Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>is the only journal in the Nordic countries specifically addressing themes within our field and serves as a connecting node for comparative scholars in, or interested in, the region. We invite papers that&nbsp;seek to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning, and particularly invites papers investigating topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned with the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world. The journal invites contributions in English and all official Nordic languages. <em>NJCIE</em> aims for four issues per year.</p> Oslo Metropolitan University & University of North-Eastern Norway en-US Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 2535-4051 <p><strong>Declaration on copyright</strong></p><ul><li>The author/s will keep their copyright and right of reproduction of their own manuscript, with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, but give the journal a permanent right to 1) present the manuscript to the public in the original form in which it was digitally published and 2) to be registered and cited as the first publication of the manuscript.</li><li>The author itself must manage its financial reproduction rights in relation to any third-parties.</li><li> The journal does not provide any financial or other remuneration for contributions submitted.</li><li>Readers of the journal may print the manuscripts presented under the same conditions that apply to reproduction of a physical copy. This means that mass reproduction of physical copies or production of copies for commercial purposes is not permitted without the agreement of the author/s.</li></ul> Editorial https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/3364 Halla B. Holmarsdottir Heidi Biseth ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-15 2019-05-15 3 2 1 2 10.7577/njcie.3364 A theoretical approach to understanding the global/local nex-us: the adoption of an institutional logics framework. https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/3027 <p>This paper takes as its starting point the theoretical debate within the field of Comparative and International Education surrounding the way in which the global/local nexus is understood and researched. Attempting to move the debate forward, the paper introduces the institutional logics approach as one way in which the global/local nexus can be explored. Institutional logics focus on how belief systems shape and are shaped by individuals and organisations. A framework, based on the institutional logics approach, is presented in this paper taking the phenomena of human rights education as an illustration. The author proposes that by adopting an institutional logics approach and framework we can gain a better theoretical and empirical understanding of the global/local nexus and at the same time provide a much needed bridge between the opposing views within this ongoing debate within the field of Comparative and International education.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Karen Parish ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-09 2019-05-09 3 2 3 19 10.7577/njcie.3027 Teachers’ professional development and an open classroom climate https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2871 <p>This article examines teachers’ professional development (PD) in terms of content knowledge and teaching methods, their sense of preparedness in teaching, and their teaching practice of civic and citizenship education (CCE) in lower secondary schools in Norway, Sweden, South Korea, and Taiwan, and how these variables influence students’ experience of classroom climate. We use data from the International Civic and Citizenship Education Study (ICCS 2016) initiated by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). ICCS 2016 data from these four places contain responses from teachers (N=7,159), and students (N=16, 089; average age =14.4 years) from 558 schools. We find that the more PD training on CCE topics and teaching methods teachers receive, the higher their sense of preparedness in teaching CCE in all four education systems. We also find that students of different cultures have different experiences about open classroom climates despite that teacher’s in the four places have utilized the same teaching approaches.</p> Aihua Hu Lihong Huang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-04-04 2019-04-04 3 2 33 50 10.7577/njcie.2871 Hva slags medborger? https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2441 <p>In this article, we explore teachers’ ideas about teaching for democratic citizenship. In short, we want to understand “what kind of citizen” teachers aim to educate. We ground our study in three ideal types that represent different ways of understanding what education for democratic citizenship education revolves around: politically informed citizenship (politisk informert medborgerskap), rational autonomous citizenship (rasjonelt autonomt medborgerskap), and socially intelligent citizenship (sosialt intelligent medborgerskap). A first finding is that teacher emphasize that students should acquire knowledge that they can make use of as democratic citizens. Teachers are preoccupied with making students politically informed. A second finding is, however, that teachers understand democratic citizenship education as something more than just knowledge acquisition. One purpose that holds high priority with the teachers is that students should learn how to think critically; to become rationally autonomous. The pedagogical implication of this view is that students should acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes that helps realize this ambition. This interpretation of what democratic citizenship is moves beyond being able to make an informed choice between different alternatives or representatives. In the last part of the article education for democratic citizenship is discussed in light of the third category; the socially intelligent citizen. We find that while teachers put much emphasis on knowledge and critical thinking, there is little emphasis on participation in democratic practices. We thus conclude that teachers talk about schooling as a tool for democracy much more than they talk about democracy as an ideal or model for schooling.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Emil Sætra Janicke Heldal Stray ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-25 2019-03-25 3 2 19 32 10.7577/njcie.2441 Læreplan og demokrati https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2440 <p>In this article, we examine how social studies teachers’ say they interpret and use different parts of the curriculum in order to teach for democracy. The empirical material of the study is based on a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews with teachers in secondary school in Norway. We present three main find-ings. A first finding is that most social studies teachers plan their instruction based on the subject-specific competence aims. For most teachers, the general part of the curriculum, where democratic education is highlighted, does not constitute an articulated part of instruction. Some teachers feel, however, that they still work in accord with this part of the curriculum, but in a way better described as tacit. A second finding is that teachers agree that the subject-specific competence aims are comprehensive and that many teachers agree they are too comprehensive. A third finding is that the teachers disagree about whether conditions for democratic citizenship education are adequate or not. We suggest two inter-related reasons for this disa-greement. One reason is somewhat different interpretations of and emphasis put on the mandate to teach for democracy by different teachers. A second reason is differences in pedagogy and school culture.