Nordic Journal of Social Research <p>The Nordic Journal of Social Research (NJSR) is a multidisciplinary, open access, peer-reviewed journal that publishes high quality papers from social, cultural, political and economic research in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. It presents new empirical data, and endeavours to advance theoretical development and/or enhance discussion of policy implications. More specifically, the journal publishes articles that examine social issues in one of the Nordic countries, compare such issues among Nordic countries, or offer comparisons of the Nordic countries with other parts of the world. The overarching objective is to enhance our understanding of the social processes and values that govern the welfare state and the course of everyday life. This includes tensions in securing viability of welfare structures and services, social integration, diversity and mobility, identity politics, policy development and innovation, life-span opportunities and security, and inequality, among other topics. A core aim is to facilitate a window for engaging the Nordic societies and Nordic researchers with the larger global world and international scholarship.</p> Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences (INN University) en-US Nordic Journal of Social Research 1892-2783 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><ol><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol><p> </p> What Works? Family Influences on Occupational Aspirations among Descendants of Middle Eastern Immigrants on the Swedish Labour Market <p>In this article, we examine family influences on occupational aspirations among employed descendants of Middle Eastern immigrants. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted 21 semi-structured interviews with native-born descendants of Middle Eastern immigrants. We present and analyse their interpretations of their parents’ experiences and living conditions before, during and after migration and demonstrate how these interpretations shaped their own occupational aspirations. We discuss parents’ high expectations of their children in relation to ethnic-community valuations of educational and occupational achievements. These high expectations may increase the chances of social mobility but can also become a negative pressure, especially if parents set high standards but cannot help their children to meet those expectations. In these cases, older siblings who possess valuable knowledge of the educational system and labour market can function as important transferrers of resources.</p> Pinar Aslan Nader Ahmadi Stefan Sjöberg Eva Wikström ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2019-01-09 2019-01-09 9 134 160 10.7577/njsr.2235 Young Adults in Nature-Based Services in Norway—In-Group and Between-Group Variations Related to Mental Health Problems <p>Young adults with mental health problems who do not attend school or work constitute a significant welfare challenge in Norway. The welfare services available to these individuals include nature-based services, which are primarily located on farms and integrate the natural and agricultural environment into their daily activities. The aim of this study is to examine young adults (16–30 years old) not attending school or work who participated in nature-based services in Norway. In particular, the study analyses mental health problems among the participants and in-group variations regarding their symptoms of mental health problems using the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (HSCL-10). This paper compares symptoms of mental health problems among participants in nature-based services with those of a sample from the general population and a sample of those receiving clinical in-patient mental healthcare. A questionnaire was developed for the study and was completed by 93 participants in nature-based services. The majority of these participants were recruited from the Norwegian Labour and Welfare Administration (NAV), local mental health services, and school authorities. Results indicate that just more than half of the respondents exhibited symptoms of mental health problems based on their HSCL-10 scores. In general, they reported fewer symptoms than the clinical in-patient sample (18–30 years old) and more symptoms than the general population sample (18–19 years old). Among the participants in nature-based services, those recruited through NAV and local mental health services exhibited no differences in symptoms. Half of the participants older than 23 years in nature-based services had not completed upper secondary school. The participants, including those with symptoms of mental health problems and low expectations at the outset of their participation, generally expressed high satisfaction with the services.</p> Anne Mari Steigen Bengt Eriksson Ragnfrid Eline Kogstad Helge Prytz Toft Daniel Bergh ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-12-13 2018-12-13 9 110 133 10.7577/njsr.2301 Social Space for Self-Organising: An Exploratory Study of Timebanks in Finland and in the UK <p>The article examines the challenges to self-organisation and upscaling of alternative economies from the viewpoint of defending and negotiating social space. Timebanks in Finland and the UK are presented as examples, analysing the difference of defending such social space in the contexts of a traditional welfare state (in the case of Finland) and an austerity-driven government with a “Big Society” ideology (in the case of UK). Both systems of government present different kinds of pressures on timebanks, pushing them to a given ontological categories and to action in accordance with pre-defined political goals. This difference, along with timebank reactions and the question of prospects of opening ontological space, is analysed through material from observation, interviews with timebanks activists and brokers, and survey data from timebank users.