén, Monica Nilsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2342 fr., 15 juni 2018 12:38:29 +0200 Forhandlinger af mangfoldighed i danske kommunernes kostpolitikker for dagtilbud https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2187 <p>Artiklen præsenterer en diskursanalytisk undersøgelse af danske kommuners kostpolitikker. Formålet med studiet er at kortlægge kommunernes forhandling af mangfoldighed og den måltidspædagogiske opgave, hvilket udgør et arbejdsredskab for pædagogerne i kommunale dagtilbud. Studiet er baseret på en Laclau<br>og Mouffe (1985) diskurs analyse. Studiet viser, at der ikke findes en entydig fælles forståelse af mangfoldighed og den måltidspædagogiske opgave i danske kommuner. Kommunernes forskellige tilgange og forhandlinger af den måltidspædagogiske opgave optræder i et kontinuum mellem en nationalkonservativ yderpol og en kosmopolitisk yderpol.</p> <p>Nøgleord:&nbsp;småbørnspædagogik, kostpolitik, måltid, mangfoldighed</p> Sarah Damgaard Warrer, Jonatan Leer ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2187 ma., 04 juni 2018 11:19:40 +0200 Kunstnarar i barnehagen – estetiske erfaringar av høg kvalitet? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1794 <p>Artikkelen tematiserer estetisk erfaring og opplæring på bakgrunn av eit komposisjonsprosjekt i Den kulturelle bæremeisen. Den kulturelle bæremeisen har som uttalt premiss at når barnehagebarn skal delta i skapande prosessar og hauste kunstnariske inntrykk og estetiske erfaringar av høg kvalitet, må det vere kunstnarar til stades. Med støtte hovudsakleg i retorisk teori, drøftar artikkelen korleis det å vere kunstnar kan bidra til auka kvalitet i det kunstfaglege arbeidet. Det handlar om kunstfagleg danning gjennom eit musikalsk materiale, og at det ikkje er likegyldig korleis ein arbeider med materialet.</p> Aslaug Furholt ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1794 on., 16 mai 2018 11:21:21 +0200 Institusjonelt eiermangfold og et likeverdig barnehagetilbud https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2410 <p>Artikkelen sammenstiller og drøfter forskning på spenningen mellom institusjonelt mangfold blant eiere av norske barnehager, og myndighetenes ambisjoner om å gi et likeverdig barnehagetilbud til alle barn. Med basis i 14 forskningsartikler og rapporter fra perioden 2004-2017 finner jeg at private eiere av barnehager har stort handlingsrom og påvirkningskraft i barnehagesektoren. Både lovregulering og institusjonaliserte normer for et godt barnehagetilbud bidrar til at en ser små forskjeller etter eierskap. Disse normene utvikles og vedlikeholdes i nettverk som inkluderer private barnehager. Det har vært lite forskning på disse nettverkene og på de mykere styringsformene i sektoren. Det er spesielt behov for mer kunnskap om hvordan kommunene som forvaltningsorganisasjoner håndterer møtet med større og mer profesjonelle private barnehageeiere.</p><p>This article reviews research on the tension between institutionally diverse owners of Norwegian early childhood centers/kindergartens and the governments ambitions of providing an equitable, high-quality service to all children. Based on 14 research articles and reports published between 2004 and 2017 I find that private owners of early childhood centers have considerable influence in the Norwegian ECEC-sector. Both legislation and institutionalized norms of what constitutes a good ECEC-service contribute to small differences according to ownership. These norms are developed and maintained in networks including also private early childhood centers. Few researchers have taken interest in the networks and other soft forms of governance in the Norwegian ECEC-sector. We need more knowledge on how the municipalities interact with large, professional private ECEC-owners.</p> Anne Sigrid Haugset ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2410 on., 18 april 2018 00:00:00 +0200 «Det er berre sånt som vi gjer på dyr. Vi gjer det ikkje på menneske» – Interaksjon og forhandling om eksistensielle spørsmål i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2234 <p>I denne artikkelen blir delar av eit kvalitativt forskingsarbeid om eksistensielle spørsmål i barnehagen presentert. Opptaka er gjort med videokamera, og fokuset er på korleis samtalen mellom born og vaksne spelar seg ut. Føremålet med denne teksten er å belyse, ved hjelp av Bakhtins dialogisme, korleis meiningsdanning og forståing av eksistensielle spørsmål kan utviklast gjennom interaksjon og forhandling i kvardagssituasjonar i barnehagen.</p><p>This article presents parts of a qualitative video study on dialogues concerning existential questions, and how the existential dialogues play out between children and adults in kindergarten. Through the use of Bakhtin’s theory on dialogism I aim to illuminate how the construction of meaning and the understanding of existential questions are created through interactions and negotiations in non-formal settings in Early Childhood Education Centers.</p> Ragnhild Fauske ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2234 on., 11 april 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Under lupen - Praksislæreres observasjonspraksis i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2160 <p>Artikkelen presenterer resultater fra en studie om praksislæreres doxa. Gjennom en Mixed Methods-studie gis innsikt i hvordan barnehagelærere (praksislærere) snakker om hvordan, når og hvorfor de observerer. Analyse av praksislæreres italesettelser gir innsikt i diskursive vilkår praksisstudier gir for studenters læring om observasjon. Studien indikerer et brudd mellom barnehagelærerutdanningens mål og undervisning og praksislærernes bruk av og begrunnelser for observasjon. Studien viser at barnehagelærere oppgir samspill barn -barn og språk som hovedfokus i observasjonsarbeidet, mens barns medvirkning ikke oppgis som fokus. Videre viser studien at praksislærere i svært liten grad bruker systematisk og skriftlig observasjon i det daglige arbeidet. De oppgir mangel på tid som årsak til dette. Forfatterne reiser spørsmål om hvorvidt dette også kan skyldes mangel på nyere metodekunnskap.</p><p>This article presents results from a study of in-service teachers’ doxa; how they talk about use and reasons for observation in kindergarten. The study provides new knowledge about the lack of coherence between kindergarten teacher education and in-service education. Through a Mixed Methods study we gain insight into how in-service teachers explain how, when and why they observe. Analysis provides insight into the discursive conditions for student learning about observation. The study reveals two main topics for in-service teachers’ observations: interplay between children and language development; however they do not include children’s right to influence. Moreover, the study shows that systematic written observations in everyday work seldom is done due to lack of time. The authors raise the question if another reason could be lack of new methodological knowledge.</p> Johanna Birkeland, Elin Eriksen Ødegaard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2160 ma., 26 mars 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Plastikhytter, musik og sommerfugle – om samskabende æstetiske processer i børnehaven https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1787 <p><em><span>Resumé:</span></em><span> Artiklen knytter sig til et ph.d. studie, der undersøger kunstneres, pædagogers og børns samskabende aktiviteter med æstetiske processer i danske børnehaver. Forskningen er inspireret af eller indlejrer sig i en aktionsforskningsmetodologisk tilgang (etnografisk aktionsforskning og refleksionscirkler) med kvalitative metoder som deltagende observation og interviews, men hvor også visuelle metoder som filmoptagelser, foto og tegning tages i brug. Artiklen fremlægger, hvordan forskeren er medspiller i processerne og undersøger, hvordan eksperimenter med tegning og refleksioner over disse – som metodiske greb – skaber indsigt i deltagernes positioneringer i de æstetiske processer, men peger samtidig på hvilke relationer og subtile samspil, der opstår mellem deltagerne. Disse samspil karakteriseres i artiklen som ensemblespil og æstetisk samspil, der hviler på samspilsfornemmelser.</span></p><p><em>Abstract:</em> The article is attached to a PhD research, which examines artist’s, pedagogue’s (pre-school teachers), and children’s co-creative activities concerning aesthetic processes in Danish kindergartens. The research is inspired by or embedded in an action research framework (ethnographic action research and reflection circles) with qualitative methods as participant observation and interviews, but also visual methods as video, photos and drawings. The article presents how the researcher is a co-player in the processes, and examines how experiments with drawings and reflections as methods create insight in the participant’s positioning in the aesthetic processes, but also highlight the relations and subtle interplay, which occur between the participants. The interplay is characterized as ensemble-play and aesthetic interplay, based on samspilsfornemmelser, which can be translated into sense of interplay.</p> Henriette Blomgren ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1787 ma., 29 jan. 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Original faglighed https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2120 <p>Denne artikel handler om, hvordan pædagogisk faglighed bliver til i daginstitutionens daglige liv i en tid præget af en uddannelsespolitisk læringsdagsorden. Formålet med artiklen er at afselvfølgeliggøre læringsdagsordenen og vise, hvordan der er flere og potentielt konfliktuerende rationaler på spil og undersøge, hvordan disse påvirker og rammesætter nye muligheder for pædagogisk faglighedsdannelse. I artiklen kortlægges 4 stærke og konfliktuerende rationaler, der tilsammen danner et spændingsfelt, inden for hvilket pædagogerne må erobre og skabe faglighed. Jeg præsenterer disse rationaler som 4 rationalefigurer – hhv. <em>Strategen, Praktikeren, Idealisten </em>og<em> Pragmatikeren</em> – og viser dernæst, hvordan de imaginært forsøger at tale deres forskellige rationaler frem i pædagogernes handlinger. Artiklen er baseret på ph.d.-afhandlingen ”Originale pædagoger. Daginstitutionspædagogers faglighed(er) i lyset af en insisterende læringsdagsorden”.</p><div data-canvas-width="79.4974">This article Original professionalism explores how pedagogues create professionalism in daily life of day care within an educational policy organization increasingly committed to learning. The purpose of the article is to analyze and deconstruct the political learning agenda. As a result of the analysis 4 powerful and conflicting mindsets are identified forming a field of tension in which the pedagogue must create professionalism. In the article I present these mindsets as 4 imaginary figures of reason, the Strategist, the Practician, the Idealist and the Pragmatist, and demonstrate how they try to promote their different logics in the daily practice of the pedagogues.</div> Christina Haandbæk Schmidt ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2120 ma., 22 jan. 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Religious Festivals in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) Institutions: A Norwegian Case Study https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2158 <p>This paper investigates how teachers at Norwegian early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions interpret the national curriculum’s mandate that children should learn about religion and religious festivals. The results from an empirical study conducted in one religiously diverse ECEC, which is attended by children from both Christian and Muslim families, serve as the context for this analysis. The study identifies discrepancies between the ideal provided by the national curriculum and the reality described by teachers and parents. In the case of the ECEC studied, religion as such causes uneasiness among the teachers. As a result, Christian festivities focus more on traditions than religion, and Muslim holidays are ignored. Parents are largely uninformed about the purpose and content related to religious festivities at their children’s ECEC. A starting point in addressing teachers’ uncertainty over how to comply with the curricular mandate is to design pedagogical activities around religious festivities that aim to achieve learning and mutual understanding among the children.</p> Kari Krogstad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/2158 ma., 18 des. 2017 00:00:00 +0100 «Harpespill, fantasiskalaer og syngende fingre» - om barnehagebarns møter med tre musikkrelaterte apper https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1809 <p>Artikkelen tar for seg barnehagebarns møter med tre musikkrelaterte applikasjoner på nettbrett: <em>Air Harp, Bloom </em>og<em> Singing Fingers</em>. Seks grupper med 4-6 barn i alderen 5-6 år har deltatt i studien, og teksten bygger på observasjoner av barnas møter med appene. Forfatternes hensikt er å bidra med kunnskap om hva musikkrelaterte apper kan tilby barnehagebarn av musikalske oppdagelser og skapende utforskning. Funnene tyder på at det ligger muligheter i appene som inspirerer til musikalsk utforsking og lek, der barnas musiske væremåter får handlingsrom. Sentrale begreper i studien er affordanse, musikkens grunnelementer og barns musiske uttrykksmåter.</p><p>The article is about children in early childhood education exploring three applications with musical content on tablets: <em>Air Harp, Bloom </em>and<em> Singing Fingers</em>. Six groups of 4-6 children aged 5-6 years participated in the study, and the text is based on observations of the children and how they met challenges and explored the features of the tablet and apps. The authors intend to develop knowledge about these apps and their possibilities to offer musical exploration for children in early childhood education. Findings suggest that there is potential in the apps that inspires children to creative musical exploration and play. Central concepts in the study are affordance, musical parameters and children's musical expressions.</p> Nina Engesnes, Ingrid A. Danbolt, Liv Anna Hagen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1809 fr., 15 des. 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Eksamensoppgaver i barnehagelærerutdanningen i lys av formålet om en integrert, profesjonsrettet og forskningsbasert utdanning https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1749 <p>Intensjonen med denne artikkelen er å analysere og diskutere hvordan eksamensformer og oppgavetekster i den nye barnehagelærerutdanningen bidrar til en integrert, profesjonsrettet og forskningsbasert utdanning. Eksamensoppgavetekster gitt ved ni norske høgskoler og universiteter, blir analysert ut fra profesjonsteori og teorier om forskningsbasert utdannelse. Analysene viser at oppgavetekstenes form og innhold fra over halvparten av institusjonene som er undersøkt, ikke skiller seg nevneverdig fra tidligere oppgaver. Vi stiller spørsmål ved om disse oppgavetypene og -tekstene oppfyller kravet om at barnehagelærerutdanningen skal være en integrert, profesjonsrettet og forskningsbasert utdanning.</p><p>The purpose of this article is to analyze and discuss whether exam types and texts in the new Early Childhood Teacher Education contribute to an integrated, professional and research-based education. Examination papers given by nine Norwegian colleges and universities are analyzed within the framework of theory on vocational education and theory on research-based education. The analyzes show that in more than half of the institutions investigated, the content and form of the examination papers do not differ significantly from previous assignments. We question whether these exam types and texts fulfill the demand of the Early Childhood Teacher Education to be both integrated, professionally oriented and based on research-based knowledge.</p> Grete Karin Nordvik, Bente Vatne ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1749 ma., 27 nov. 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Sangrepertoaret i barnehagen - tradisjon eller stagnering? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1792 <p>Selv om sang er en vesentlig del av barnehagehverdagen, finnes det lite forskning på hva som faktisk synges. For å få et innblikk i dette, har vi med hjelp av deltidsstudenter på Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus gjort et innsamlingsarbeid som kartlegger hva de voksne synger for og med barna i vårt distrikt. Datamaterialet viser tydelig at sangrepertoaret i barnehagene er svært ensartet. Repertoaret består av mange sanger, men det eksisterer helt klart et felles kjernemateriale. Dette materialet har vi valgt å kalle en barnehagesangkanon. Sangene her er eldre og musikalsk lite varierte. I denne artikkelen søker vi å forstå hvorfor sangmaterialet er så gammelt og hvorfor det er så lite fornyelse av sang i barnehagene. Vi har sett at det kan gi mening å se sangrepertoaret i lys av folkemusikkbegrepet hvor tradering, bruksmusikk og kontinuitet står sentralt.</p><p>Although singing is an essential part of everyday life in kindergartens, there is little research on what is actually sung. The authors have investigated the kindergarten song repertoire over a period of six years. The data material collected clearly shows that the song repertoire is old and quite uniform. It consists of a large number of songs, but there is a limited common core material: a “kindergarten song canon”, consisting almost exclusively of old song material with little musical variety. In this article, we seek to understand why this song material is so old and why there is so little renewal of the kindergarten song repertoire.</p> Siri Haukenes, Liv Anna Hagen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1792 ti., 03 okt. 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Parodi og det imaginære Afrika i en lesning av Rumpemelk fra Afrika https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1776 <p>Denne artikkelen analyserer Erlend Loe og Alice Bjerknes Lima de Farias bildebok <em>Rumpemelk fra Afrika </em>(2012). Her<em> </em>foretar vi en tematisk analyse av det imaginære Afrika som presenteres gjennom hovedpersonens Afrika-reise. Reisen er en jakt etter det som blir betegnet som «rumpemelk». Bildeboka er postmoderne og plasserer seg i en tradisjon etter fabelen, der fantasi, lek og besjelte dyr er sentrale element, men parodi og intertekstualitet spiller også en sentral rolle i hvordan det imaginære Afrika gestaltes. Målet med artikkelen er å foreta en tematisk lesning som undersøker hvordan bildebokas intertekstuelle og parodiske dialog med tidligere Afrika-forestillinger i barnelitteraturen danner grunnlaget for det imaginære Afrika som presenteres i denne spesifikke boka. </p><p>This article on Erlend Loe og Alice Bjerknes Lima de Faria’s picture book <em>Rumpemelk fra Afrika </em>(2012)<em> </em>is a thematic analysis of the imaginary Africa which is portrayed through the protagonist’s journey to Africa in search of what is termed “milk from the bum.” The picture book is a postmodern picture book, and can be placed in the tradition of the fable, where play and fantasy and animated animals are central ingredients, but parody and intertextuality also play a central role in how the imaginary Africa is rendered. This article’s intention is to analyse the way in which this picture book forms an intertextual and parodic dialogue with previous myths and pretexts of the tales of Africa in children’s literature in the creation of the specific imaginary Africa of this book.</p> Ingvild Alfheim, Cecilie Dyrkorn Fodstad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1776 ma., 28 aug. 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Religiøse spiseforskrifter i barnehagen. En kvalitativ undersøkelse om barnehagers strategier for tilpasning i møte med islamske spiseforskrifter https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1736 <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;">Artikkelen baserer seg på kvalitative forskningsintervjuer med styrere og pedagogiske ledere om hvordan barnehager imøtekommer muslimske foreldres ønsker om tilpasning til islamske spiseforskrifter. Resultatet viser at barnehagen baserer seg på to hovedstrategier i sin tilpasning – enten å servere mat som alle kan spise, eller ulike typer mat der muslimske barn kan spise ett av alternativene. Artikkelen drøfter strategiene barnehagen velger i forhold til samarbeid med foreldre og hvordan begrunnelser dels er pragmatiske og dels er pedagogisk forankret</span></span></p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;">This article is based on qualitative research interviews with staff in Norwegian kindergartens and has a particular focus on how kindergartens meet Muslim parents’ wish that the kindergartens adapts meals to Islam’s regulations on food. The result shows that the kindergarten’s strategies can be divided in two main strategies: Either to serve food that everyone can eat (also Muslim children), or to serve different types of food where Muslim children can eat one of the options. The article discusses strategies kindergartens choose in relation to cooperation with parents and how arguments are partly pragmatic and partly educational anchored.