Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>is the only journal in the Nordic countries specifically addressing themes within our field and serves as a connecting node for comparative scholars in, or interested in, the region. We invite papers that&nbsp;seek to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning, and particularly invites papers investigating topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned with the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world. The journal invites contributions in English and all official Nordic languages.</p> Oslo Metropolitan University en-US Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 2535-4051 <p><strong>Declaration on copyright</strong></p><ul><li>The author/s will keep their copyright and right of reproduction of their own manuscript, with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, but give the journal a permanent right to 1) present the manuscript to the public in the original form in which it was digitally published and 2) to be registered and cited as the first publication of the manuscript.</li><li>The author itself must manage its financial reproduction rights in relation to any third-parties.</li><li> The journal does not provide any financial or other remuneration for contributions submitted.</li><li>Readers of the journal may print the manuscripts presented under the same conditions that apply to reproduction of a physical copy. This means that mass reproduction of physical copies or production of copies for commercial purposes is not permitted without the agreement of the author/s.</li></ul> Læreplan og demokrati https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2440 <p><em>After the introduction of The Knowledge Promotion (Kunnskapsløftet) in 2006, different forms of criticism have been leveled against the Norwegian Curriculum. </em><em>Some main points in the critique have been; that the number and scope of the competence aims is too comprehensive; too little emphasis on democratic education; a lack of connection between the general part of the curriculum and subject-specific curricula. In this article, we examine social studies teachers’ narratives about how they utilize different parts of the curriculum from the perspective of democratic education. That means, in essence, that we explore if and how teachers plan their instruction in order for students to acquire knowledge, skills, and values they can utilize in their role as democratic citizens, in addition to the practical ability to act that students derive from experiencing and practicing democracy both in and outside the classroom. A main argument is that most social studies teachers plan their instruction based on the subject-specific competence aims. The general part of the curriculum, where democratic education is highlighted, does not constitute an articulated part of instruction. Against this background it can be argued, from the perspective of democratic education, that it is problematic if the goal-centered rationality underpinning the competence aims is too dominant for the way teaching is practiced, and that this might prevent students from experiencing and practicing democracy in school.&nbsp;</em></p> Emil Sætra Janicke Heldal Stray ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-15 2019-03-15 3 1 3 18 10.7577/njcie.2440 Editorial https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/3203 Idunn Seland ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 3 1 1 2 10.7577/njcie.3203 Undervisning og veiledning ved studentopphold i utviklingsland https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2685 <p>We reflect on our experiences supervising students from Norwegian universities when they have intern-ships or do research projects in vulnerable contexts or low- and middle income countries (LMIC). Such stays may provide great opportunities for learning and for engaging in global action for sustainable devel-opment. However, there are also a number of challenges, including; unpredictability; poor governance and lack of available welfare structures; safety and security risks; as well as inequality and power differ-ences. We discuss the necessary preparation and supervision of students. Major questions are when, where and how to engage. Lessons learnt from international development cooperation appear useful, including relevance of activity, effectiveness and, efficiency, and sustainability. The choice of site and activity emerges as a primary concern; in particular partnerships and partner assessment. The role and responsibility of the university and the hosts in developing countries are central. Based on these reflections and our ex-periences, we propose a checklist to be used in selecting sites and assessing student projects suitability.</p> Ragnhild Dybdahl Astrid Christensen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 3 1 70 79 10.7577/njcie.2685 Student Teachers Promoting Democratic Engagement Using Social Media in Teaching https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2796 <p>In this study, we address how student teachers can facilitate democratic engagement in school. The demo-cratic engagement is seen through the lenses of an increasingly digital world through which both teachers and children live in. 42 third-year student teachers systematically prepared to use social media as an illus-trative pedagogical tool in their practice placement period. By using the notions of “thin” and “thick” de-mocracy, we are analyzing student teachers’ understanding of democracy and democratic engagement. Our findings suggest that the students view democracy in a thin way, and this lack of democratic competence may influence their classroom practices as future teachers. The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture was used to analyse the student teachers’ competence to connect the use of social media as a digital and pedagogical tool in promoting democratic engagement. The findings disclose that students vary in their capacity to make use of social media when promoting democratic en-gagement. In our closing discussion, we argue that these results, primarily, pose serious challenges for teacher education.