</p> Teppo Eskelinen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-30 2018-10-30 9 89 109 10.7577/njsr.2148 Identity and self-understanding among transgender women in Norway <p><strong>Aim:</strong> The aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of and more knowledge about the experience of transgender women in terms of identity and self-understanding.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Data are collected from six Norwegian adult transgender women who have told their life stories. A narrative analysis is used to analyse the stories of the participants. The narrative focus is on themes relating to identity, self-understanding and belonging.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The results of the study show that the participants exclusively have a female identity and sense of belonging. Despite this, two of the participants prefer to live as males out of consideration for those in their surroundings. The self-understanding of the informants is expressed in different ways, depending on personality and life experience.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Whether or not one has ‘come out of the closet’ seems to be important for both identity and self-understanding. The participants who are open about their identity seem more secure than those who are not. The more acceptance and recognition they get from the social environment, the more it appears that the women in this study dare to be who they are.</p> Vigdis Moen Ingvild Aune ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-08 2018-10-08 9 68 88 10.7577/njsr.2151 Eldercare policies in Scandinavia between 1993 and 2014: increased facilitation of family caregiving? <p><span style="font-family: Calibri Light; font-size: x-large;">Abstract </span></p> <p>This article asks whether legal rights provided through national legislation on services provision in Scandinavia have become, over time, more accommodating to the role of family caregiving to elderly relatives. The study is based on a comparison and analysis of changes in legislation between 1993 and 2014 in the three Scandinavian countries. It is limited to legislation on the right to eldercare services and on work-family facilitating policies in relation to the provision of care to an elderly relative. Work-family facilitating policies are those policies that enable the combining of employment in the formal economy with caring for family members without large prohibitive costs for the caregiver. The main findings in this article are that the Scandinavian countries strengthened the legal right to public care services between 1993 and 2014, but that there are few, if any, truly work-family facilitating policies. The existing schemes do not facilitate a combination of employment and care, but rather force the family caregiver to choose between them. The dilemma is whether to continue passively with a high, but declining, level of public service provision of eldercare, leaving unmet care needs to unpaid family carers, or to introduce work-family facilitating policies enabling remunerated family care in addition to extensive public services provision.</p> Christine Thokle Martens ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-05-10 2018-05-10 9 48 67 10.7577/njsr.2145 Getting it Right: Estimating the Share of Volunteers in Denmark <p class="NJSR-Quotations"><!--[if supportFields]><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt'><span style='mso-element:field-begin'></span><span style='mso-spacerun:yes'> </span>ADDIN ZOTERO_ITEM CSL_CITATION {&quot;citationID&quot;:&quot;17lm8qr6dg&quot;,&quot;properties&quot;:{&quot;formattedCitation&quot;:&quot;(Abraham, Helms, &amp; Presser, 2009)&quot;,&quot;plainCitation&quot;:&quot;(Abraham, Helms, &amp; Presser, 2009)&quot;},&quot;citationItems&quot;:[{&quot;id&quot;:594,&quot;uris&quot;:[&quot;;],&quot;uri&quot;:[&quot;;],&quot;itemData&quot;:{&quot;id&quot;:594,&quot;type&quot;:&quot;article-journal&quot;,&quot;title&quot;:&quot;How Social Processes Distort Measurement: The Impact of Survey Nonresponse on Estimates of Volunteer Work in the United States&quot;,&quot;container-title&quot;:&quot;American Journal of Sociology&quot;,&quot;page&quot;:&quot;1129-1165&quot;,&quot;volume&quot;:&quot;114&quot;,&quot;issue&quot;:&quot;4&quot;,&quot;source&quot;:&quot;JSTOR&quot;,&quot;abstract&quot;:&quot;The authors argue that both the large variability in survey estimates of volunteering and the fact that survey estimates do not show the secular decline common to other social capital measures are caused by the greater propensity of those who do volunteer work to respond to surveys. Analyses of the American Time Use Survey (ATUS)—the sample for which is drawn from the Current Population Survey (CPS)—together with the CPS volunteering supplement show that CPS respondents who become ATUS respondents report much more volunteering in the CPS than those who become ATUS nonrespondents. This difference is replicated within subgroups. Consequently, conventional adjustments for nonresponse cannot correct the bias. Although nonresponse leads to estimates of volunteer activity that are too high, it generally does not affect inferences about the characteristics of volunteers.