</span></p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt; line-height: normal;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 12pt;"><br /></span></p> Else Marie Øvrebø, Bengt Ove Andreassen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1736 ma., 21 aug. 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Outside belonging: A study of bullying in a daycare institution https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1898 In this study of bullying during children’s play and other interactions in a daycare setting, the empirical data are based on interviews with staff and notes from discussions with staff and with two special education teachers. The results confirm that bullying is a complex phenomenon, as many and varied forces, both human and non-human, were found to play a role in the construction of bullying in this daycare setting. Mai Brit Helgesen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1898 fr., 11 aug. 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Språkkartlegging av flerspråklige barn i barnehagen - fra kontrovers til kompromiss? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1734 <p>Språkkartlegging i barnehagen er et konfliktfylt felt som preges av enten/eller tenkning. På den ene siden ser kartleggingstilhengerne ut til å ha en positivistisk tro på at kartlegging kan bidra til løsninger på alt fra enkeltbarns behov for hjelp, til tilrettelegging for livslang læring og sosial utjevning. På den andre siden ser kartleggingsskeptikerne ut til å befinne seg innenfor den nordiske barnehagemodellen, som tradisjonelt bygger på et helhetlig syn på læring og på en sterk vektlegging av barndommens egenverdi. Spenningen kan ha store konsekvenser for praksisfeltet. I denne artikkelen drøfter jeg språkkartleggingsdiskursen i lys av teori om vitenskapelige kontroverser og konkluderer med at det er åpning for kompromisser, men også at det er tendenser i diskursen som snarere kan forsterke enn redusere uenigheten om språkkartlegging av flerspråklige barn i barnehagen. </p><p>Mapping of language skills in early childhood education and care (ECEC) institutions is controversial. On the one hand, there are those who support language mapping based on a belief that mapping and measuring can help language acquisition and facilitate lifelong learning and social integration. On the other hand, there are skeptics who oppose mapping and emphasize the values of childhood. This article discusses the discourses on language mapping in light of theories on scientific controversies. Based on the analysis I find that although there are openings for compromises, it seems that tendencies in the discourse may amplify rather than reduce the controversy on the language mapping of multilingual children in Norwegian ECEC institutions.</p> Nassira Essahli Vik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1734 ma., 10 juli 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Jeg er en sånn hverdagspedagog! Barnehagestyreres profesjonelle handlingsrom for å styrke barnehagelæreres anvendelse av fagspråk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1811 <p>Første del av problemstillingen omhandler hva styrere mener er årsaker til at barnehagelærere anvender faglige begreper og teori i liten grad i det pedagogiske arbeidet. Problemstillingens andre del tar opp hva styrerne gjør og kan gjøre for å styrke barnehagelærernes fagspråk. Våre funn viser at styrerne mener at både flat struktur, likhetskultur og svak kompetanse er sentrale årsaker. Styrerne mener de har en sentral rolle når det gjelder å ivareta fagspråket gjennom pedagogisk ledelse. </p><p>Barnehagestyrer, fagspråk, pedagogisk ledelse, profesjonelt handlingsrom.</p><p>The first research question discusses what ECEC directors see as central causes to a weak professional language amongst kindergarten teachers. The second research question discusses what ECEC-directors are doing and can do to advance professional language. The main result is that ECEC-directors believe that both non- hierarchically structure, equality culture and low competence are some of the reasons. ECEC-directors are concerned that they have a central role to advance the professional language through professional management.</p><p>ECEC-director, professional language, pedagogical leadership, freedom of professional action.</p> Ann Kristin Larsen, Mette Vaagan Slåtten ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1811 ma., 03 juli 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Observasjonens betydning i den profesjonelle praksis https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1984 <p>Denne artikkelen presenterer tre barnehagelæreres forståelse rundt observasjon, og hvordan de bruker observasjon i egen profesjonelle praksis. Fremstillingen er i hovedsak basert på ulike teoretiske tanker fra Michel Foucault, hvor det <em>kliniske blikket</em> er hovedinspirasjonen. Målet med artikkelen er å løfte frem barnehagelærernes perspektiv på observasjon i egen yrkeshverdag, inspirere barnehagelærere til å reflektere over sine egne opplevelser og meningsskaping knyttet til observasjon i barnehagen.</p><p>Barnehagelærer, klinisk blikk, observasjon, profesjonell praksis.</p><p>This article presents three kindergarten teachers understanding of observation, and how they use observation in their professional practice. The text is mainly based on various theoretical thoughts from Michel Foucault, where the<em> medical gaze</em> is the main inspiration. The aim of the article is to highlight kindergarten teachers' perspective on observation in their own professional lives, and inspire kindergarten teachers to reflect on their own experiences and how to make meaning related to observation in kindergarten.</p><p>Kindergarten teacher, medical gaze, observation, professional practice.</p> Mona Halsaunet Frønes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1984 ma., 03 juli 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Hvordan underviser barnehagelærere? Eller gjør man ikke det i barnehagen? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1731 <p><span> I denne artikkelen er fem norske barnehagelærere studert for å kunne finne kjennetegn på barnehagens undervisningspraksis. Forfatterne har gjort videoobservasjoner av hverdagsaktiviteter og intervjuet barnehagelærerne med bakgrunn i disse. Studien er gjort med et sosiokulturelt syn på læring og viser at barnehagelærerne planlegger et faglig innhold. De er selv delaktige i aktivitetene, og gir ulike typer oppgaver knyttet til barnas hverdagsliv i barnehagen og det de ønsker barna skal lære. Når barnehagelærerne beskriver sin egen profesjonelle praksis vises deres perspektiver på undervisningsbegrepet. De tar utgangspunkt i barnas interesser når de knytter barnas læring til faglige mål og tilpasser interaksjonene og dialogen til barnas nivå. Gjennom å gi barna oppgaver observerer de og jobber med læringsprosesser i matematikk – uten å kalle det undervisning. </span></p><p><span> This study examines 5 Norwegian kindergarten teachers in order to identify characteristics of the professional work of teaching in kindergarten. The authors conducted video observations of everyday activities and interviewed the kindergarten teachers with these recordings as a starting point. A sociocultural perspective on learning is applied, and the results indicate that the kindergarten teachers plan with a focus on a particular content, they take part in the activities themselves, and they present the children with different kinds of tasks that are related to the intended learning outcome and the children’s everyday life in kindergarten. The activities are grounded in children’s interests, and they connect children’s learning with content aims and adapt the interactions and dialogues </span></p> Per-Einar Sæbbe, Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1731 to., 08 juni 2017 14:49:11 +0200 Digitale fortellinger i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1761 <p><em></em>Fokus i denne artikkelen er barnehagelærernes faglige, pedagogiske og teknologiske kompetanse når de involverer barnehagebarn i produksjon av digitale fortellinger. Vi tar utgangspunkt i en kvalitativ studie med en fortolkende fenomenologisk tilnærming. Fire barnehagelærere ble intervjuet om deres erfaring med å involvere barna i produksjon av digitale fortellinger. Funnene viser at barnehagelærerne framhever det pedagogiske og teknologiske på bekostning av det faglige i sin beskrivelse av hva de vektlegger når de lager digitale fortellinger i barnehagen. De legger i liten grad vekt på sin egen faglige fortellingskompetanse. Gjennom analyse av empirien, sett i lys av teori, konkretiserer og tydeliggjør vi det vi mener er sentralt i barnehagelærernes digitale fortellingskompetanse.</p><p>In this article we focus on preschool teachers’ technological, pedagogical and content knowledge when they involve preschool children (0-6-year olds) in the production of digital stories in kindergartens. The article is based on a qualitative study, with a phenomenological research approach. Four preschool teachers have been interviewed about their competence and experience when involving preschool children in the production of digital stories. The findings show that they highlight pedagogical and technological knowledge, and hardly mention narrative. Based on theory and our findings we concretize the preschool teachers’ narrative competence, with the digital story as the medium.</p> Marianne Undheim, Vigdis Vangsnes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1761 to., 08 juni 2017 14:33:00 +0200 Barn och konst - samtal, kommunikation och demokrati https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1773 <p><strong></strong>Artikeln fokuserar på förskolebarns möte med konst i form av offentlig utsmyckning. Femåriga förskolebarn besöker sex skulpturer, interagerar med dem, med varandra och med sin lärare. De tecknar av skulpturerna på plats. Ett sociokulturellt och demokratiskt perspektiv används för att belysa barnen möte med konsten där leken tar stor plats. Deras egna tolkningar och samspelet med konsten undersöks med hjälp av partiell etnografi där deltagande  pedagoger möter konsten, tolkar den, samspelar med den, kopplar den till sin egen verklighet och dessutom engagerar sig i konsten.</p><p><strong></strong>This article focuses on pre-school children and their meeting with public art in the form of sculptures. Together with their teacher they interact with the artworks, with each other, and they do their own interpretation at site by making drawings of the sculptures. The playful meeting between children and public art is described from a sociocultural and democratic perspective. The children’s own interpretations and interactions with the art are investigated using ethnographic method through participant observation. The result shows that pre-school children with the assistance of a proficient teacher meet the art, interpret it, interact with it, and connect it to their every-day lives, besides truly engaging in the artprocess.</p> Yvonne Lindh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1773 on., 07 juni 2017 00:00:00 +0200 De yngste barna og tingene deres – en ANT-analyse av lek i småbarnsavdelinger https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1800 <p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">Artikkelen presenterer en mikro-etnografisk undersøkelse av barns forhold til tingene i to småbarnsavdelinger i norske barnehager. Hensikten er å forstå hvordan barns relasjoner til ting virker inn på deres mulighet til deltagelse og sosial posisjonering i gruppen. Undersøkelsen er basert på Aktør-Nettverk-Teori som vektlegger tingenes betydning som agens i sosiale nettverk og tingenes funksjon som forlengelse av barnas kropper. Undersøkelsen viser at tingene har betydning som legitim inngangsbillett til deltagelse i lekegrupper og at tingenes innbyrdes hierarkiske orden bidrar i å uttrykke den sosiale orden mellom barna som inngår i relasjon med dem.</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"> The article presents a micro-ethnographic study on toddlers’ relationship to the material artefacts in two Norwegian kindergarten groups. The purpose of the study is to understand how their relationship with objects influences their possibilities for participation in peer groups. The study is based on Actor-Network-Theory. A main point is that material artefacts have agency in social networks surrounding us and function as extensions of our bodies. The study indicates that material artefacts serve as entrance tickets for participation in group activities and that the hierarchic order between the objects in the room, influences the social order among the children using them.  </span></p> Dag Øystein Nome ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1800 on., 29 mars 2017 00:00:00 +0200 Fra faglærer i kunstfag til kunnskapsområdelærer i Kunst, kultur og kreativitet – dialoger om endring https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1790 <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 150%;"> </p><p><em>Sammendrag:</em><strong> </strong>Barnehagelærerutdanningen fikk i 2013 ny rammeplan, hvor fagene drama, forming og musikk ble samlet i kunnskapsområdet kunst, kultur og kreativitet. Denne artikkelen diskuterer hvordan faglærerne på 6 utdanningsinstitusjoner erfarer å skulle integrere sine fag i et felles kunnskapsområde, og utfordringer de ser i dette arbeidet. Vi bruker deler av Basil Bernsteins teori og begrepsapparat i analysen. Våre funn viser at faglærerne har en sterk identitet i faget sitt, og at det tar tid å endre til kunnskapsområdeorganisering. Implementeringen av den nye rammeplan støttes opp av tolkningsfellesskap, gode kollegasamspill og felles ideologi i de praktiske estetiske fagene. Samtidig ser de ideologiske visjonene om mer integrert profesjonsutdanning for barnehagelærere ikke ut til å være innarbeidet på institusjonsnivå. Faglærerne opplever derfor utfordringer i dette nye fellesskapet som barnehagelærerutdannere.</p><p><em>Abstract:</em><strong> </strong>The Norwegian kindergarten teacher education was reformed in 2013. The subjects drama, visual art and music, was combined into "art, culture and creativity". This article discusses the various considerations done by teachers from 6 higher education institutions when they integrated their disciplines in a common area of knowledge. This article uses parts of Basil Bernstein's theory and concepts in the analysis. This far findings show that teachers have a strong identification towards their subject. The implementation of the new framework plan takes time, and is supported by interpretive communities and a certain common ideology within the arts. Still, there is a lack of ideological visions about a more integrated professional kindergarten teacher education integrated at the institutional level. As a result of this, teachers in art subjects experience challenges in the new community as kindergarten teacher educators.</p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt; line-height: 150%;"> </p> Gro Merete Eide, Inger-Lisa Møen, Jorunn Spord Borgen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1790 on., 08 mars 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Barnehagestyreres opplevelser av forholdet til skolen i spørsmål om barns læring https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1726 <p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="color: #222222; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt; mso-ansi-language: EN;" lang="EN">This study draws attention to what extent directors of private and municipal Early Childhood Centers (ECCs) experience disagreement with school concerning questions about children’s learning in ECCs and the content of this disagreement. Furthermore, it focuses to what extent the directors of these two center categories try to influence school in such questions, and how they possibly may do this. The material derives from a nationwide survey (1310 directors) and an interview study (16 directors). The directors experience disagreements to a small extent and least in private centers. However, some disagree about to which extent the adults should lead children’s learning. This study reveals a great variety in how much the directors try to influence school. The municipal directors are most active. </span></p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="color: #222222; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt; mso-ansi-language: EN;" lang="EN"><br /></span></p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;" lang="SV">Artikkelen retter søkelys på i hvilken grad styrere i kommunale og private barnehager opplever uenighet med skolen i spørsmål om barns læring i barnehagen og eventuelt hva slik uenighet kan handle om. Videre ser den på i hvilken grad styrere i de to barnehagetypene forsøker å påvirke skolen i spørsmål om barns læring og eventuelt på hvilke måter. Datamaterialet kommer fra en landsdekkende survey (1310 styrere) og intervjuundersøkelse (16 styrere). Styrerne opplever liten grad av uenighet med skolen og minst i private barnehager. Et tema det kan være uenighet om, er grad av voksenstyring i læringsaktivitetene. Det er stor spredning på i hvilken grad styrerne forsøker å påvirke skolen. Styrere i kommunale barnehager er klart mest aktive. Styrerne forsøker å påvirke skolen på ulike måter.</span></p><p style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 10pt;" lang="SV"><br /></span></p> Kari Hoås Moen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1726 sø., 05 mars 2017 10:17:22 +0100 ”Please do not disturb” - Om at opretholde nærværende dialoger mellem børn og pædagoger i børnehaver https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1551 <p><span style="font-family: Calibri; font-size: medium;">This article seeks to investigate how and why the attentive dialogues between children and pedagogues are often interrupted, and can be difficult to establish and protect. Through field observations, it becomes clear that even dedicated and professional pedagogues are affected both by interpersonal and intrapersonal interruptions, some being of avoidable nature and others being unavoidable. Through observation and interviews, the article proposes a taxonomy for the various interruptions and their causal origin and suggestions are brought forward for how undesirable interruptions can be prevented or at least reflected upon.</span></p><p><span style="font-family: Calibri;"><span style="font-size: medium;">Nærværende dialoger mellem børn og pædagoger bliver ofte afbrudt. Det frustrerer pædagoger og ofte også børnene, og forringer mulighederne for at bedrive professionel pædagogisk praksis. Igennem analyser af feltobservationer og interviews fremlægger denne artikel en mulig kategorisering af disse afbrydelser og en forklaring på hvorfor de finder sted, og den foreslår hvordan pædagogerne kan arbejde på at undgå uønskede afbrydelser i det daglige sprogmiljø. Studiet har forsøgt at undersøge hvordan og hvorfor nærværende dialoger mellem børn og pædagoger ofte afbrydes og kan være svære både at etablere og opretholde og skærme. Igennem flere feltobservationer er det blevet tydeligt at selv dedikerede og professionelle pædagoger afbrydes af både omgivelserne og personer udefra og dertil også af deres eget psykiske ”apparat” – med andre ord af interpersonelle såvel som intrapersonelle afbrydelser, nødvendige som unødvendige.  </span></span></p> Marie Højholt ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1551 to., 02 mars 2017 00:00:00 +0100 (Meta)Theoretical gateways in studies on assessment and documentation in preschool – a research review with a Scandinavian focus https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1575 <p> </p><p>The purpose of this article is to describe and collate search results and analysis of research with a focus on (meta)theoretical gateways in assessment and documentation in Scandinavian preschools between 2006 and 2014, supplemented by delimited international research mainly from 2013-2014. The intention is also to highlight what the research indicates about assessment competence in relation to the (meta)theoretical gateways.  The final search results include 153 national and international studies from sources including the Nordic Base of Early Childhood Education and Care (NB-ECEC, 2006-2012). The results indicate that research into assessment in preschool is still a relatively young and undeveloped field, while the field of documentation, and pedagogical documentation in particular, has a significantly higher standing. As more and more different forms of assessment and documentation assume their place in preschools, it becomes increasingly important to gain knowledge and awareness of the potential benefits, limitations and consequences of various forms and practices for assessment and documentation. Theoretical gateways vary, as do the forms of assessment and documentation used. The analysis indicates that assessment competence can include professional assessment based on a variety of scientific grounds. Regarding the expanded documentation and evaluation task and the preschool’s complex assessment and documentation practices, there is a need for both expanded research and expanded competence, which can focus on a <em>multi-voiced assessment competence</em>.