</p> Heidi Biseth Janne Madsen Ingrid Reite Christensen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 3 1 37 52 10.7577/njcie.2796 Appraising the Ingredients of the Interpreter/Researcher Relationship https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2762 <p>In this study, we address how student teachers can facilitate democratic engagement in school. The demo-cratic engagement is seen through the lenses of an increasingly digital world through which both teachers and children live in. 42 third-year student teachers systematically prepared to use social media as an illus-trative pedagogical tool in their practice placement period. By using the notions of “thin” and “thick” de-mocracy, we are analyzing student teachers’ understanding of democracy and democratic engagement. Our findings suggest that the students view democracy in a thin way, and this lack of democratic competence may influence their classroom practices as future teachers. The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture was used to analyse the student teachers’ competence to connect the use of social media as a digital and pedagogical tool in promoting democratic engagement. The findings disclose that students vary in their capacity to make use of social media when promoting democratic en-gagement. In our closing discussion, we argue that these results, primarily, pose serious challenges for teacher education.</p> Supriya Baily ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 3 1 53 69 10.7577/njcie.2762 Learning from Differences https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2731 <p>This paper presents a case study of an intensive international course aimed at pre-service teachers and having a focus on inclusion. The course was funded by Nordplus. Twenty-three students from six Baltic and Nordic countries were interviewed during and after the course on their views on professionalism and their future work as teachers. The results show that the students’ understanding of professionalism was multifaceted, and they had gained several experiences of professionalism during the course. One of the main results of this study is, in our opinion, the co-operation and the opportunities the intensive course afforded the students in developing skills to work together with different people, to appreciate difference and to learn from others. In other words, to become more open-minded. This allows us to conclude that students can be trained to consider the importance and understanding of knowledge and its use for now and in the future. Thus, providing such short-term international opportunities is an important part of studying and becoming a teacher or social pedagogue for the globalized future.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Virginija Bortkeviciene Hermina Gunnthorsdottir Karin Hjaelmeskog Ilze Ivanova Katriina Maaranen Brit Steinsvik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 3 1 21 36 10.7577/njcie.2731 LGBT Issues in Norwegian Textbooks https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2208 <p>In Norway, a model for schools’ teaching about LGBT issues is chosen where the responsibility is divided between different school subjects: social science, natural science, RLE2 (religion, philosophies of life and ethics), Norwegian and English. This article looks at how this is implemented in the textbooks. 129 text-books in Norwegian primary and lower secondary education (grades 1–10) are analysed. Of these, 246 textbook pages included LGBT issues. In this article, I discuss how LGBT issues are included in Norwegian textbooks and how the divided responsibility between school subjects work. The most striking finding is that of the five subjects, English and Norwegian have the least demanding curriculum goals, but still the largest number of pages related to LGBT issues. The inclusion of fictional voices makes possible a nomadic perspective (observing issues from multiple perspectives). It is also striking that about half of the textbook pages are in 10th grade textbooks. Heteronormativity is still a problem, and bisexual and transgendered people are far less visible than lesbian and gay people are.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bjørn Smestad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 3 1 4 20 10.7577/njcie.2208 Editorial https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/3083 Greta Björk Gudmundsdottir Nelli Piattoeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 3 1 1 3 10.7577/njcie.3083 Making sense across levels in local school governance https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2752 <p>Dialogues and relations between interdependent leaders working at different hierarchical levels within a given school governance system are crucial for developing shared understandings which are seen as a prerequisite for effective school development. Shared understandings among interdependent actors emerge from productive and dialogical sensemaking processes. The current study provides insight into how sensemaking plays out in dialogue meetings set up by a school superintendent and a team of subordinated school leaders, initiated at the purpose of establishing and maintaining a shared interpretation community working with important areas of pedagogy and schooling. Drawing on action research with observations, reflective conversations, and reflection notes from five key participants in the local school system, and framed within a theory of sensemaking, this issue is addressed by demonstrating how dialogue meetings strengthen the relations between a superintendent and school leadership teams. In such a context of asymmetrical power relations, the current study argues that sensemaking constitutes the pivotal activity in dialogue meetings when ensuring productive relations and bridging the gap between municipalities (as school districts) and schools. In the dialogue meetings subjected to the study, steps were taken towards shared understanding, and the involved leaders set the tone in this process by acting as role models, as facilitators of creating space for reflection.</p> Øyvind Henriksen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-17 2018-11-17 3 1 119 133 10.7577/njcie.2752 The Potential of Positive Leadership for School Improvement https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2790 <p>In this paper, we undertake four formative assignments: (1) We introduce the idea of positive school leadership (PSL) based largely on theory and research conducted outside the educational sector and introduce four orientations that anchor PSL; (2) we develop ideas about how asset-grounded concepts of leadership can be incorporated into schooling; (3) we examine how concepts underlying PSL may affect schools, classrooms, teachers, and students; and (4) using narrative research and grounded theory we introduce an overview of empirical evidence linking PSL and valued outcomes. We conclude by discussing the significance of PSL for organizational theory and leadership preparation and professional development.