&quot;,&quot;DOI&quot;:&quot;10.1086/592200&quot;,&quot;ISSN&quot;:&quot;0002-9602&quot;,&quot;shortTitle&quot;:&quot;How Social Processes Distort Measurement&quot;,&quot;journalAbbreviation&quot;:&quot;American Journal of Sociology&quot;,&quot;author&quot;:[{&quot;family&quot;:&quot;Abraham&quot;,&quot;given&quot;:&quot;Katharine&nbsp;G.&quot;},{&quot;family&quot;:&quot;Helms&quot;,&quot;given&quot;:&quot;Sara&quot;},{&quot;family&quot;:&quot;Presser&quot;,&quot;given&quot;:&quot;Stanley&quot;}],&quot;issued&quot;:{&quot;date-parts&quot;:[[&quot;2009&quot;,1,1]]}}}],&quot;schema&quot;:&quot;;} <span style='mso-element:field-separator'></span></span><![endif]--><span lang="EN-GB">Abraham, Helms and Presser (2009)</span><!--[if supportFields]><span lang=EN-GB style='font-size:10.0pt'><span style='mso-element:field-end'></span></span><![endif]--><span lang="EN-GB"> demonstrated that people who volunteer are more likely to participate in surveys. The apparent consequence of such a pattern among respondents is that estimates of volunteering could be biased. Surveys with voluntary work as the main topic could be further biased due to the volunteers’ interest on this issue compared with non-volunteers. The article uses panel data from Denmark in order to examine the bias due to panel attrition as a special kind of nonresponse bias and its consequences for estimates of volunteering. The results show that panel attrition leads to an overestimation of the share of people who volunteer. </span></p> Jonathan Hermansen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-07 2018-02-07 9 10.7577/njsr.2146 A participatory discourse analysis of service users’ accounts of meeting places in Norwegian community mental health care <p>Since the 1960s, deinstitutionalisation has been salient in mental health reforms across the West. In Norway, this culminated in the <em>National Action Plan for Mental Health</em> (1999-2008), where <em>meeting places in community mental health care</em> were deemed a prioritised strategy to counter social isolation among people in psychosocial hardships. However, during the same period in England, meeting places were beginning to be contested for contributing to social exclusion. This is an inquiry of meeting places in Norway guided by the following research question: How do service users discuss their encounters with the spaces and people of meeting places? Situated in community psychology and participatory research traditions, we engaged in a participatory discourse analysis of four focus group discussions with 22 service users from meeting places. We detail and discuss four central discursive constructions of meeting places against the backdrop of a civil society identified as fraught with sanism that stigmatises and excludes service users: a compensatory public welfare arrangement positioning service users as citizens with social rights; a peer community positioning service users as peers who share common identities and interests; spaces of compassion validating service users as fellow human beings who are precious in their own right; and greenhouses facilitating service users to expand their horizons of possibility. This inquiry implies that meeting places could mean everything to the people who attend them by facilitating opportunities considered less accessible elsewhere in their everyday lives in a sanist civil society.</p> Lill Susann Ynnesdal Haugen Andreas Andreas Envy Tor-Johan Ekeland Marit Borg Norman Anderssen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-03-21 2018-03-21 9 10.7577/njsr.2149 Not just "sweet old ladies" - challenges in voluntary work in the long-term care services <p>Introduction: The Norwegian government is addressing the need for increased voluntary work in the municipal care sector. Several reforms over the last decades have transferred important care tasks to the municipalities, as it is a political aim for people to live longer in their own homes. Despite important structural changes in the provision of public care services, less attention has been devoted to the investigation of how voluntary work interacts with the overall development of care tasks within municipal care services. This paper aims to discover how the contribution of volunteers matches the current needs of service recipients and the daily work of professional staff and, additionally, to discover what level of volunteer competence and qualifications are considered necessary when cooperating with staff.</p><p>Method: Eight case studies addressing opportunities and barriers to voluntary work in long-term care were carried out. Our study included participants from both voluntary organisations and long-term care.</p><p>Results: Volunteers were considered to fill important functions and gaps by providing social support, offering activities and by communicating with the service recipients. However, the poor health of service recipients risked putting undue strain on volunteers. Volunteers need to have personal qualifications, such as good observation and communication skills, in order to function well and be useful in their role as volunteers.</p><p>Discussion: Care is seen as a complex task requiring time, effort, and technical and social skills. Relational care is not easily distinguished from the overall care needs of service recipients. Service recipients in the municipalities are seen as increasingly frail and have complex health needs. With the expected increase in the number of elderly with dementia in the future, we may need to question whether volunteers are equipped to take on such advanced health problems.</p> Laila Tingvold Nina Olsvold ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-17 2018-04-17 9 10.7577/njsr.2174