</p><p> </p> Ann-Christine Vallberg Roth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1575 ma., 27 feb. 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Teachers’ actions and children’s interests. Quality becomings in preschool documentation https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1756 <p>High quality is considered to be important for children’s development and learning in early childhood education. Swedish preschool teachers are required to systematically develop their practice and support children’s learning, using documentation and taking children’s interests into account. From a posthumanist perspective, preschool documentation, models and templates could be seen as actively producing certain elements of quality.  Reading  documentation from eight Swedish preschool groups diffractively through different texts, such as the national curriculum, supportive texts and research, this article discusses how teachers’ actions and children’s interests are produced as important quality aspects in one of these groups.</p> Katarina Elfström Pettersson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1756 ma., 20 feb. 2017 00:00:00 +0100 Injuries in Norwegian Early Childhood and Care (ECEC) Institutions https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1698 <p>Children’s play and exploration involves risk and a possibility for being injured. Early childhood and care institutions (ECECs) should provide children with physical challenges in a safe environment. Over the past years, the attention towards playground safety and injuries in ECECs has increased. Norwegian practitioners have a liberal approach to children’s risk taking in play, raising questions on injury prevalence in Norwegian ECECs. The aim for this study was to gain knowledge about the injury prevalence and characteristics of the injuries in Norwegian ECECs. Managers from 2105 institutions completed an electronic questionnaire retrospectively asking the managers to report injuries and accidents the past year. The results indicate that injuries are rare in Norwegian ECECs, and that most of the injuries are minor and do not require a follow-up from professional medical personnel. The moderate and severe injuries are very rare, and often mishaps. There are some indications that boys experience injuries more often than girls do. The main cause of moderate injuries is falling, both outdoors and indoors.</p> Ole Johan Sando, Ellen Beate Hansen Sandseter, Ingar Pareliussen, Camilla Kalvatn Egset ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1698 ti., 07 feb. 2017 21:24:38 +0100 Children's Participation in Ritualized Circle Time - Ritual in music sessions in the multicultural kindergarten: How does it comply with children's right to participation? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1745 <p>This article addresses the possibly contradictory relationship between children's right to participate and ritualized circle time. It presents an analysis from an arts-based research inquiry within self-study, conducted during circle times in multicultural kindergartens (children aged three to six). The focus of the analysis is aspects of the ritualized song circle time that might enhance or undermine children's right to participation. Examples from videotaped material and interviews with kindergarten teachers are presented in the context of Small's (1998) and Dissanayake's (2008, 2014) notions of ritual, and of Bae's (2009) and Eide et al.'s (2012) understandings of children's participation. Results indicate that a structured and ritualized song circle time enhances children's participation in a multicultural kindergarten.</p> Nora Bilalovic Kulset ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1745 ti., 20 des. 2016 00:00:00 +0100 Music in Informal and formal learning situations in ECEC https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1656 <p>The aim of this article is, through theory, research and practical experiences, to discuss how informal teaching and learning situations exemplified by activities including music plays a part in Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). The theoretical frame in this article is based on perspectives on informal teaching and learning in music and in general (Green 2002, 2008; Henze, 2009; Folkestad, 2006; Mak, 2007). The tradition in Norwegian ECEC centers has been based on informal learning processes mainly through social interaction, play, dialogs, aesthetical and outdoor activities in everyday life. ECEC teachers challenged to articulate Informal teaching and learning as professional educators. In light of that statement it is introduced, theoretical perspectives and studies of professions (Abbott, 1988; Grimen, 2008; Heggen, 2008; Polanyi, 2002). The author describes and discusses opportunities of music in ECEC centers and how music can contribute learning in informal learning situations. The discussion refers narrative episodes from observations of ECEC practice. Methodology is based on thematic analysis inspired of  Riessman (2008) and Polkinghorne (1995).</p> Morten Sæther ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1656 to., 08 des. 2016 00:00:00 +0100 - og så fikk dem se en rein! Ulike tilnærminger til hverdagslig pedagogisk virksomhet i barnehager i samisk-lulesamisk område i Norge. https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1564 <p>Det er nødvendig å få mer kunnskap om hva barnehagene og personalet i samisk-lulesamisk område gjør for å håndtere pålegg og intensjoner i styringsdokumentene om samisk innhold i barnehagehverdagen. Forskningsarbeidet som er bakgrunn for denne artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i et sosiokulturelt perspektiv og en institusjonell etnografisk tilnærming. Barnehagens styringsdokumenter og personalets beretninger om tanker og erfaringer med å iverksette og utvikle det pedagogiske innholdet og arbeidet i barnehagens hverdagsliv er sentrale i datamaterialet. Analysene gav mulighet for å peke på kjennetegn for og egenskaper ved faglig innhold og kvalitet i arbeidet med samiske tema. Det fremkommer momenter for videre utvikling og mulige valg for kompetanse og føringer for området samiske språk og kultur i enhver barnehage. Det er åpenbart at det må gjøres en innsats på alle nivå for å ta vare på og utvikle lulesamisk kultur og språk så vel innen- som utenfor forvaltningsområdet.</p><p>It is necessary to gain more knowledge about what the barnehage and its staff in the Pite- and Lule-Sami region in Norway do to meet the requirements and fulfill the intentions of the curriculum when it comes to Sami content in the everyday life of the barnehage. The research reported on in this article has its departure point in a sociocultural perspective and uses institutional ethnography as one of its approaches. The barnehage curricula and the staffs narratives, thoughts and experiences are central in the data. The analysis gave the possibility to point out some central features and traits of the content and quality of the work on Sami topics. Areas for further development and possible choices concerning competence and guidelines for the area of Sami language and culture in all barnehager were found. It is obvious that stronger efforts are needed on all levels to sustain and to develop the Lule-Sami culture and language both within the Sami language municipalities and other municipalities.</p> Kristin A.Ø. Fløtten ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1564 ti., 08 nov. 2016 00:00:00 +0100 Events of potential learning: how preschoolers produce curriculum at the computer during free play periods https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1696 <p>The Swedish preschool curriculum emphasizes children’s learning through play. This means that children’s learning in everyday practice is accomplished through a complex mixture of teacher-led activities and activities the children themselves initiate. When learning is viewed as situated and constituted through social interaction (Lave &amp; Wenger, 1991), almost all social events have learning potential. Consequently, from an educational and a curriculum point of view it is important to raise the question of <em>how</em> children’s learning can be made visible, and determine what kind of learning children’s own initiated (play) activities imply. The focus of the paper is on children’s (aged 3-5 years) “<em>communities of practice</em>” at the computer during “free play” period in two various Swedish preschools settings. Events of peer interaction are analyzed in detail to illustrate what kind of learning activities are going on at the computer, and to discuss these events of potential learning in relation to the curriculum goals and the educational practice. From a curriculum point of view, the analyses show that the children’s activities at the computer involve a variety of events that might provides for learning that can be viewed as goal-oriented. From the children’s point of view, the project of socialization seems to be the most prominent goal. A crucial point for educational success, however, is to understand not only what the object of learning is, rather what motivates children’s <em>play apprenticeship </em>in their own “communities of practice”.</p> Mats Bevemyr, Polly Björk-Willén ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1696 ma., 07 nov. 2016 00:00:00 +0100 Refleksjon i barnehagelærerutdanningen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1563 <p><em>Abstract:</em> The purpose of this article is to discuss the use of reflection in both educational- and research literature regarding Early Childhood Teacher Education. When reading the literature, I find that reflection is linked to theory and practice, to change and new knowledge and to ethical and critical reflection. The understanding of reflection as a concept varies, however personal change and new knowledge is a common denominator. My research reveals reflection as a multifaceted and complex concept. A consequence of this complexity is that in order to give reflection importance in teacher education, it will require thorough preparations for reflection and comprehensive monitoring of students.</p><p><em>Sammendrag:</em> Hensikten med denne artikkelen er å diskutere hvordan refleksjon anvendes i ulik fag- og forskningslitteratur som omhandler barnehagelærerutdanningen. I studier av tekstene finner jeg at refleksjon knyttes til teori og praksis, refleksjon knyttes til endring og ny erkjennelse og til etisk og kritisk refleksjon. Det varierer hvordan refleksjon forstås, men personlig endring og ny erkjennelse er en fellesnevner. Undersøkelsen viser et mangefasettert og komplekst refleksjonsbegrep. Det framgår også at skal refleksjon ha betydning i barnehagelærerutdanningen, vil det kreve grundige forberedelser og tilrettelegging for refleksjon, og omfattende oppfølging av studenter.</p> Anna Rigmor Moxnes ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1563 ma., 31 okt. 2016 00:00:00 +0100 Hva er det med Irma? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1630 <p align="left"><em><em>Abstract:</em><strong> </strong>This article is about formative quality assessment in a posthuman or newmaterial perspective; embodied knowledges.  Theory and method are written together in immanence to envision complexity.  The aim and scope of the article is to follow the flow of events Irma produces opening up for affirmative poetical critique praxis. Quality is forwarded as an intensity and force in a moment only.  The moment is therefore the only structure of the text, as moving quality. The intention and inner logic of the text is therefore designed to work against fixed definitions and conceptualizations of what quality and quality assessment is.  This way I hope to show what posthuman and newmaterial approaches can contribute with to build cultures of innovation in which quality is assessed and produces again and again. They put differences to work and open up for creating moments of educational justice. </em></p><p align="left"><em>Sammendrag:</em><strong> </strong>Artikkelen handler om kvalitetsvurdering i et nymaterielt perspektiv: Kroppslig kunnskap og viten. Teori og metode skrives sammen i immanent samtidighet for å gi et bilde på kompleksitet. Både hensikt og mål med artikkelen er å følge den flyten som Irma som hendelse eller <em>event</em> produserer, for å åpne opp potensialitet for en bekreftende eller affirmativ poetiserende kritikkpraksis og en ny forståelse av- og vurdering for kvalitet. Kvalitet skrives fram som en hendelse, intensitet eller kraft i et øyeblikk. Øyeblikket er derfor tekstens eneste og bærende struktur, som kvalitet i bevegelse. Tekstens indre logikk har slik til hensikt å motvirke forsøk på å skape definerte, faste eller bestemte oppfatninger av hva kvalitet er og hvordan kvalitet kan vurderes. På denne måten håper jeg å vise hva nymaterielle perspektiver kan gjøre for å bygge kulturer for innovasjon hvor kvalitet vurderes og produseres igjen og igjen. De setter forskjellighet i bevegelse og åpner opp for å skape rettferdige utdanningsøyeblikk.</p> Anne Beate Reinertsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1630 to., 06 okt. 2016 00:00:00 +0200 Berättelser som redskap för att föra och följa resonemang https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1550 <p><em>Abstract: </em>The aim of this study is to identify different ways of reasoning when preschool children create stories based on a given theme and with both a traditional and an unfamiliar framework for stories. 17 children participated in the study and the analysis shows three different ways to create stories: 1) stories with a fairy tale structure; 2) expressionist and fragmented accounts; 3) stories focusing on weather and seasonal changes. The cultural tools that children are offered (structure of a story) are used by some children to create traditional stories, but not as a tool for creating new forms of stories. The results show that children’s knowledge of the content within the stories and their conceptual understanding seem to play an important role for the ways in which the structure of stories are used as tools for reasoning.</p><p><em>Sammadrag: </em>Syftet med denna studie är att klargöra olika sätt att resonera när förskolebarn själva konstruerar berättelser utifrån ett givet tema och inför en traditionell och en mer kontroversiell form för berättelser. 17 barn deltog i studien och analysen visar på tre olika sätt att konstruera berättelser: 1) Berättelser med sagostruktur; 2) Expressionistiska och fragmentariska redogörelser; 3) Berättelser med fokus på väder- och årstidsväxlingar. Det kulturella redskap som barnen erbjuds (berättelsestrukturen) används av en del av barnen för att skapa traditionella berättelser, men inte som stöd för nyskapade former av berättelser. Resultaten visar att barn kunnande om innehållet i berättelserna och begreppsförståelse tycks spela en betydelsefull roll för hur barns berättelser används som redskap för resonemang.</p><p class="Default"><span lang="SV"><br /></span></p> Camilla Björklund, Malin Nilsen, Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1550 ti., 04 okt. 2016 09:43:26 +0200 Digital historiefortelling i arbeidsplassbasert barnehagelærerutdanning – arbeidsmåte for individuell og kollektiv læring https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1688 <p><em>Abstract:</em> This article presents Norwegian Kindergarten Teacher students’ and Kindergarten staff’s use of Digital Storytelling (DS), a tool for reflection and learning in higher education. The field of DS’ research focus on the use of personal narratives in the learning process, multimedia, and the creative process in developing identity and voice in a social context: <em>the Story Circle</em>. The frame is Workplace-based Kindergarten Teacher Education. The article is based on a case: student Yvonne’s work with DS in her kindergarten. Data is collected through observation and analyzed in light of theories on learning in practice, concretized to Kolb's experiential learning cycle. Results indicate that DS is a beneficial approach for facilitating both individual and collective reflection. <em>A significant condition is that kindergarten staff participates in students' learning processes. </em></p><p><em>Sammendrag:</em> Artikkelen tar for seg barnehagelærerstudenters og barnehageansattes bruk av digital historiefortelling (DH), som er en arbeidsmåte for refleksjon og læring i høyere utdanning. DH kjennetegnes ved: fortellingens betydningen for læring i forhold til tradisjonell sakprosa, den multimodale dimensjonen og den kreative prosessen hvor fortellingen blir til i en sosial kontekst:<em> fortellersirkelen</em>.<em> </em>Rammen er Arbeidsplassbasert barnehagelærerutdanning. Artikkelen baseres på et case: studenten Yvonnes arbeid med DH i egen barnehage. Data er innhentet gjennom observasjon og fortolkes i lys av teorier om læring i praksis, konkretisert til Kolbs erfaringslæringsmodell. Jeg viser at DH tilrettelegger for individuell og kollektiv refleksjon for både studenter og barnehageansatte. Forutsetningen er at ansatte gis muligheter til å delta i studentenes læringsprosesser.</p> Kristin Holte HAUG ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1688 to., 08 sep. 2016 00:00:00 +0200 Arts-based Research Processes in ECEC: Examples from Preparing and Conducting a Data Collection https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1371 <p>In this methodological article, different concepts and possibilities related to <em>how arts-based research processes can contribute in the early phases of ECEC research </em>will be presented and discussed. Despite a setback of art subjects in Norwegian ECEC and early childhood teacher’s education, the field of arts still plays an important role, and is expected to be research-based. Thus, there should be a need for an aesthetical and arts-based dimension in researching ECEC, not only in the subject matter, but also in the method, context, outcome and dissemination. The article focuses on methodological issues in the question development/design phase and the data collection phase, exemplified by the author’s own experiences in arts-based research processes. These processes include participation in dance and music performance as thinking or reflection tools in research, and an arts-based interview method. Some narrative writing processes will also be commented upon. Theoretically, the article primarily leans upon Barone and Eisner’s arts-based research and Irwin and Springgay’s a/r/tography.</p> Torill Vist ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1371 on., 31 aug. 2016 00:00:00 +0200 Å LESE MEDIETEKSTER PÅ IPADEN. Observasjoner av en medievant fireårings bruk av iPad i hjemmet https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1363 <p>Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i tre observasjoner av en gutt på fire år som bruker iPad på fritiden. Den søker å synliggjøre de strategiene dette barnet velger for å skaffe seg tilgang til ulike medietekster, hvordan han leser og tolker dem, og den undersøker eventuelle spor av kritisk refleksjon hos barnet over disse tekstene. Teoretisk sett hviler den på en forståelse av mediekompetanse som en parallell prosess til utvikling av lese- og skrivekyndighet (literacy), og medieopplevelsene omtales som viktige møter med tekst. Artikkelen undersøker hvordan å lese medietekster kan legge et grunnlag for å utvikle en utvidet tekstkompetanse eller mediekompetanse. Konklusjonen legger vekt på motivasjon og lekenhet som barns primære inngang til medietekstene og som et grunnlag for å utvikle mediekompetanse (media literacy).