</p> Karen Seashore Louis Joseph F. Murphy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-11 2018-11-11 3 1 165 180 10.7577/njcie.2790 Educational Leadership at Municipality Level https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2760 <p>The purpose of this study is to explore the roles and responsibilities that national education legislation in Iceland imposes on municipalities in terms of leadership. A qualitative content analysis was applied to explore the relevant national legislation—that is, education acts, regulations, and curriculum guides—and identify themes by looking for specific words that are characteristic in leadership practices. The findings reveal that policy ends concerning educational leadership of municipalities are somewhat tacit in current national legislation. Yet, the roles and responsibilities that the state delegates to municipalities comprise leadership functions that are distributed in nature and, to a large extent, harmonize with desired leadership practices as emphasized in the literature. Legislation emphasizes comprehensive education, but also in-cludes signs of technocratic homogenization. In the discussion of our findings, we argue that the educational system is quite dependent on the political emphasis at each given time, making it difficult for both munic-ipalities and the state to facilitate a cohesive leadership emphasis. We suggest that closer attention to the local level, and a recognition of it as an important unit and agency for educational development, is of sig-nificant importance. These observations will be followed by a further investigation into the actual practice of leadership at the local level.</p> Sigríður Margrét Sigurðardóttir Anna Kristín Sigurðardóttir Börkur Hansen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 3 1 56 71 10.7577/njcie.2760 Leading and Organising Education for Citizenship of the World https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2891 <p>This special issue discusses governance, leadership and education in the light of Nordic ideas about general education and citizenship of the world. Particular focus is placed on the battle between two very different discourses in contemporary educational policy and practice: an outcomes/standard-based discourse, and a general education-based discourse of citizenship of the world.<br>Our point of departure is that we need to analyse the close relations between the core and purpose of schooling (the democratic Bildung of students) and the leadership of schools and relations to the outer world. On the one hand, society produces a discourse based on outcomes, with a focus on the marketplace, governance, bureaucracies, account-ability and technocratic homogenisation. On the other hand, society focuses on culture in the arts, language, history, relations and communication, producing a discourse based on democratic Bildung and citizenship of the world.</p> Lejf Moos Elisabet Nihlfors Jan Merok Paulsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 3 1 1 6 10.7577/njcie.2891 Historical Amnesia https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2806 <p>A number of initiatives have been put forth over the last decade to improve quality in Norwegian schools. Many have been nationwide government-initiated programs. However, several studies express concern about the actual effect of these programs, and some also point to a lack of local anchoring and involvement of teachers. In this article, I draw on studies of one such program. Ungdomstrinn i utvikling (Lower Sec-ondary in Development) was a five-year school-based competence development program in more than 1200 lower-secondary level schools. We found that the local start-up phase and the co-determination of the teach-ers were crucial, and few schools drew on knowledge from the 1960s in Norway on how to organize dia-logue seminars so teachers might have a chance to participate in the local design of the program and estab-lish a shared understanding and knowledge of the challenges at hand. Instead, we found examples of a transaction perspective and an “order and deliver” model of competence development. I discuss this as a possible consequence of the influence of instrumental management theory and why the Nordic cooperation model, even though challenging for school leaders, local union representatives and teachers, would be a better approach to school development. Lastly, I argue that we should avoid historical amnesia and that we would probably be better off if we revived the knowledge from the 1960s and after on co-generation and collaboration.</p> Eirik Johannes Irgens ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 3 1 25 38 10.7577/njcie.2806 Educating and Leading for World Citizenship https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2758 <p>Two perspectives on local and global societies, and therefore also on education, are explored and discussed in this paper. On one hand, society as a civilisation is producing an outcome-based discourse with a focus on marketplaces, governance, bureaucracies and accountability. On the other hand, society focuses on cul-ture through arts, language, history, relations and communication, producing a democratic Bildung dis-course. At a global level, I see those discourses shaping discourses of world citizenship and of global mar-ketplace logics with technocratic homogenisation. Those trends and tendencies are found through social analytic strategies in these categories: context of discourses, visions, themes, processes, and leadership.</p> Lejf Moos ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 3 1 7 24 10.7577/njcie.2758 Making Sense of Assignment https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2770 <p>The primary aim of this paper is to narrow down the description of how school leaders interpret the assign-ment (the task) and identify the markers for how they look upon the conditions of doing a good job in Sweden. The aim is in the context of practice-based and process-oriented research. We use complexity and complexity theories to frame the emerging practice of leading and organizing. This is in contrast to techno-cratic homogenization—that is, law texts, steering documents, documentation, standardized methods, plan-ning, and ceremonies. A questionnaire was conducted with three open questions (n=363 out of a possible 548 participants) and four focus groups (n=21). Complexity, dilemmas, and inconsistency emerge in the respondents’ answers the closer they are to everyday action. The results show that complexity theories put focus on a conflict between the image of schools as complicated and complex. Complicated is accompanied by generalizing and weak contextualizing of control systems, standardized methods, planning, law texts, and evidence-based education—that is, the concept of technocratic homogenization. Complexity theories emphasize the life in organizations, everyday practice as leaders, and a conflict between weak and robust contextualizing from the perspective as practice-based and process-oriented research.</p> Sören Augustinsson Ulf Ericsson Henrik Nilsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 3 1 149 164 10.7577/njcie.2770