</p><p><em> <em><em><em>The article is based on three observations of a four-year-old boy who uses the iPad in his spare time. It demonstrates the strategies that this boy applies to gain access to various media texts, and how he reads and interprets them. It also seeks to examine traces of critical reflection that he may demonstrate in relation to these texts. Theoretically, it rests on an understanding of media literacy as a parallel process to the development of literacy, and it seeks to demonstrate how reading media texts can create an important starting point for the development of media literacy. The Kindergarten practitioner’s role and opportunities to develop children's media literacy within a kindergarten context is a focus towards the end of the article. In conclusion, I argue that motivation and playfulness are important approaches to media texts and create an important foundation for the development of media literacy</em></em></em></em></p> Henriette Jæger ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1363 ti., 21 juni 2016 00:00:00 +0200 Litterasitetsfremmende samtaler i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1378 <p><em>Abstract:</em>The aim with this study is to examine how early literacy can be supported in different conversations between a preschool teacher and children. Theory and research on children’s early literacy underline that children improve their language skills when they engage in conversations with adults. A preschool teacher must manage to support children with different language and conversation experiences. The preschool teacher in this study was video-observed in language interactions with different children in many types of activities. He managed to adapt his support to the children in accordance with their language experiences.</p><p><em>Sammendrag:</em> Formålet med denne studien er å undersøke hvordan tidlig litterasitet kan støttes og fremmes i samtaler mellom en barnehagelærer og ulike barn. Teori og forskning om barns tidlige litterasitet vektlegger at barn lærer vokabular og pragmatiske samtaleferdigheter gjennom samtaler med voksne. Barnehagelærere må tilstrebe å støtte barn med ulike erfaringer til å bruke språk og delta i samtaler. Barnehagelæreren i denne studien ble videoobservert i språklige interaksjoner med ulike barn i mange typer aktiviteter. Han klarte å tilpasse sin språklige støtte til hvert av de ulike barna i samsvar med deres språklige erfaringer.</p> Sigrun Slettner, Liv Gjems ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1378 ti., 03 mai 2016 00:00:00 +0200 Förskollärares kommunikation med de yngsta barnen i förskolan: med fokus på kvalitativa skillnader i hur ett innehåll kommuniceras. https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1232 <p>The aim of this article is to describe and analyze how preschool teacher’s ways to communicate with the youngest children in preschool contributes to conditions for children's learning. Data has been gathered from four Swedish preschools where observations were conducted to study teachers' communication with 1-3 year old children. The results of the study showed qualitative differences in teachers’ communication about a content. One conclusion is that a broad repertoire of ways to communicate seems to favor conditions for children as actors to jointly expand the content in focus. Another conclusion is that the repertoire of children's actions and expressions made possible appears to be related to qualitative differences in teachers’ communication.</p><p>Samandrag: Syftet med denna artikel är att beskriva och analysera hur förskollärares sätt att kommunicera med de yngsta barnen i förskolan bidrar till villkor för barns lärande. Förskollärare används synonymt med lärare då förskolan är en egen skolform. Datamaterialet är från fyra svenska förskolor där en observationsstudie genomförts av lärares kommunikation med 1-3 åriga barn. Resultaten från studien visar kvalitativa skillnader i lärarnas kommunikation om olika innehåll. En slutsats är att en kvalitativ kategori där en bred repertoar av sätt att kommunicera används av läraren tycks gynna förutsättningarna för aktörerna att gemensamt utvidga innehållet i kommunikationen. En annan slutsats är att den repertoar av barns aktörskap och uttryckssätt som möjliggörs förefaller vara relaterad till de kvalitativa skillnader som framkommit vid lärares repertoar av kommunikation. Diskussionen belyser resultatens konsekvenser i relation till social samhällsteori samt till teorier om yngre barns lärande och utveckling</p> Agneta Jonsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1232 ti., 15 mars 2016 00:00:00 +0100 Danningsbegrepet i barnehagenes årsplaner – en diskursanalytisk tilnærming https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1244 <p>The introduction of the concept formation (danning/Bildung) in the Norwegian Framework plan for the content and tasks of kindergartens makes it important and interesting to gain new knowledge about this concept theoretical as well as practical. The intention in this article is to identify, analyse and discuss formation discourses in the annual plans. The empirical foundation for this qualitative analysis is twenty strategic selected annual plans from different types of kindergartens located in two Norwegian municipalities. Methodological perspectives are linked to several authors and researchers, in particular to Foucault’s critical discourse analysis. The theoretical perspectives in the study builds on Klafki’s formation theory and critical constructive didactics, and to Kosellec’s historical description of the formation concept.  Finally, the two discourses the analysis resulted in: the subjectivity discourse and the community discourse are presented and discussed from relevant theoretical and practical perspectives.</p><p>Danningsbegrepet er innført i Rammeplan for barnehagens innhold og oppgaver, noe som gjør det både viktig og interessant å utvikle ny kunnskap om danningsbegrepet i barnehagens virksomhet så vel teoretisk som praktisk. Intensjonen i denne artikkelen er å løfte fram, analysere og diskutere hvilke danningsdiskurser som kan spores i årsplanenes beskrivelser av danning. Det empiriske grunnlaget for denne kvalitative analysen er tyve årsplaner fra ulike typer av barnehager lokalisert i to større norske bykommuner. Metodologiske perspektiver er knyttet til flere, men særlig til Focault sin kritiske diskursanalyse. Studien bygger på teoretiske perspektiver fra Klafki sin danningsteori og kritisk konstruktive didaktikk, samt til Kosellec sin begrepshistoriske utredning om danningsbegrepet. Avslutningsvis blir de to diskursene som analysen resulterte i<em>; subjektivitetsdiskursen og felleskapsdiskursen</em> presentert og drøftet ut fra relevante teoretiske og praktiske perspektiver.</p> Grete Nordvik, Marit Alvestad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1244 to., 03 des. 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Förskolechefens anavar och uppdrag i ett kommunalt förvaltningsperspektiv https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1204 <p>The revision of the Swedish Education Act and of the Pre-School Curriculum of 2010 involved a demand for improved pedagogical quality and for an alteration and clarification of roles and responsibilities within the pre-school sector. In the revision the responsibilities, authorizations and rights to make decisions of the Heads of Preschool were articulated and clarified. This article describes and discusses how the new responsibilities and tasks of the Heads of Preschool have been interpreted and how the response to the revisions has manifested itself within a framework of municipal public administration. The data used consists of a questionnaire answered by 48 administrative officials with responsibility for education government in different municipalities. The result shows that the Heads of Preschool in a majority of municipalities are faced with increasing responsibilities and a new accountability structure. In order to meet the demands for improved pedagogical quality they are also expected to provide competence development opportunities for preschool staff.</p><p>2010-års revideringen av skollagen och förskolans läroplan innebar dels ökade krav på pedagogisk kvalitet och dels på en förändrad och förtydligad ansvarsstruktur i förskolan. För förskolechefens del explicitgjordes och förtydligades både ansvar, befogenhet och beslutsrätt. I artikeln beskrivs och problematiseras hur förskolechefens ansvar och uppdrag tolkas och kommer till uttryck i ett övergripande kommunalt förvaltningsperspektiv i samband med dessa revideringar. Data utgörs av en enkätundersökning besvarad av 48 förvaltningstjänstemän anställda i olika kommuner. Resultatet visar att förskolechefen i flertalet kommuner har tilldelats ett stort ansvar när det gäller att tolka och initiera den förtydligade ansvarsstrukturen och skapa förutsättningar i form av kompetensutvecklingsinsatser för förskolepersonalen för att möta de ökade kraven på pedagogisk kvalitet.</p><p> </p><p> </p> Anita Eriksson, Dennis Beach, Ann-Katrin Svensson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1204 to., 03 des. 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Konstruksjoner av lederskap i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1205 <p>Artikkelen handler om hvordan barnehagelærere posisjonerer seg som ledere for personalet, gjennom tildeling av aktørstatuser til seg selv og medarbeidere i fortellinger fra barnehagen. Arbeidet har en narrativ tilnærming, og det anvendes en dialogisk performativ analyse på korte tekster om situasjoner og hendelser i barnehagen. Tekstene er opprinnelig skrevet som utgangspunkt for veiledningsøvelser i en opplæringssammenheng. Analysen fører frem til et antall konstruerte hovedkategorier innenfor hver gruppe: barnehagelærere som ledere for personalet, og medarbeidere som utfordrer lederskapet deres.</p><p>This article is concerned with how preschool teachers position themselves as staff-leaders, giving various kind of agency positions to both themselves and their staff members in narratives from kindergartens. The study takes a narrative perspective using a dialogical and performance analysis strategy in analyzing short texts about situations and events in kindergartens, written for the purpose of training counselling dialogues in an educational setting. The analyzing process resulted in a number of constructed main categories within each group: the preschool teachers as leaders, and the staff members who are challenging their leadership.</p> Hanne Kirsten Nilsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1205 to., 22 okt. 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Kvalitet i læring i barnehagen. En analyse av styringsdokumenter fra OECD og Norge https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/856 <p>The purpose of this article is to provide representations of and to compare meanings attributed to the concept of learning in Early Childhood Education and Care policy. More concrete, the article provides a comparison between documents from Norway and the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, OECD. The comparison is based on the OECD- report <em>Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care. Norway (Taguma et al. 2013),</em> and White Paper no. 24 (2012-2013) <em>The Future of Early Childhood Education and Care</em>. Neither the OECD-report nor the Norwegian White Paper has any legal levers to influence Norway, but the documents advise a national agenda, described as “soft governance”. The analysis is made on the basis of Bernstein’s code theory and his concept of classification.</p><p>I denne artikkelen gjøres det en sammenligning mellom styringsdokumenter for barnehagen fra henholdsvis Norge og OECD. Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i OECD-<em>rapporten Quality Matters in Early Childhood Education and Care. </em><em>Norway.</em> (Taguma m.fl., 2013) og St.meld.nr. 24 (2012-2013) <em>Framtidens</em> <em>barnehage</em>. Dette er ikke lovregulerende eller rådgivende dokumenter, men kan sies å ha stor påvirkningskraft ved å styre gjennom begrepsbruk, noe som omtales som “soft governance”. Hensikten med sammenligningen er å analysere hva slags betydninger læringsbegrepet tillegges i de ulike dokumentene. 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mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi; mso-fareast-language:EN-US;} </style> <![endif]--> Mette Nygård ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/856 ti., 06 okt. 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Exploring the pedagogic relation - Supporting six-year-olds in making sense of physical motion https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/993 This article explores how verbal relations between child and researcher may support the child’s reasoning and making sense of physical motion. In an earlier study, 64 children aged 6–14 participated in one-to-one reflective dialogues. Some of them developed their reasoning during the dialogue, and used an exploring approach to make sense of physical motion. For the present study, 6 transcripts were re-analyzed concerning the interplay between the researcher and the 6-year-olds who used this approach, aiming to explore the pedagogic relation, namely how the children used language to understand physical motion and how they were supported by the researcher. The analysis revealed some conditions for a pedagogic relation: the adult uses an <em>inviting approach</em>, directing the child’s awareness by framing the phenomenon, directing and reflecting the child’s awareness towards their use of language, and asking for the child’s perspective. Children who used an <em>exploring approach</em> spoke of the phenomenon ‘as’, expressed awareness of their own use of language, and tested and developed meanings. The results are discussed in relation to science education in early childhood settings, and ways of helping children expand their reasoning using an exploring approach to scientific phenomena. Annika Åkerblom ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/993 sø., 04 okt. 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Being and becoming as socialisation in a mathematical activity in preschool https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/992 <h2 align="left">This article investigates a map-drawing activity in a Swedish preschool from the perspective of how children are positioned as being or becoming mathematicians by the children themselves, the teacher and the researcher. The children positioned themselves as being mathematicians, who were capable of expressing and using their own experiences and skills. The researcher also focused on the children’s expertise and so positioned them as being mathematicians. Nevertheless, there were times when the children acknowledged their need for more skills and knowledge to solve a problem and thus positioned themselves as becoming mathematicians. Similarly, some of the teacher’s questions also focussed on developing children’s mathematics skills, which thus emphasized children’s incompleteness or state as becoming mathematicians. By contrasting the teacher’s role with those of the children and the researcher, it is possible to identify how the teacher affects children’s socialisation and learning through her questioning.</h2> Dorota Lembrér, Tamsin Meaney ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/992 lø., 03 okt. 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Den komplexa väven Att organisera för barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1323 <p>This study focuses on how children's transitions to and from preschool classes are organized in different schools. Principal’s arguments for this organization were sought via a web-based survey and analyzed using the frame factor theory in addition to theories of practical sense and the concept of continuity. The results show that children tend to make more transitions between social communities the younger they are. The distribution of the principal’s answers show that the majority of them, because of external conditions, split the preschool groups to new classes in the transition to preschool class. However, the same movements are not indicated in the transition to first grade. The results show how the work of organizing chidren’s transitions represent a complex web of external actual conditions as the number of children and the recruitment area of the school, the internal logics and ideas about what is best for children and best for continued learning as well as the school's own traditions of working with transitions. <em></em></p><p><em></em>Föreliggande studie fokuserar på hur barns övergångar till och från förskoleklass organiseras på olika skolor. Via en webbaserad enkät söks skolledares argument för denna organisering. I analysen nyttjas ett ramfaktorteoretiskt tänkande som kompletteras med teorier om praktiskt förnuft samt kontinuitetsbegreppet. Resultaten visar att barn tenderar att göra fler övergångar mellan barngrupper och sociala gemenskaper ju yngre de är. Fördelningen av skolledarnas svar visar att majoriteten, på grund av yttre villkor, delar förskolegrupperna till nya klasser i övergången till förskoleklass. Däremot indikeras inte samma rörlighet i övergången till årskurs 1. Resultaten visar hur arbetet med att organisera övergångarna utgör en komplex väv av yttre faktiska villkor som barnantal och upptagningsområdets storlek, av inre logiker och föreställningar om vad som är det bästa för barnen och det bästa för det fortsatta lärandet samt av skolans tradition av att organisera för arbetet med övergångar.</p> Helena Ackesjö ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1323 fr., 25 sep. 2015 17:22:17 +0200 Foregribelsens dialektik: ”skolens” nærvær i børnehavens pædagogiske værdiunivers https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/998 <p><em>Abstract:</em><em> </em>The article presents a study of some 700 day-care staff member’s attitudes towards children’s transition from kindergarten to a coming life as pupils in the school system. The transition is studied as rites of passage and as ascesis along the concept of Bildung. In addition findings are also analyzed along the value horizon of autonomy and conformity. The theoretical approach is based on the framework developed by Pierre Bourdieu, and the Grid Group Cultural Theory of Mary Douglas. The empirical part consists of answers to a questionnaire from some 700 staff members of 80 kindergartens in two Danish municipalities. The conclusions points to a high potential of conformist values and points to the long ignored ascetic dimension of Bildung as a central issue in the educational efforts of transition.</p><p><em>Sammendrag</em>: Artiklen præsenterer fundene fra en undersøgelse af børnehaveansattes holdninger til forberedelsen af børnene frem mod deres kommende liv som elever i skolesystemet. Overgangen er undersøgt som ritualer og askese i forlængelse af dannelsesbegrebet. Forskningsarbejdet i sin helhed bygger på Pierre Bourdieus og på Mary Douglas’ teoretiske rammeværk. Den empiriske del består af spørgeskemabesvarelser fra 700 ansatte i 80 børnehaver i to danske kommuner. Data her fra er analyseret langs en værdiakse fra konformitet til autonomi. Konklusionen peger på en klar tilbøjelighed i personalets pædagogiske værdier mod vægtning af konformitet og ikke autonomi i arbejdet med børnenes overgang til skolelivet. Endelig drøftes en miskendt side ved de pædagogiske dannelsesambitioner i form af de afkald, et dannelsesarbejde forudsætter.</p><p> </p><p> </p> Bent Olsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/998 to., 24 sep. 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Posthumanisme /nymaterialisme og nomadisme - affektive brytninger av barnehagens observasjonspraksiser https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1214 <p>This article challenges observation as a method in early childhood, justified as a mapping tool for creating knowledge about children. Observation as data material is about writing down already known categorisation about children and their development. Categories and categorisation make a foundation for correspondence and coherence   - connections that might create generalising knowledge about children in early years. The article is about a research project conducted in a child-centre over a two-year period. We had an on-going conversation with the personnel around theories about ‘child development’. In the article we experiment with observation based on posthuman/newmaterial theories. Our specific interests are to explore the complexities around observation by asking; why observations, what do we expect through observation, and what might observation as datamaterial be/become? We are inspired by the Norwegian film “Kitchen Stories” (Salmer fra Kjøkkenet, Hamer, 2003) both as affect/provocation and desire (Koro-Ljungberg &amp; MacLure, 2013). We search for affective bending and messiness (Lather, 2007; Law, 2004) to disturb and challenge observation as dominating paradigm in the field of early years, to break some patterns around the positioning of data material.<strong></strong></p><p> </p><p>Artikkelen utfordrer observasjon i barnehagen ut fra at metoden brukes som verktøy for å kartlegge og danne grunnlaget for utvikling av kunnskap om barn.  Observasjon som datamateriale innebærer iakttagelser og nedtegnelser av allerede gitte kategoriseringer om barn og barns utvikling.  Kategorier og kategorisering legger grunnlag for mønster som har i seg ideer om korrespondanse og koherens – sammenhenger som kan bidra til generaliserende kunnskap om barna i barnehagen. Omrisset av artikkelen dreies rundt et forskningsarbeid gjort i en barnehage over en toårs-periode, der vi sammen med de ansatte diskuterer teorier<em> </em>om barn og barns ’utvikling’. Vi bruker posthumane/ny-materielle teorier for å eksperimentere med observasjon som metode. Vi er inspirert av den norske filmen <em>’Salmer fra kjøkkenet</em>’ (Hamer, 2003), både som affekt/provokasjon (Koro-Ljungberg &amp; MacLure, 2013) og som mulighet til å eksperimentere med hva observasjon som datamateriale kan være. Vi søker i artikkelen å benytte affektive brytninger og messyness<em> </em>(Lather, 2007; Law, 2004) for å prøve ut hvordan filmen sammen med teoretisk tenkning kan virke som drivkraft med og i et forskningsprosjekt.</p> Ann Merete Otterstad, Brit Nordbrønd ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1214 on., 23 sep. 2015 00:00:00 +0200 The importance of looking at someone looking through a pirates telescope https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1302 <p>This article will address methodological issues concerning the making of knowledge.</p>Drawing on a recent case study from an early childhood educational setting, I will give detailed descriptions of the process of video analysis including the process of transcription and the uses of logs. An aspiration is to create transparency by displaying an analytical process as dynamic, and show how theoretical positions and the researcher her/himself is intertwined in the construction of the empirical base, and thereby in the construction of knowledge. A meta-case is made, and will thereby serve as an example of epistemological reflexivity; how a process of analysis gives certain views and certain truths. To put it in a narrative idiom, this article contains a researcher’s learning story about the importance of looking at someone looking through a pirate’s telescope, to put it in words indicating a meta perspective on a case study called <em>Captain Andreas and his Crew</em> (Ødegaard 2006a, 2007). The article will also, on the basis of a creation of a meta-case, contribute to rethinking truths of children’s meaning-making, gender- and identity-work; boys using swords for battles, as the mention of pirates indicates. The article will problematize whether boys using swords for play battles necessarily can be seen as gendering stereotype masculinity. Elin Eriksen Ødegaard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1302 on., 23 sep. 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Innledningsartikkel til temanummer om Barn og rom https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1424 <p>I lys av utviklingen av barnehagens posisjon i det norske samfunnet og debatten om effekter av barnehagens fysiske miljø og organisering, dannet en gruppe tverrfaglige og tverrinstitusjonelle barnehageforskere i 2004 forskningsnettverket Barn og Rom. Nettverkets mål har vært å <em>"skape ny og forskningsbasert kunnskap om det fysiske miljøets betydning for barn, og samtidig være et forum for kunnskapsdeling, utvikling av felles forskningsprosjekter, formidling og publisering</em>, <em>samt internasjonalt samarbeid med andre aktører og forskningsgrupper"</em>. Forskningsnettverket opererer med en definisjon av "Barn og Rom" som i vid forstand omfatter hele det fysiske miljøet barn vokser opp i. Dette inkluderer ulike landskap, for eksempel byen og naturen, steder, bygninger, ute- og innerom, innredning, møbler, utstyr, installasjoner og lekeapparater. Likevel har nettverket hatt et særlig fokus på barnehagens fysiske miljø og dets betydning for barn, personalet og den pedagogiske virksomheten og hvordan miljøet forstås, organiseres, skapes og endres av personalet og barn i barnehagen.</p><p> </p><p>Dette temanummeret er et resultat av noen av nettverksmedlemmenes arbeid de siste årene og presenterer en stor bredde både i metodisk tilnærming så vel som tematisk tilnærming til temaet <strong>"</strong>Barn og rom<strong>"</strong>.</p><h3><strong><br /></strong></h3> Ellen Beate Sandseter ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1424 on., 01 juli 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Structural conditions for children's play in kindergarten https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1426 This article explores how the organisation of children, physical space and materials influences the structural conditions of play in kindergartens in Norway. The main purpose is to analyse relations between the organizational model of the kindergarten and these structural conditions of play. The result are based on a survey and interviews with head teachers and pedagogical leaders from 127 kindergartens. The results indicate that the kindergarten’s choice of organizational model provides varying <em>s</em>tructural conditions for children`s play. One can conclude that some of the variables included in the study, like access to play materials and group size, may promote the quality of children’s play. Marianne Torve Martinsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1426 on., 01 juli 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Arkitektur og pedagogikk i samspill eller motspill? - om betydning av koherens mellom planlegging og etablering av nye typer barnehagebygg https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1427 <p><em>Abstract:</em><strong> </strong>This article discusses the intentions and experiences from architects and pedagogues involved in planning and establishing kindergartens with new building topologies in Oslo. The National Kindergarten effort (St.meld.nr. 24 2002-2003) with the political aim that all children between one and six years should have the right to attend kindergarten, led to a huge development of kindergarten buildings all over Norway. Many of the buildings were designed as new typologies named <em>base</em> and <em>zone</em> kindergartens. There are barely research on processes and consequences of the changes in physical structures in educational institutions. The results of the research presented here are based on a case study of processes in four municipalities in Oslo. It shows that the staff working in the new buildings had scarcely any knowledge of the intentions behind the new design, and the support in  establishing pedagogical work in new physical frames was limited. The aim of the article is to expand the knowledge about connections between architecture and pedagogic, and point to the importance of involving the staff/professionals in educational changes where the physical environment is at stake.<em> </em>These findings may be relevant to other transformations involving organizational and architectural changes. </p><p><em>Sammendrag:</em> Artikkelen drøfter intensjoner og erfaringer hos arkitekter og pedagoger involvert i planlegging og etablering av barnehager med nye bygningstypologier i Oslo. Barnehageforliket (St.meld.nr.24 2002-2003) innebar et politisk vedtak om barnehageplass for alle og førte til en massiv utbygging av barnehager over hele landet. Mange av de nye byggene ble oppført med nye typer planløsninger (base- og sonebarnehager). Det finnes lite forskning om prosesser og konsekvenser knyttet til endring av fysiske strukturer i pedagogiske institusjoner. Forskningsresultatene som presenteres i artikkelen er basert på en casestudie av prosesser i fire bydeler i Oslo, og viser at personalet i de nye byggene hadde lite kjennskap til intensjoner bak byggenes utforming og opplevde lite støtte i etableringsprosessen. Artikkelens formål er å bidra til kunnskap om betydningen av å involvere personalet i pedagogiske reformer og i utvikling av det fysiske miljøet. Funnene kan ha overføringsverdi til andre reformer som innebærer organisatoriske og arkitektoniske endringer.  </p><div> </div> Randi Evenstad, Aslaug Andreassen Becher ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1427 on., 01 juli 2015 00:00:00 +0200 En teoretisk utdyping av rom og materialitet som pedagogisk ressurs i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1429 <p><em>Abstract: </em>This article is a theoretical exploration with the aim of discussing an ontological basis for space and materiality as educational resources in kindergarten. Attention is directed on children’s play experiences interacting with space and materiality, and how children use and create space. The metaphors <em>front stage</em>, <em>space in between</em>, and <em>backstage</em> (inspired from Erving Goffman, 1969), which form the study's main findings, are used as the backdrop for the issue and analyzes. The empirical material used in this exploration has been collected with an ethnographic methodological approach in two kindergartens. Maurice Merleau-Ponty’s (1962) focus on bodily experience and presence in space, along with concepts from Latour’s (2005) actor-network theory, is used to explore the data. The article contributes with theoretical tools for professionals in kindergarten teaching, to shed light on the importance of space, materiality and play in children's everyday life in kindergarten.<em></em></p><p><em>Sammendrag: </em>Denne artikkelen diskuterer et ontologisk grunnlag og er en teoretisk utforskning av rom og materialitet som en pedagogisk ressurs i barnehagen. Oppmerksomheten er rettet mot barns lekeerfaringer i samspill med rom og materialitet, og hvordan barn bruker og skaper rom. Metaforene <em>hovedrom</em>, <em>mellomrom</em>, og <em>bakrom</em> (inspirert fra Erving Goffman, 1969), som danner studiens hovedfunn, blir brukt som et bakteppe for problemstilling og analyser av det empiriske materialet fra to barnehager. Maurice Merleau-Ponty publikasjoner <em>The Phenomenology of Perception</em> (Merleau-Ponty, 1962) med sitt fokus på kroppslig erfaring i levd rom, blir brukt sammen med begreper fra Latours aktør-nettverksteori (Latour 2005) til å utforske hvordan rom og materialitet kan være pedagogiske ressurser. Artikkelens kunnskapsbidrag er å presentere et teoretisk verktøy for barnehageprofesjonen og kunnskaper om lekens betydning i barns hverdag i barnehagen.</p><p><br /><em></em></p> Solveig Nordtømme ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1429 on., 01 juli 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Hvilken innvirkning har barnehagens fysiske utemiljø på barns lek og de ansattes pedagogiske praksis i uterommet. https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1430 <p><em>English abstract:</em> The main objective of this study was to explore children’s activities on preschool playgrounds, and how different playground features (topography, equipment, size, location etc.) affected children's play. The study aimed to contribute with knowledge on how outdoor environments encourage different kinds of play and learning for preschool children. The data collection was based on the methodology of "mosaic approach", which is a multi-method focusing on children’s perspectives (Clark &amp; Moss, 2001; Clark &amp; Moss, 2005; Clark, 2010), using observations, guided tours, children’s drawings and interviews. The results show that pre-defined play equipment is of less meaning for the preschool children in this study. They preferred varied and unpredictable environments with possibilities to create their own play based on undefined elements such as sticks, stones and branche.</p><p><em>English abstract:</em> The main objective of this study was to explore children’s activities on preschool playgrounds, and how different playground features (topography, equipment, size, location etc.) affected children's play. The study aimed to contribute with knowledge on how outdoor environments encourage different kinds of play and learning for preschool children. The data collection was based on the methodology of "mosaic approach", which is a multi-method focusing on children’s perspectives (Clark &amp; Moss, 2001; Clark &amp; Moss, 2005; Clark, 2010), using observations, guided tours, children’s drawings and interviews. The results show that pre-defined play equipment is of less meaning for the preschool children in this study. They preferred varied and unpredictable environments with possibilities to create their own play based on undefined elements such as sticks, stones and branches</p> Trond Løge Hagen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1430 on., 01 juli 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Klatring i trær og hyttebygging: - om barns lek og lekesteder ute https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1431 <p><em>Abstract:</em> This article describes 10 year old children`s play in nature during school hours. However, my result does equally reflect on children in kindergarden as well. Observation and conversation was used as methods as well as pictures. The children’s play in the trees and building huts was conducted in groups, and their communication was nonverbal with each other and with the nature. However; the girls reveal that they enjoy their conversations while being in the tree. The children often play at the same place over and over. This is significant to the evolution of the play and the children’s communication with their places in nature.</p><div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span style="font-size: 10.000000pt; font-family: 'TimesNewRomanPSMT';"><em>Sammendrag:</em> Denne artikkelen omhandler 10 år gamle barns lek på natursteder i skoletida. Selv om studien omhandler 10 åringer så kan kunnskapen den frembringer også være viktig for å forstå barnehagebarns lek og tilknytning til sine lekesteder i barnehagen. Metodene som ble brukt for å undersøke barnas lek var observasjoner og samtaler med barna, i tillegg til fotografier. Barnas lek i trærne og i hyttebyggingen karakteriseres ved at de er flere sammen, og barna har en kroppslig dialog med hverandre og omgivelsene i leken. Barna snakker i liten grad sammen om leken og hvordan de skal leke; deres kommunikasjon er hovedsakelig nonverbal. Men når jentene sitter i treet forteller de meg at de liker å sitte og snakke. Barna leker på steder hvor de har vært mye før, og dette har en betydning for barnas lek og barnas kommunikasjon med deres steder. </span></p></div></div></div> Merete Lund Fasting ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1431 on., 01 juli 2015 00:00:00 +0200 På leit etter grunnlag for norske barnehagers matematikkdidaktiske arbeid med romforståelse. - Et systematisk søk på forskning om barns utvikling av romforståelse gjort i barnehagekonteksten 1995-2010 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1432 <p><em>Abstract: </em>A review of research on children’s development of spatial reasoning in  a preschool setting 1995-2010. This study reviews 16 journal articles, books and theses on spatial reasoning in early childhood mathematics education. The data was collected by way of systematical search in several major databases and relevant digital and non-digital journals. The article gives a brief presentation of the main findings and the different methods used and, if applicable, the authors’ focus on didactics in both method and analysis. When it comes  to children’s mathematical learning processes, a main focus for a majority of studies is children’s use of constructional play material. When it comes to preschool teachers’ work with spatial reasoning, most  studies focus on the teachers’ planned and spontaneous communication with the children. The article then goes on to discuss these findings in relation to the Norwegian Framework Plan for Kindergartens. It seems like future research on the teachers’ use of material, on their work with visualization and orientation, and on their general focus on spatial reasoning could gain curriculum practise. </p><p><em>Sammendrag: </em>Denne oversiktsartikkelen gir en presentasjon av 16 internasjonale forskningsarbeider som ser på barns romforståelse i en barnehagekontekst. Arbeidene består av 14 vitenskapelige artikler, en bok og en doktorgrad, og disse ble funnet gjennom systematiske søk i flere større databaser og relevante digitale og analoge tidsskrift. Artikkelen gir en kort presentasjon av de ulike arbeidenes metode, hovedfunn og didaktiske vinkling. Når det gjelder barns utvikling av romforståelse har en majoritet av studiene fokus på hvordan dette kan belyses ved å studere og stimulere barns konstruksjonslek. For de studiene som ser på pedagogens rolle i arbeid med romforståelse legges det mest vekt på kommunikasjon, både planlagt og spontan kommunikasjon. Oversiktsartikkelen drøfter deretter hvilken betydning disse arbeidene kan ha for arbeidet med romforståelse i norske barnehager. Det kan se ut som at videre forskning bør vektlegge barnehagelærerens bruk av materiell, hvordan man planlegger arbeid med visualisering og orientering, og hvordan et økt fokus på romforståelse kan støtte barnehagelærerens arbeid med å iverksette den norske rammeplanens intensjoner på området.</p> Line Rønning Føsker ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1432 on., 01 juli 2015 00:00:00 +0200 Fra idealer til praksis. En Latour-inspirert studie av barnehageprosjektet ”Ergonomi og pedagogikk hånd i hånd – helse i hver bevegelse” https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1428 <pre><em>Abstract: </em>This article is based on the study of the project: “Ergonomics and pedagogics hand in hand – health in every movement” (EPH) and the implementation of it in a Norwegian kindergarten. A central idea in the EPH- project is that by focusing on children’s motor development, and allowing them to be more independent in daily activities, ergonomic benefits that will ease employees' workday will be achieved. Our study of this project is inspired by Bruno Latour's perspectives on the relation between humans and materiality and the data is sampled by field observations. The main question we rise and discuss in the article is: <em>What tensions might arise when ideals to benefit both children’s independency and the employer’s ergonomic health are to be implemented simultaneously in a kindergarten context? </em>Overall, the results of the study shows that the tension between children’s attempt to be independent, on the one hand, and the adult’s’ tendency to strive for tidiness and security, on the other, is significant. This can partly be explained by that humans may interact differently with a given materiality than the original purpose of it was. Physical environments may also invite for multiple ways of using it and thus the very same material organization may promote as well as constrain a good synergy between ergonomic and pedagogic ideals. We therefore conclude that to fulfill both children’s and adult’s needs at the same time, in the specific material space a modern kindergarten represents, might imply some very distinct challenges that planners and users should take into account. <br /><br /></pre><p><em>Sammendrag: </em>Artikkelen fokuserer på det fysiske miljøets virkning på idealet om å best mulig forene ansattes helse og barns selvhjulpenhet i en barnehagekontekst. Den bygger en studie av implementeringen av sentrale idealer i prosjektet: ”Ergonomi og pedagogikk hånd i hånd – helse i hver bevegelse” (EPH). En sentral tanke bak implementeringen av EPH-prosjektet er at ved å sette fokus på barnas motoriske utvikling, og la dem være mer selvstendige i daglige gjøremål, vil man kunne oppnå ergonomiske gevinster som vil lette de ansattes arbeidshverdag. Vår studie av dette prosjektet er inspirert av Bruno Latours perspektiver på forholdet mellom mennesker og det materielle og er bygd på deltagende observasjon som metode. I artikkelen står følgende problemstilling i sentrum: <em>Hvilke spenninger kan oppstå når </em><em>idealer til beste for barn og for voksne skal implementeres samtidig i en barnehagekontekst?</em> Samlet sett viser resultatene i artikkelen at spenningen mellom på den ene siden barns forsøk på selvhjulpenhet, og de voksnes tendens til å vektlegge orden og sikkerhet i barnehagen på den andre, er betydelig. Dette kan blant annet tilskrives at mennesker har en tendens til å bruke tingene på en annen måte enn det som var hensikten med dem. De fysiske omgivelsene kan også innby til flere bruksmåter på en gang, og på den måten kan materialiteten i en barnehage noen ganger både fremme og hemme forholdet mellom ergonomi og pedagogikk. Vår konklusjon er derfor at det å realisere barn og voksnes behov samtidig, i det konkrete rommet en moderne barnehagekontekst representerer, bringer med seg noen helt særegne utfordringer som planleggere og brukere bør være bevisst på. <em></em></p> Maiken Marie Jordal, Kari Nyheim Solbrække ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1428 ma., 01 juni 2015 00:00:00 +0200 A Historical Overview: Care and Education Intersecting with Status and Class in Swedish Childminder Education 1975-2011 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/641 <p class="Title1">From a perspective of status and class, this paper delineates changes in Swedish childminder education. The data are policy documents, documents from childminder training, and interviews with educators. The analysis is informed by post-structural theory. The study shows that the status of the childminder program has shifted between high and low status, and led toward differently classed life trajectories at different times. One reason for these variations is that the emphasis in childcare has shifted from care to teaching. This has at times increased the status of the education and the vocation, but also subverted the demand for childminders.</p> Birgitta Plymoth, Eva Reimers ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/641 lø., 28 mars 2015 17:50:29 +0100 ”Ah, oh, nejjjj!” om eksperimentelle processer i æstetisk pædagogisk praksis https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/863 <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:AllowPNG /> <o:TargetScreenSize>800x600</o:TargetScreenSize> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--><p class="MsoNormal"> </p><p>On the basis of a 2-year action research project, this article focuses on experimental and explorative processes in esthetic teaching practices in nursery schools. A history of science and learning perspective on experimenting and exploration in science and art is used to clarify the characteristic properties of both concepts. Together with a phenomenologically inspired understanding of perception, a theoretical conceptual framework is formed to analyse esthetic experimental practice. Thus, both childrens’ perceptual cognitive potentials in experimental processes and the teacher’s role in staging experimental environments and their significance for esthetic and creative development. environments are clarified. The purpose of this is to contribute to an understanding of experimental.</p><p> </p><p>På baggrund af et 2-årigt aktionsforskningsprojekt sætter artiklen fokus på eksperimentelle og eksplorative processer i æstetisk pædagogisk praksis i børnehaven. Et idéhistorisk perspektiv på eksperiment og eksploration i videnskab og kunst bruges til at belyse karakteristiske egenskaber af begge begreber. Sammen med en fænomenologisk inspireret forståelse for perception dannes dermed en teoretisk begrebsramme til analyser af æstetisk eksperimentel praksis. Ligeledes belyses børns perceptuelle erkendelsesmuligheder ved eksperimentelle processer og pædagogens rolle ved iscenesættelsen af eksperimenterende miljøer. Formålet er at bidrage til en forståelse for eksperimenterende miljøer og deres betydning for børns æstetisk dannelse og kreativitetsudvikling.</p><p> </p> Michael Blume ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/863 lø., 28 mars 2015 17:48:57 +0100 Language Learning in Outdoor Environments: Perspectives of preschool staff https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/749 Language environment is highlighted as an important area in the early childhood education sector. The term language environment refers to language-promoting aspects of education, such as preschool staff’s use of verbal language in interacting with the children. There is a lack of research about language learning in outdoor environments; thus children’s language learning is mostly based on the indoor physical environment. The aim of this study is therefore to explore, analyse, and describe how preschool staff perceive language learning in outdoor environments. The data consists of focus-group interviews with 165 preschool staff members, conducted in three cities in Sweden. The study is meaningful, thus results contribute knowledge regarding preschool staffs’ understandings of language learning in outdoor environments and develop insights to help preschool staff stimulate children’s language learning in outdoor environments. Martina Norling, Anette Sandberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/749 lø., 28 mars 2015 00:00:00 +0100 ”Nytråkk” i gamle spor. Retrospektivt blikk på hverdagslivet i en småbarnsgruppe. https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/688 <p>An increasingly number of small children attends day care in Norway. This is a challenging situation that calls for increased research on different aspects of quality of daily life within institutional settings. We need more knowledge about how children experiences daily life in day care. Studying small children`s daily life is however a challenging methodological matter. In this small case study we have conducted retrospective talks with four 4-5 year old children two years after they left day care setting for toddlers. The children were invited back to their former day care to guide the researchers within these locations. Artifacts, toys and furniture seemed to trig their memories as “walking along”. Children also were invited to bring their individual “memory-books” from their first day care period, a book that contained various documentations (photos, drawings and art productions) from their toddler period. During data-collection children presented glimpses from former day care period and shared memories from their daily life in day care “back then”. Results from these two retrospective talks with children as well as methodological and ethics aspects related to searching for children`s perspectives is given attention in this article.</p><p> </p><p>Stadig flere små barn går i barnehagen i Norge og de fortjener å ha gode hverdager. Det er et krevende og forpliktende anliggende å sikre barnehager av god kvalitet for alle barn. Det trengs mer forskning om ulike aspekter ved hverdagene innenfor pedagogiske institusjoner, ikke minst trenger vi mer kunnskap om hvordan barna opplever hverdagen i barnehagen. Å studere de yngste barnas perspektiver på tilværelsen i barnehagen er forskningsmetodisk og etisk utfordrende. I denne casestudien har vi gjennomført retrospektive samtaler med et mindre utvalg 4-5 åringer to år etter at de gikk på småbarnsavdelingen i barnehage. Barna ble invitert tilbake til sin tidligere småbarnsavdeling og spurt om de ville fortelle oss forskere om hva de husket fra hverdagene her. Vi har anvendt to forskningsmetodiske tilnærmingsmåter. Den første metoden var “walking along”; som innebar at vi vandret gjennom barnehageavdelingen sammen med barna og samtalte med dem om det de valgte å dvele ved. Vi erfarte blant annet at gjenstander, leker og møbler syntes å trigge minnene fra “den gang”. Den andre metoden var samtaler ut fra barnas individuelle "barnehagepermer" (“min barnehagebok”) fra sine første år i barnehagen. Disse permene inneholdt ulike dokumentasjoner (bilder, tegninger og andre formingsproduksjoner) og barna samtalte med oss om tanker og refleksjoner om innholdet i permene. Erfaringer  fra disse to retrospektive samtaleformene med barna, samt metodiske og etiske aspekter knyttet til å søke etter barns “perspektiver” på dagliglivet i barnehagen, gis oppmerksomhet i denne artikkelen.</p><p> </p> Nina Winger, Brit Johanne Eide ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/688 lø., 28 mars 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Magt & meninger: Pædagogiske værdiprofiler blandt personalet i danske børnehaver https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/999 <p>The article presents a research work on possible correlations between childhood background and educational values in a group of 700 employees in 80 Danish kindergartens. If the staff's pedagogical work is indebted to the living environment, the individual has grown up in; it can give this work the character of resilience or inertia and stability. This inertia, however, can come into conflict with the instrumental requirements on adaptability to external demands of change, transition and educational development programs.</p><p>Using the so-called multiple correspondence analysis one obtains first a map of social background of respondents and their professional and cultural resources with the use of indicators of cultural and social capital in the wake of Pierre Bourdieu's theoretical framework. By the next step a new second map is being drawn based on the answers to a number of value questions. And finally one gets the relationship between social structure and educational values by comparing the two maps.</p><p>The results show that respondents typically agree on the pedagogical values across social background, age and position in the professional job hierarchy. But the project also shows that there are correlations between the possession of social and cultural capital and what is being appreciated in the pedagogical work.</p><p> </p><p>Artiklen præsenterer et forskningsarbejde om mulige sammenhænge mellem opvækstbaggrund og pædagogiske værdier i en gruppe på 700 ansatte i 80 danske børnehaver. Hvis personalets pædagogiske arbejde står i gæld til de levemiljøer, man er vokset op i, kan det give dette arbejde karakter af stabilitet. Projektet undersøger, hvordan disse livslange forudsætninger krystalliseres i mødet med det børnehavepædagogiske arbejdsfelt: afsætter forskelle i opvækst- og leveerfaringer tilsvarende mønsterforskelle i de pædagogiske værdiorienteringer?  </p><p>Med den såkaldte multible korrespondanceanalyse er det muligt at få sammenhænge frem mellem et stort antal variable på én gang. Dette arbejde med datasættet skrider frem over tre trin.  Først fremkommer et rum af positioner baseret på respondenternes sociale baggrund og deres faglige og kulturelle ressourcer. Her bruges indikatorer på kulturel og social kapital i forlængelse af Pierre Bourdieus teoretiske rammeværk. Med svarene på en række spørgsmål fra børnehavens hverdagsliv konstrueres dernæst et rum af pædagogiske værdier. På det tredje og sidste trin sættes de to rum eller ”kort” i forbindelse med hinanden for at se, om den sociale struktur kan genfindes i rummet af pædagogiske værdier.</p><p>Resultaterne viser, at der er sammenhænge mellem besiddelse af social og kulturel kapital, og det man værdsætter i det pædagogiske arbejde. Men projektet viser også, at personalet i vid udstrækning samler sig om de pædagogiske værdier på tværs af social baggrund, alder og position i stillingshierarkiet.</p> Bent Olsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/999 lø., 28 mars 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Høytidsmarkering i religiøst mangfoldige barnehager https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1007 <p>Based on the religions represented in the children's group, Norwegian kindergartens are required to have activities related to religious festivals. The requirement is aiming both on mutual interest, respect and tolerance between the children and on the recognition of the life world of the children affiliated with the religion in point. The study demonstrates that recognition of the Muslim festival Id al-fitr takes place in a very limited part of the kindergartens, and that the cooperation with parents is qualitatively different between majority and minority religions. We have also found that the kindergartens that recognized religious festivals aims their activities to affirm the Muslim children, rather than aiming at the children as a group. </p><p> </p><p>Artikkelen tar utgangspunkt i hvordan et utvalg barnehager arbeider med prosessmålet om at barn skal utvikle interesse, toleranse og respekt for hverandre i barnehagen, samt bruk av høytidsmarkering og foreldresamarbeid i den forbindelse. Basert på en empirisk undersøkelse finner vi at barnehager som har barn med minoritetsreligiøs tilknytning i liten grad driver høytidsmarkering slik rammeplanen krever. I den grad den muslimske høytiden id al-fitr markeres, sikter personalet mot identitetsbekreftelse for muslimske barn. Aktivitetene tar i liten grad sikte på å utvikle interesse, toleranser og respekt i barnegruppa som helhet.</p> Kari Krogstad, Kari-Mette Walmann Hidle ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1007 lø., 28 mars 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Stora barngrupper i förskolan relaterat till läroplanens intentioner https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1012 <p>Over the last decade the number of children in Swedish preschool has increased in all age groups. Meanwhile, the preschool curriculum has been revised with higher requirements for pedagogical activities. This article aims to problematize preschool teachers expressions on opportunities and obstacles to work with the intentions of the curriculum, in relation to size of the child group. The study takes an interactionistic perspective based on Urie Bronfenbrenner´s ecological system theory. The data production consists of survey responses and interviews with preschool teachers. The qualitative content analysis focuses on themes that preschool teachers express as relevant in order to meet curriculum intentions and support children’s learning and knowledge formation. The results show that the number of children in preschool groups is of crucial importance for preschool teachers selection and deselection of content areas and working approaches. With fewer children in the group, preschool teachers express that they to a greater extent, can work in relation to the intentions instantiated in the curriculum.</p><p> </p><p>De senaste åren har antalet barn i svensk förskola ökat i alla åldersgrupper. Samtidigt har förskolans läroplan reviderats med högre krav gällande den pedagogiska verksamheten. Denna artikel problematiserar förskollärares uttryck kring möjligheter och hinder att arbeta med läroplanens intentioner, i relation till barngruppens storlek. Studien är förankrad i Bronfenbrenners systemteori. Dataunderlaget består av enkätsvar och intervjuer med förskollärare. Den kvalitativa analysen fokuserar innehållsteman som förskollärare uttrycker har betydelse för val av målområden och arbetssätt i verksamheten i relation till gruppstorlek. Resultatet visar att antalet barn har betydelse för val och bortval av målområden och arbetssätt. Förskollärarna ser större möjligheter att arbeta utifrån läroplanens intentioner med mindre antal barn i gruppen.</p><p> </p> Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson, Pia Williams, Sonja Sheridan ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1012 lø., 28 mars 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Likestilt og forskjellig? Om menn og likestilling i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1212 <p>This article highlight the goal of 20 percent male employees in Norwegian kindergartens as a contribution to promoting gender equality. We conducted two studies showing different expectations towards men and women. Informants are positive to increasing the number of men, but in the two surveys they expressed conflicting expectations towards the role of men in kindergartens. In the survey among male preschool students they have objections to recruit men as a group because they are men (Kasin et al. 2010). In the survey among employees in kindergartens they desire men just because they are men, different from women. Their rationale is that this creates diversity (Kasin and Slåtten 2011). We discuss this seeming contradiction in the informants' views on the basis of different perceptions about gender. By using different levels of analysis we show how male employees can be understood in several ways that promotes gender equality. At the societal level, several men in kindergarten can be seen as part of a liberal policy to promote equal rights and opportunities for labor force participation. At the institutional level, gender equality depends on activities in the educational program. At the individual level equality can be understood as practices among each employee that prevent stereotyped gender understanding, and through these practices give children equal opportunities across gender divides. Our own research indicates that exclusive focuses on the representation of male employees in kindergartens are likely to conceal rather than to clarify a need to develop educational practices that promote gender equality.</p><p> </p><p>Artikkelen belyser målsettingen om 20 prosent menn i norske barnehager som bidrag til å fremme likestilling i barnehagen. Vi har gjennomført to undersøkelser som viser at det eksisterer ulike forventinger til menn og kvinner i barnehagen. Informantene er positive til flere menn, men i de to undersøkelsene uttrykkes det motstridende forventninger til hva dette innebærer. I undersøkelsen blant mannlige førskolelærerstudenter uttrykkes det motforestillinger mot å rekruttere menn som gruppe fordi de er menn (Kasin m. flere 2010). I undersøkelsen blant ansatte i barnehagen ønskes menn nettopp fordi de er menn, forskjellige fra kvinner. Begrunnelsen er at dette bidrar til å skape mangfold (Kasin og Slåtten 2011). I artikkelen drøftes denne tilsynelatende motsetningen i informantenes synspunkter med utgangspunkt i ulike oppfatninger om kjønn. Ved å operere med ulike analysenivåer viser vi også hvordan flere menn i barnehagen kan forstås på flere måter som likestillingsfremmende tiltak. På samfunnsnivå kan flere menn i barnehagen ses som del av en liberal politikk for å fremme like rettigheter og muligheter for yrkesdeltakelse. På institusjonsnivå kan likestilling handle om å utvikle et bestemt innhold i pedagogikken knyttet til likestilling. På individnivå kan likestilling handle om konkret praksis som overskrider stereotyp kjønnsforståelse, og gjennom dette gi barn like muligheter på tvers av kjønnsskiller. Våre egne undersøkelser indikerer at et ensidig fokus på representasjon av menn i barnehage like gjerne kan skjule fremfor å tydeliggjøre et behov for å utvikle en pedagogisk praksis som fremmer likestilling.</p><div> </div> Olav Kasin, Mette Vaagan Slåtten ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/1212 lø., 28 mars 2015 00:00:00 +0100 Fysiske faktorers betydning for mattilbudet i barnehagene - en casestudie https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/772 <p><em>Abstract:</em> The purpose of this article is to put focus on food and meal situation in the kindergarten. We have carried out a case study in two kindergartens and the data material consists of observations and interviews. The results showed that the physical structures such as the food and drink offer, structural facilities and the physical community are important for the food and meal provision in the kindergarten. The provision of food and drink varied between the two cases, this can be explained by how the kindergartens organized the preparation of the meal. Emphasis of the dining environment was different in the two cases, which in turn created a different atmosphere around the meal. It was also different practices whether the staff ate together with the children or not. When the staff ate the same food as the children, the meals were in a greater extent characterized by the adults' needs, including increased demands on hygiene, more delicate garnished food, greater food selection and the increased focus on the dining environment. The distance to the nearest grocery store had little impact, while on the other hand, cooperation with food suppliers had great importance for food and meal provision in the kindergarten.</p><em>Sammendrag:</em> Case studien har sett på fysiske faktorer som kan hemme eller fremme muligheter for helsefremmende handling i barnehagen. Resultatene viste at mattilbudet i barnehagen var påvirket av hva som tilbys av mat/drikke, bygningsmessige fasiliteter og det fysiske nærmiljøet. Barnehagene hadde ulik praksis med å spise med barna. Når voksne spiser samme maten som barna, ser det ut som måltidene blir formet etter voksnes behov. Som økt krav til hygiene, at maten er delikat servert, større matvareutvalg og økt krav til trivelig spisemiljø. Nærhet til butikk hadde liten betydning, mens derimot samarbeid med grossister for levering av matvarer, hadde stor betydning for mattilbudet i barnehagen. Eli Kristin Aadland, Asle Holthe, Hege Wergedahl, Eldbjørg Fossgard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/772 ti., 30 des. 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Improvisation – om pædagogens møde med barnet i æstetiske processer https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/887 <p><em>Abstract: </em>The article is about the concept of improvising in aesthetical pedagogical praxis, in kindergartens. The main theme is that improvised proficiencies/skills can be developed through an awareness of the dynamic relationship between preparatory work in relation to planned frameworks and special attention on the pedagogue’s different ways of relating to pedagogical praxis. In the article it is discussed how the pedagogue by being attentive and aware of the above relationship can contribute to promoting children’s own expressions in aesthetical processes. The topic is discussed with reference to a two year action research project about aesthetical pedagogical praxis in three different kindergartens.</p><p><em>Resumé</em>: Artiklen handler om begrebet improvisation i æstetisk pædagogisk praksis i børnehaven. Temaet i artiklen er, at improvisatoriske færdigheder kan udvikles gennem en bevidsthed om det dynamiske forhold mellem det forberedende arbejde med rammesætning og en særlig opmærksomhed på pædagogens forholdemåder. I artiklen diskuteres det, hvordan pædagogen, med en opmærksomhed på en improvisatorisk forholdemåde, kan medvirke til at fremme børns egne udtryk i æstetiske processer. Gennem henvisninger til et toårigt aktionsforskningsprojekt om æstetisk pædagogisk praksis i tre børnehaver, drøftes dette tema.</p> Sonja Svendsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/887 ti., 16 des. 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Knowledge Development through Hybrid Leadership Practices https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/492 <p><em>Abstract</em>: This article considers the formal teacher leaders’ practices of leading knowledge development at the department level in early childhood education and care. To better understand these practices, we have utilised the hybrid leadership theory, along with qualitative shadowing and stimulated recall interviews. Our analyses demonstrate that these teacher leaders encourage knowledge development by functioning as hybrid leaders in their communities of practice, while our findings show that there are four leadership approaches to knowledge development that emerge from everyday work: providing professional guidance, acting as a role model in work performance, putting practices into words and supporting desired teaching practices. Moreover, our study reveals that the leading of knowledge development is dependent on teacher leaders’ practical knowledge and their influence in their communities of practice. We therefore posit that the provision of knowledge development through and within the relationships that comprise communities of practice is crucial developing ECEC as learning organisations.</p> <br /> Karin Hognestad, Marit Bøe ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/492 ti., 09 des. 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Auget som arrangement – om blikk, makt og skjønn i profesjonsutøvinga til barnehagelæraren https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/774 <p><em>Abstrakt</em>: This article explores knowledge related to the gaze of the kindergarten teachers. By considering performances of the eyes as aspects of professionalism, the article discusses how different arrangements of the gaze are generated in complex conditions of judgment and power. Just as the eyeballs lies deeply tied into the corpus, both the gaze and the knowledge of the kindergarten teachers are deeply tied together in a comprehensive body of knowledge. This article draws upon interviews of kindergarten teachers related to mapping of children’s skills in a Norwegian context.  However, the statements in the study bring in a larger web of judgements in kindergarten. Foucault's theories are chosen as step stones for the discussion.</p><p><em>Samandrag:</em> Denne artikkelen handlar om kunnskapskonstruksjonar knytte til barnehagelæraren sitt blikk, og tek føre seg korleis barnehagelæraren bruker blikket i utøvinga av profesjonen sin. Ulike ordningar av blikk kan få grobotn i samansette konstruksjonar av skjønn og makt. Slik augeepla ligg djupt kopla saman med resten av kroppen, er også blikket og kunnskapen til barnehagelæraren djupt kopla saman i ein omfattande kunnskapskropp. Artikkelen tek utgangspunkt i gruppeintervju med barnehagelærarar om kartlegging av barn i ein norsk barnehagekontekst, men utsegnene frå intervjua bringar òg inn ein større vev av vurderingsarbeid i barnehagen. Teoriane til Foucault er nytta som reiskap i drøftinga.</p> Bente Ulla ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/774 ma., 08 des. 2014 23:22:34 +0100 Potensialer i ubestemmelige øyeblikk https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/888 <p><em>Abstract</em>: Based on narratives from early childhood educators in three Norwegian kindergartens, this article explore how doubt and undecidable moments might actuate ethical thinking in pedagogical settings. To deal with or to withstand undecidability, paradoxes and complexities is, according to Jacques Derrida, a premise for ethical and responsible acting. Undecidability invites us to direct our attention towards uniqueness and alterity in each situation. This involves ethics which goes beyond habitual applying rules and guidelines. Rather it might invites to see potentials in the unpredictable. Undecidable moments do not then merely paralyze decision, but instead gives it its very chance or possibility.</p><p><em>Sammendrag: </em>Med utgangspunkt i materiale fra samtaler med personalet i tre norske barnehager retter denne artikkelen et blikk på hvordan <em>ubestemmelighet</em> kan betraktes som nødvendig vilkår for å kunne gjøre etiske vurderinger og valg i pedagogisk arbeid. Å forholde seg til det ubestemmelige, til paradokser og kompleksiteter er, ifølge den franske filosofen Jacques Derrida, premisser for å kunne handle etisk og ansvarlig. Det ubestemmelige ses som vilkår for å kunne handle etisk og ansvarlig. I en relasjonell tilnærming, hvor etikken settes i forgrunn i relasjoner mellom mennesker, er interesser for det/den andre, for forskjeller og for det uforutsigbare vesentlige aspekt. Ubestemmelighet inviterer til å rette oppmerksomhet mot det unike og mot det som er annerledes og nytt i et hvert møte. Artikkelen bidrar med kunnskap om hvordan personalet håndterer, verdsetter og viser respekt for den usikkerheten som trenger seg på gjennom ubestemmelige øyeblikk.</p> Ann sofi Larsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/888 ma., 08 des. 2014 14:56:10 +0100 Barn og fysisk aktivitet i barnehagen: Hvordan kan aktivitetsnivået dokumenteres? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/717 <p><em>Abstract:</em> We monitored the physical activity levels of 42 children during a regular day in kindergarten, using various instruments. This study will provide knowledge about children’s activity levels in kindergarten. It also discusses whether children’s activity levels can be adequately evaluated by the teachers or if there is a need for technical measurements. In addition, we compared the different instruments used to evaluate the children. The employees in the kindergarten were asked to answer a questionnaire about the children’s physical activity level during the day, and a student or a researcher observed and registered one child each. During the same day, activity levels were monitored using actigraphy (AC; Actigraf GT3X) and continuous heart rate monitoring (HR; Team2 Polar ®) in 14 children (six boys and eight girls, 38 and 47 months old, respectively). The researcher-observations defined the observed children as “moderately active”, and AC-data showed that all children had more than 60 minutes of moderate - or high - intensity activity. According to our comparisons, the use of HR to assess the activity in kindergartens is not recommended. On average, the questionnaires reported similar physical activity levels for the same child, although the evaluations varied between employees. When comparing one active and one inactive child, the different methods showed similar results. We conclude that professionals can <em>see </em>a child’s physical activity level when asked to reflect upon it.</p><p><em>Sammendrag:</em> Vi målte det fysiske aktivitetsnivået til 42 barn i løpet av en vanlig dag i barnehagen ved hjelp av ulike instrumenter. Denne studien vil gi kunnskap om barns fysiske aktivitet i barnehagen, og om barnas aktivitetsnivå kan bli tilstrekkelig evaluert av lærerne eller om det er behov for tekniske målinger. Videre har vi sammenlignet de ulike instrumentene brukt i observasjonen. De ansatte i barnehagen ble bedt om å svare på et spørreskjema om barns fysiske aktivitetsnivå i løpet av dagen, og en student eller forsker observerte og registrerte ett barn hver. I løpet av samme dag, ble aktivitetsnivået overvåkt ved hjelp av actigraphy (AC; Actigraf GT3X) og kontinuerlig pulsmåling (HR, Team2 Polar ®) blant 14 barn (seks gutter og åtte jenter, 38- og 47-måneder gamle, henholdsvis). Forsker-observasjonene definerte de observerte barna som "moderat aktiv", og AC-data viste at alle barna hadde mer enn 60 minutter aktivitet med moderat eller høy intensitet. Våre sammenligninger viser at bruk av HR for å vurdere aktiviteten i barnehager er ikke anbefalt. I gjennomsnitt rapporterte spørreskjemaene lignende aktivitetsverdier for det samme barnet, selv om evalueringene varierte mellom ansatte. Når man sammenlignet et aktivt og et inaktivt barn, viste de ulike metodene lignende resultater. Vi konkluderer derfor at ansattes faglige blikk kan <em>se </em>barns fysiske aktivitetsnivå når de blir bedt om å vurdere det.</p> Anne Stokke, Andi Weydahl, Giovanna Calogiuri ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/717 to., 04 des. 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Barns deltakelse og tidlig innsats: et pedagogisk bidrag til forståelse av tidlig innsats i norske barnehager https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/647 <p>Tidlig innsats har fått en betydelig posisjon i det pedagogisk arbeidet i norske barnehager de siste årene. Ifølge nasjonale styringsdokumenter som beskriver tidlig innsats er bruk av standardiserte programmer og kartlegging for å identifisere og forebygge vansker på et tidlig tidspunkt i barns liv en del av satsingen(KD, 2006, 2008). Det er imidlertid reist kritikk av denne utviklingen(Arnesen, 2012; Hausstätter 2009; Pettersvold &amp; Østrem, 2012). Artikkelen drøfter hvordan tidlig innsats i barnehagen kan tolkes i samsvar med barns rett til medvirkning. Videre diskuteres utfordringer for implementering av programmer for tidlig innsats i norske barnehager.</p><h1><span style="font-size: 10px; font-weight: normal;">Early intervention has been given a significant position directing work in Norwegian kindergartens resent years. According to national policy documents for early intervention, standardized programs are posed to identify and prevent difficulties at an early stage in children’s lives (NOU, 2009; St.meld nr. 16 (2006-2007)). However critique has been raised against directives given from the national level (in Arnesen, 2012; Haustätter, 2009; Pettersvoll &amp; Østrem, 2012). This article argues that early intervention is in danger of becoming an instrumental mistake, as described by Skjervheim in the 60-70s, that does not take into consideration the ethical obligation of treating children as ends not only as means. To avoid the object-orientation children’s perspectives should be acknowledged in the processes of intervening early.</span></h1> Stine Vik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/647 on., 26 nov. 2014 08:59:10 +0100 Nordic Comparative Analysis of Guidelines for Quality and Content in Early Childhood Education https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/693 <span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p class="MsoNormal" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 10pt 36pt; text-align: justify; tab-stops: 65.2pt 130.4pt 195.6pt 260.8pt 326.0pt 391.2pt;"><span style="line-height: 115%; font-family: &quot;Times New Roman Italic&quot;,&quot;serif&quot;; font-size: 10pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 12.0pt; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;" lang="EN-GB"><span style="font-family: Batang;"> </span></span></p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p>The article is based on a project intended to further develop understanding of similarities and differences in Nordic binding guidelines and non-binding guidance for content and quality in early childhood education. The study is of a descriptive and comparative nature and the process is based on a research tradition connected to curriculum studies. Both variation and standardisation emerge in the comparative analysis with regard to content construction. Quality is expressed and may be interpreted as operationalised as both structure and process. In relation to the study results, quality may be interpreted as primarily oriented towards institutions, activities and secondarily towards individuals. Quality is consistently related to learning (lifelong learning) and is more linear and oriented towards goal-rationality than non-linear.</p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><div id="ftn1" style="mso-element: footnote;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p class="footnotetext" style="margin: 0cm 0cm 0pt;"><span style="font-size: x-small;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;"><span style="mso-ansi-language: EN-US;" lang="EN-US"><span style="mso-spacerun: yes;"> </span></span></span></span></p></div><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span> Ann-Christine Vallberg Roth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/693 ma., 01 sep. 2014 00:00:00 +0200 Fra kollegafellesskap til ledelseshierarki? De pedagogiske lederne i barnehagens ledelsesprosess https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/628 <p>In this article, it is argued that Early Childhood Education and Care management can be distributed on more persons than the director. Attention is directed towards the educational managers in the ECEC center departments in Norwegian ECEC, and their managerial responsibility. Interviews were conducted with 18 such managers in 10 different ECEC centers in order to examine their role in the managerial process of ECEC centers.  The material seems to suggest that these department managers operate in a fairly hierarchical structure, and that they do not contribute in any collective management process for the entire center. They have a different management responsibility than the directors, and within a hierarchical framework, they exercise a significant management responsibility in their departments.</p><p> </p><p>Denne artikkelen argumenterer for at barnehageledelse kan være fordelt på flere personer enn styreren og fokuserer på ledelsesoppgavene til de pedagogiske lederne som leder de arbeidsgruppene som barnehagen har på grunnplanet. Dybdeintervjuer ble gjennomført med 18 pedagogiske ledere for å kaste lys over deres bidrag i barnehagens ledelsesprosess.  Studien viser at som ledere er de plassert i en hierarkisk struktur og at de i liten grad er deltagere i kollektiv ledelse eller i barnehagens lederteam. De har en annen ledelsesprofil enn den vi finner i forskningen om styrere, og innenfor hierarkiske rammer har de et betydelig lederansvar på avdelingen.</p> Kjetil Børhaug, Dag Øyvind Lotsberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/628 ma., 04 aug. 2014 00:00:00 +0200 Vilken kunskap erkänns i det systematiska kvalitetsarbetet? Om oförenliga tankestilar i dagens förskola i dagens förskola https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/779 <p><em>English abstract</em>: This study is to be seen in relation to the intensified ‘assessment culture’ that has evolved in today's educational system. The purpose is to discuss how the dualistic mission of the curriculum is being handled in preschools systematic quality work,  by studying the representation and recognition of ideational and interpersonal knowledge. The study is based on video-observations of preschool teachers’ planning, work and follow up of three educational activities in two different preschools. The theoretical basis consist of a multimodal and design theoretical perspective used in combination with Ludwik Flecks work on thought styles and thought collectives. The analyse shows that the curriculum objectives are handled in contradictory ways. This is visible in interaction patterns that exhibit traces from incompatible thought styles.</p><p><em>Samandrag:</em><em> </em>Denna studie skall ses i relation till den intensifierade ”bedömningskultur” som har utvecklats inom dagens utbildningssystem. Syftet är att diskutera hur det dualistiska uppdraget i läroplanen hanteras i förskolors systematiska kvalitetsarbete, genom att studera vilken innehållslig och relationell kunskap som kommer till uttryck och erkänns. Studien bygger på videoobservationer av förskollärares planering, arbete och uppföljning inom tre arbetsprocesser i två olika förskolor. Det teoretiska ramverket består av ett multimodalt och designteoretiskt perspektiv och används i kombination med Ludwik Flecks arbete om tankestilar och tankekollektiv. Analysen visar att läroplanens mål hanteras på motstridiga sätt och det kommer till uttryck i interaktionsmönster, som uppvisar spår från oförenliga tankestilar.</p> Eva Insulander, Eva Svärdemo Åberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/779 ti., 01 juli 2014 14:07:41 +0200 Interaktionens betydelse för barns lärande - en studie av barns möte med slöjd i förskolan https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/343 <p>Syftet med den här artikeln är att diskutera på vilket sätt interaktion och socialt samspel har betydelse för hur barn i förskolan kan engageras i en lärandeprocess. Den empiriska studien utgörs av en  videofilmad episod över en vävaktivitet i förskola. Genom att använda videografisk observation kan mänsklig aktivitet beskrivas och av den anledningen används  videografi som metodologisk ansats. I studien analyseras på vilket sätt interaktionen mellan de som är närvarande, oberoende av barnens ålder, kan bidra till att stimulera den lärande aktiviteten. Barnens slöjdaktivitet beaktas ur ett sociokulturellt lärandeperspektiv. Ett centralt tema inom detta perspektiv är kommunikation där språket och redskapen står för de medierande faktorerna. Barnens kontakt med redskapen och deras upplevelser och erfarande av slöjdaktiviteten diskuteras i relation till den närmaste utvecklingszonen. Ytterligare beaktas den videofilmade sekvensen ur ett socialt perspektiv där barnpedagogens agerande gentemot barnen lyfts fram och diskuteras. Analys och tolkning av datamaterialet strävar efter att synliggöra mänsklig interaktion och dess betydelse för att motivera och engagera barnen i deras slöjdaktivitet.</p> <p> </p> Eva Ahlskog-Björkman ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/343 ma., 09 juni 2014 21:03:25 +0200 Den blivande förskollärarens formering. En studie av verksamhetsförlagda handledningssamtal, argumentationstraditioner och metaforik https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/610 <p>I denna studie analyserar vi hur erfarna förskollärare i rollen som handledare introducerar förskollärarstudenter i professionen. Studien genomförs mot bakgrund av ett delvis nytt uppdrag som förskolan fått under senare år, som bland annat yttrar sig i att förskolan nu är en del av utbildningssystemet. Med utgångspunkt i det teoretiska begreppet argumentationstraditioner och genom att analysera metaforiken i deltagarnas resonerande, studeras hur erfarna och blivande förskollärare navigerar spänningar centrala för professionen. Deltagarnas betoning av vissa argumentationstraditioner och användningen av viss metaforik diskuteras i termer av vad de implicerar för utvecklingen av de barn som deltar i en förskoleverksamhet som formas av dessa.</p> Marie-Louise Hjort, Niklas Pramling ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/610 ma., 09 juni 2014 11:25:47 +0200 Gendering in one Icelandic preschool https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/681 <p>The aim of this article is to shed light on gendering in preschool. It analyzes the opinions and beliefs of preschool teachers with regard to boys and girls in one Icelandic preschool, and how gender performative acts are manifested in the preschool’s children. The preschool, which was observed for one school year, comprised 60 children, aged 18 months to five years, and 20 employees, of which eight were qualified teachers. The research material is analyzed in terms of Judith Butler’s gender constructivism. Butler contends that gender is constituted by, and is a product of, society, and that the individual’s empowerment is therefore limited in relation to society, with individuals typically seeking to identify themselves with the dominant norms concerning gender. The main conclusions suggest that “gendering” is prominent within the preschool. There is a strong tendency among the preschool teachers to classify the children into categories of boys/masculine and girls/feminine, and specific norms direct the children into the dominant feminine and masculine categories, thus maintaining and reinforcing their gender stereotypes. The children used symbols such as colors, locations and types of play as means to instantiate the “girling” and the “boying”. These findings are consistent with previous Nordic research and indicate a prevailing essentialist perspective towards both girls and boys. The originality of the research, however, lies in focusing on children’s gender from the individual’s perspective and how the individual child generally enacts gender performatively within the confines of society’s norms.</p> Gudrun Alda Hardardottir, Gyda Margret Petursdottir ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/681 ti., 06 mai 2014 09:51:49 +0200 Children’s participation in Finnish pre-school education - Identifying, Describing and Documenting Children’s Participation https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/725 <p>This article describes, analyzes, and evaluates children’s participatory in Finnish pre-school groups. Children’s participation is viewed in the context of the Core Curriculum for Pre-school Education in Finland (2010), in which children are considered active subjects, who interact with both other people and the environment. However, in practical data, collected via survey from pre-school educators, this ideology is restricted and the educators in pre-school groups focus on children’s participation from a narrow point of view that reflects a lack of connection between the Core Curriculum goals for pre-school education and the actual participatory practices children face.</p> Jonna Leinonen, Annu Brotherus, Tuulikki Venninen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/725 on., 30 april 2014 11:13:38 +0200 Förskollärarens förtydligade ansvar - en balansgång mellan ett demokratiskt förhållningssätt och att utöva yrkeskunskap https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/576 <p>Artikeln fokuserar hur det för förskoläraren förtydligade ansvaret för den pedagogiska verksamheten som trädde i kraft 2011, tolkas och omsätts på en övergripande kommunal nivå och kommer till uttryck i förskolans pedagogiska praktik. Utifrån intervjuer och kommunala policydokument beskrivs och problematiseras hur detta ansvar tolkas och implementeras i två kommuner. Av studien framgår att tolkningarna varierar liksom sättet att implementera detta ansvar på när det gäller innehåll, omfattning och genomförande. På en diskursiv nivå beskrivs förskollärarens förtydligade ansvar både av utvecklingsledare, förskolechef och förskollärare som motiverat utifrån skillnader i yrkeskunskap mellan förskollärare och annan personal. I arbetslag bestående av olika yrkeskategorier i förskolans sociala praktik, beskrivs det däremot som känsligt att diskutera förändringar i ansvars- och arbetsfördelning utifrån denna skillnad.</p><!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <w:WordDocument> <w:View>Normal</w:View> <w:Zoom>0</w:Zoom> <w:TrackMoves /> <w:TrackFormatting /> <w:DoNotShowComments /> <w:DoNotShowInsertionsAndDeletions /> <w:HyphenationZone>21</w:HyphenationZone> <w:PunctuationKerning /> <w:ValidateAgainstSchemas /> <w:SaveIfXMLInvalid>false</w:SaveIfXMLInvalid> <w:IgnoreMixedContent>false</w:IgnoreMixedContent> <w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText>false</w:AlwaysShowPlaceholderText> <w:DoNotPromoteQF /> <w:LidThemeOther>SV</w:LidThemeOther> <w:LidThemeAsian>X-NONE</w:LidThemeAsian> <w:LidThemeComplexScript>X-NONE</w:LidThemeComplexScript> <w:Compatibility> <w:BreakWrappedTables /> <w:SnapToGridInCell /> <w:WrapTextWithPunct /> <w:UseAsianBreakRules /> <w:DontGrowAutofit /> <w:SplitPgBreakAndParaMark /> <w:DontVertAlignCellWithSp /> 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http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/576 fr., 25 april 2014 11:37:15 +0200 Forståelser av gode overganger og opplevelse av sammenheng mellom barnehage, skole og sfo https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/625 <p>Dette bidraget har bakgrunn i en casestudie av barns overgang og opplevelse av sammenheng mellom barnehage og skole. Samarbeid og sammenheng mellom barnehage og skole er i dag et prioritert område nasjonalt (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2008-2009) og internasjonalt (OECD, 2001; 2006). Barn skal oppleve sammenheng mellom institusjonene (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2011). Undersøkelser viser at de ansatte i barnehage og skole har lite kunnskap om hverandre og at kommunikasjonen mellom dem er mangelfull (Rambøll, 2010; Broström, 2009). Dersom de ansatte har lite kunnskap om de andre institusjonenes tradisjoner, mandat og arbeidsmåter, kan det bidra til å svekke samarbeidet mellom institusjonene. Med dette som bakgrunn undersøkes pedagogiske lederes, førsteklasselæreres og sfo-lederes prioriteringer av tiltak for å gi barn opplevelse av sammenheng i overgangen fra barnehage til skole og skolefritidsordning (sfo). De ulike tiltakene diskuteres i lys av fire former for kontinuitet mellom institusjonene; filosofisk, fysisk, sosial og kommunikasjonsmessig kontinuitet (Broström, 2009; Fabian, 2007). Resultatene viser at det er en særlig utfordrende oppgave å sikre kommunikasjonsmessig kontinuitet. Den kommunikasjonsmessige kontinuiteten er samtidig av avgjørende betydning for barns medvirkning og opplevelse av fysisk, sosial og filosofisk kontinuitet i overgangen fra barnehage til skole og sfo.</p> Hilde Dehnæs Hogsnes, Thomas Moser ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/625 to., 24 april 2014 12:09:20 +0200 Mot en ny pedagogisk lederrolle og lederidentitet? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/541 <p>Artikkelen omhandler hvordan endrede ledelsesstrukturer oppstått gjennom ny organisasjonsmodell virker inn på de pedagogiske ledernes arbeidsoppgaver. Vi har etterspurt deres erfaringer knyttet til mulige endringer i oppgaver, arbeidsdeling og faglig-pedagogisk fokus i arbeidet. Undersøkelsen ble gjennomført i en bydel i Oslo. Hovedfunnene er at pedagogiske ledere har fått flere administrative oppgaver og personalleder oppgaver. De pedagogiske lederne deler seg i to med hensyn til hvor fornøyde de er med disse endringene. I artikkelen drøfter vi hva denne todelingen betyr for deres rolleforståelse og identitet.</p> Ann Kristin Larsen, Mette Vaagan Slåtten ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/541 fr., 14 feb. 2014 13:19:51 +0100 Samhandlinger mellom de yngste barna med cochleaimplantat og andre barn i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/575 <span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span><p>I artikkelen stilles følgende forskningsspørsmål: Hvordan deltar små barn med cochleaimplantat i interaksjoner med andre barn i barnehagen og hvordan skaper cochleaimplantat mulighetsbetingelser for deltakelse? Tre barnehager inngår i studien og barna som medvirker er i alderen 1 ½ - 3 år. Interaksjoner mellom barna er videofilmet og analysert. Barnas interaksjoner ser ut til å handle om å finne en rytme, i studien identifisert som henholdsvis takt og utakt, som svarer til deltakernes interesser og bruk av medierende redskaper. Et sentralt funn er at barn med cochleaimplantat er aktive deltakere i begge former for interaksjoner på tilsvarende måte som andre barn. Studien dokumenterer hvor sentralt cochleaimplantatet er som vilkår for barnas deltakelse, og hvor sårbar deres deltakelse i interaksjoner med andre barn kan bli dersom teknologien ikke fungerer som den skal. Studien viser også at kompetansen til de voksne som jobber i barnehagen har stor betydning for barn med cochleaimplantats vilkår for deltakelse.</p><p><strong> </strong></p><span style="font-family: Times New Roman; font-size: small;"> </span> Siv Hillesøy, Eva Johansson, Stein Erik Ohna ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/575 fr., 14 feb. 2014 12:57:22 +0100 Emmaboken, den jämställda familjen och förskolan - En historisk och samhällskritisk studie https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/707 <p>1970-talet var ett decennium då barnlitteratur av mer radikal karaktär kom att få genombrott. Gamla hierarkier mellan vuxna och barn ifrågasattes och nya institutioner kom att porträtteras i litteraturen. Under detta decennium var Gunilla Wolde en av de mest framträdande barnlitteraturförfattarna i Sverige. Hennes Emma böcker är fortfarande bland de mest populära barnböckerna i Sverige. Föreliggande artikel baseras på en kritisk analys av hur den jämställda familjen och förskolan porträtteras i Emma böckerna. Trots att böckerna på många sätt präglas av 70-talets ideologiska strömningar visar analyserna att familjen, förskolläraren och förskolebarnet porträtteras på ett normativt sätt.</p><p>The seventies was an era where non-normative children’s literature became a new trend. Old hierarchies between adults and children were questioned and new institutions were portrayed in literature. In Sweden, Gunilla Wolde, was one of the most predominant authors during this decade. Her Emma books are still among the most popular children’s books in Sweden. Taking this as a point of departure this article is based on a critical analysis of how the gender-equal family and preschool are portrayed in the Emma books. Despite Wolde’s radical approach the analysis shows that the author is trapped in stereotypical understandings of the family, the preschool teacher and the preschool child.</p> Ylva Odenbring ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/707 sø., 02 feb. 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Preschool teachers’ reasoning about interactive whiteboard embedded in Swedish preschools https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/608 <!--[if gte mso 9]><xml> <o:OfficeDocumentSettings> <o:RelyOnVML /> <o:AllowPNG /> </o:OfficeDocumentSettings> </xml><![endif]--> <p class="MsoNormal" style="margin-left: 65.2pt;"><span style="color: windowtext; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;" lang="EN-GB">This paper aims to investigate the ways in which teachers enact the interactive whiteboard (IWB) in Swedish preschools in relation <span style="mso-bidi-font-weight: bold;">to </span>preschool children’s mathematical learning. Data collected from interviews with four preschool teachers have provided the opportunity to consider the potential of IWB to facilitate a creative approach to young children’s mathematic education. The findings suggest that IWB use in preschool is mostly viewed as “Space for children to involve in problem-solving situations”, “Supporting collaborative learning and mutual negotiation”, “Goal-oriented mathematics learning facilitated by IWB” and “Retaining children’s </span><span class="hps"><span style="mso-fareast-font-family: &quot;Times New Roman&quot;; color: windowtext; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;" lang="EN-GB">interest in learning activities</span></span><span style="color: windowtext; mso-ansi-language: EN-GB;" lang="EN-GB">”. 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table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Normal tabell"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:12.0pt; font-family:"Cambria","serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Cambria; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-hansi-font-family:Cambria; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} </style> <![endif]--> Maryam Bourbour, Camilla Björklund ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/608 to., 30 jan. 2014 11:16:49 +0100 Areal til skapende lek, læring og utforskning i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/742 <p>Artikkelen handler om vilkårene for og reguleringer knyttet til utforskning, lek og læring inne og ute i barnehagen med særlig vekt på personalets rolle. Dette ses i lys av forskning om barns trivsel eller stressfaktorer i det fysiske miljøet. Temaet i artikkelen er hvordan personalet kan etablere eller gjøre tilgjengelig større variasjon av arealer for improvisasjon, lek, læring og utforskning. Problemstillingen som det søkes svar på er;<strong> </strong>Hvordan kan fokus på ubenyttede eller regulerte arealer i barnehagen bidra til ny kunnskap om og ny etablering av varierte rom for utforskning, improvisasjon, lek og læring? Gjennom henvisninger til en kvalitativ undersøkelse i fem barnehager i Osloområdet, drøftes dette temaet.  <em></em></p> Bente Fønnebø, Christian Nordahl Rolfsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/742 ma., 13 jan. 2014 00:00:00 +0100 Opportunities knock: Mediation of peer-relations during meal-time in toddler groups https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/460 According to socio-cultural perspectives, adults are seen as mediators of cultural believes, values and practices. Qualitative analyses of teachers’ mediation of peer relations based on video-recordings in 9 toddler-groups indicate that meal-time represents opportunities for teachers to facilitate togetherness and peer-relations between toddlers. The teachers might facilitate sharing, passing food, routinized practices such as singing, and conversations. The results indicate variations between child- and group-oriented approaches, and accomplishing meals in an effective way. The child- and group-oriented approaches are marked by encouragement of toddlers’ initiatives and teachers supporting peer-interactions. Raising teachers’ consciousness about their contributions to children’s development of peer-relations and togetherness in group settings might contribute to enhance reflected practices in working with toddlers in groups. <br /> Ellen Os ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/460 to., 07 nov. 2013 00:00:00 +0100 Et løfte om inkludering: Barnehagens rammer for samhandling mellom hørselshemmede og hørende barn i barnehagen https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/341 <p><em></em>In Norway today, most deaf children are in their local nursery school together with hearing children. To facilitate inclusive settings where deaf and hearing children can interact on equal terms require knowledge about deafness and the needs of these children. This study shows that nursery schools have challenges in developing such inclusive settings especially concerning knowledge and competence. We discuss how the framework for the nursery school curricula, programs and expertise may impact deaf children’s opportunities for collaboration in significant literacy events.</p> Ann Elise Kristoffersen, Eva Simonsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/341 ma., 28 okt. 2013 16:02:25 +0100 Conditions to give children more freedom of movement https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/458 This article provides a discussion on the importance of knowledge in early childhood education and also the role of knowledge dissemination process in the field. From the question of giving more freedom of movement, knowledge about this topic used in a Belgian curriculum, the article illustrates the importance of considering practice not as an application of theory, but as a co-construct and complex process that combines it with other resources in context. It illustrates the importance of going further than the production of knowledge to create appropriate practice in service.<br /> Florence Pirard ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/458 sø., 27 okt. 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Early childhood education and care in Greece: In search of an identity https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/454 Despite the considerable improvements that have taken place in the field of early child care and education services the last two decades in Greece, the availability of such services, especially for children under 3 years of age, continues to be rather limited compared to other European countries. The paper briefly presents a set of issues that are linked to the current situation of ECCE in the country such as a number of socio-cultural elements that outline the connection between family structure and childcare coverage, the types of ECCE arrangements and participation rates, the issue of quality and the major problems linked with this. Finally, the major findings that have been revealed by the few research studies are presented including the link between quality and developmental outcomes.<br /> Konstantinos Petrogiannis ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/454 sø., 27 okt. 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Young children’s experience of aesthetics in preschool https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/457 This article aims to investigate young children’s experience of aesthetic activities in preschool. The result is based on preschool teachers’ mapping during a two-week period of what toddlers (1.5 to 3.4 years) are offered or take initiatives themselves to, within the area of aesthetics. The 24 preschools where the mapping was done have been participating in a larger research project called, Children’s early learning. A current study of preschool as an environment for children’s learning (Sheridan, Pramling Samuelsson &amp; Johansson, 2009). This means that we also had data on the quality of the participating preschools, based on ECERS (Harms &amp; Clifford, 1980; Sheridan, 2007), which we linked to children’s experience in aesthetics. The result shows that there is a large variation between the amount and kind of aesthetic activities in preschool that young children can participate in.  <br /> Ingrid Pramling Samuelsson, Sonja Sheridan, Mikael Hansen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/457 sø., 27 okt. 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Children under three in Early Childhood Education and Care: Introduction to a Special Edition https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/697 Introduction Jan-Erik Johansson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/697 lø., 26 okt. 2013 00:00:00 +0200 What Young Children Know About Living and Learning With Companions https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/441 Colwyn Trevarthen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/441 lø., 26 okt. 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Important themes in research on and education of young children in day care centres: Finnish viewpoints https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/455 The aim of this article is to outline important themes, according to Finnish early childhood education researchers, that need to be addressed in researching and educating children under three years of age in Finland. To achieve this aim, the article divides into two parts. First, we present and discuss the results of a small-scale survey, conducted in Finland, on the views of key informants in the early childhood education units of Finnish universities. Second, the views presented in the survey are used as a starting point to introduce two ongoing qualitative case studies on the everyday life of toddlers in Finnish day care centres. In line with the survey findings, these case studies emphasize in particular the importance of the relational, social nature of children, the educational community, and the sensitivity of the adult for children’s wellbeing in day care groups. <br /><br /><br /> Maritta Hännikäinen, Niina Rutanen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/455 lø., 26 okt. 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Play for learning and learning for play: Children’s play in a toddler group https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/440 There is a concern that children’s right to play is restricted as a result of the governments’ narrow focus on school preparatory activities and learning. Play and learning are rights embodied in the United Nations convention on the rights of the child. This article discusses how play and learning are organized in the everyday life of a Norwegian toddler group. Critical voices claim that there is not enough structure and that there should be more teaching and mapping to facilitate early intervention in Norwegian kindergartens. The article suggests that the critics’ claim can be countered by asking if there are too few teachers with adequate education and too large groups of children.<br /> Anne Greve ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/440 lø., 26 okt. 2013 00:00:00 +0200 Hvordan forstå barn? En vandring fra barns levende ord via stivnet tekst til meningsfull viten https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/332 <p>This article discusses how children's own statements about being a child can contribute to new knowledge about children. Interpretation of the statements relates to the context and the sensuous close the meeting. With hermeneutic gaze of science I seek ways to interpret the child's living word. The background is a qualitative study of interviews with kindergarten children about their thoughts and experiences of being a child. In the research process converts these living words into stiffened text and undergoes a process of interpretation. As a companion to such a process meaningful knowledge can be created.</p> Bodil Mørland Mørland ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/332 fr., 18 okt. 2013 16:09:14 +0200 "Han går oppover mens han går nedover!" Femåringers refleksjoner om vertikal forflytning i klatrevegg https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/484 <p class="normal">Previous research has shown that children seem to have better ability to decenter than what the classical studies of Piaget indicated. Decentering can be connected with spatial understanding, and the development of spatial thinking has proven important for children’s mathematical ability. There is, however, little research about how children’s development of spatial thinking is connected with motor skills. In this article, we analyze the reflections of kindergarten children concerning a video of their own climbing activity in an indoor climbing wall. Content analysis of the transcriptions indicates that the children are conscious about direction and localization. The analysis also indicates that children are most concerned about whether or not they reach the top.</p> <p class="normal">Keywords; decentering, climbing, localization, direction</p> Per-Einar Sæbbe, Reidar Mosvold ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nbf/article/view/484 ma., 07 okt. 2013 08:21:50 +0200