</p> Emil Sætra Janicke Heldal Stray ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-15 2019-03-15 3 2 3 18 10.7577/njcie.2440 Editorial https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/3203 Idunn Seland ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-03-05 2019-03-05 3 2 1 2 10.7577/njcie.3203 Undervisning og veiledning ved studentopphold i utviklingsland https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2685 <p>We reflect on our experiences supervising students from Norwegian universities when they have intern-ships or do research projects in vulnerable contexts or low- and middle income countries (LMIC). Such stays may provide great opportunities for learning and for engaging in global action for sustainable devel-opment. However, there are also a number of challenges, including; unpredictability; poor governance and lack of available welfare structures; safety and security risks; as well as inequality and power differ-ences. We discuss the necessary preparation and supervision of students. Major questions are when, where and how to engage. Lessons learnt from international development cooperation appear useful, including relevance of activity, effectiveness and, efficiency, and sustainability. The choice of site and activity emerges as a primary concern; in particular partnerships and partner assessment. The role and responsibility of the university and the hosts in developing countries are central. Based on these reflections and our ex-periences, we propose a checklist to be used in selecting sites and assessing student projects suitability.</p> Ragnhild Dybdahl Astrid Christensen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 3 2 70 79 10.7577/njcie.2685 Student Teachers Promoting Democratic Engagement Using Social Media in Teaching https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2796 <p>In this study, we address how student teachers can facilitate democratic engagement in school. The demo-cratic engagement is seen through the lenses of an increasingly digital world through which both teachers and children live in. 42 third-year student teachers systematically prepared to use social media as an illus-trative pedagogical tool in their practice placement period. By using the notions of “thin” and “thick” de-mocracy, we are analyzing student teachers’ understanding of democracy and democratic engagement. Our findings suggest that the students view democracy in a thin way, and this lack of democratic competence may influence their classroom practices as future teachers. The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture was used to analyse the student teachers’ competence to connect the use of social media as a digital and pedagogical tool in promoting democratic engagement. The findings disclose that students vary in their capacity to make use of social media when promoting democratic en-gagement. In our closing discussion, we argue that these results, primarily, pose serious challenges for teacher education.</p> Heidi Biseth Janne Madsen Ingrid Reite Christensen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 3 2 37 52 10.7577/njcie.2796 Appraising the Ingredients of the Interpreter/Researcher Relationship https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2762 <p>In this study, we address how student teachers can facilitate democratic engagement in school. The demo-cratic engagement is seen through the lenses of an increasingly digital world through which both teachers and children live in. 42 third-year student teachers systematically prepared to use social media as an illus-trative pedagogical tool in their practice placement period. By using the notions of “thin” and “thick” de-mocracy, we are analyzing student teachers’ understanding of democracy and democratic engagement. Our findings suggest that the students view democracy in a thin way, and this lack of democratic competence may influence their classroom practices as future teachers. The Council of Europe’s Reference Framework of Competences for Democratic Culture was used to analyse the student teachers’ competence to connect the use of social media as a digital and pedagogical tool in promoting democratic engagement. The findings disclose that students vary in their capacity to make use of social media when promoting democratic en-gagement. In our closing discussion, we argue that these results, primarily, pose serious challenges for teacher education.</p> Supriya Baily ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-17 2018-12-17 3 2 53 69 10.7577/njcie.2762 Learning from Differences https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2731 <p>This paper presents a case study of an intensive international course aimed at pre-service teachers and having a focus on inclusion. The course was funded by Nordplus. Twenty-three students from six Baltic and Nordic countries were interviewed during and after the course on their views on professionalism and their future work as teachers. The results show that the students’ understanding of professionalism was multifaceted, and they had gained several experiences of professionalism during the course. One of the main results of this study is, in our opinion, the co-operation and the opportunities the intensive course afforded the students in developing skills to work together with different people, to appreciate difference and to learn from others. In other words, to become more open-minded. This allows us to conclude that students can be trained to consider the importance and understanding of knowledge and its use for now and in the future. Thus, providing such short-term international opportunities is an important part of studying and becoming a teacher or social pedagogue for the globalized future.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Virginija Bortkeviciene Hermina Gunnthorsdottir Karin Hjaelmeskog Ilze Ivanova Katriina Maaranen Brit Steinsvik ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 3 2 21 36 10.7577/njcie.2731 LGBT Issues in Norwegian Textbooks https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2208 <p>In Norway, a model for schools’ teaching about LGBT issues is chosen where the responsibility is divided between different school subjects: social science, natural science, RLE2 (religion, philosophies of life and ethics), Norwegian and English. This article looks at how this is implemented in the textbooks. 129 text-books in Norwegian primary and lower secondary education (grades 1–10) are analysed. Of these, 246 textbook pages included LGBT issues. In this article, I discuss how LGBT issues are included in Norwegian textbooks and how the divided responsibility between school subjects work. The most striking finding is that of the five subjects, English and Norwegian have the least demanding curriculum goals, but still the largest number of pages related to LGBT issues. The inclusion of fictional voices makes possible a nomadic perspective (observing issues from multiple perspectives). It is also striking that about half of the textbook pages are in 10th grade textbooks. Heteronormativity is still a problem, and bisexual and transgendered people are far less visible than lesbian and gay people are.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Bjørn Smestad ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 3 2 4 20 10.7577/njcie.2208 Editorial https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/3083 Greta Björk Gudmundsdottir Nelli Piattoeva ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-12-15 2018-12-15 3 2 1 3 10.7577/njcie.3083 Making sense across levels in local school governance https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2752 <p>Dialogues and relations between interdependent leaders working at different hierarchical levels within a given school governance system are crucial for developing shared understandings which are seen as a prerequisite for effective school development. Shared understandings among interdependent actors emerge from productive and dialogical sensemaking processes. The current study provides insight into how sensemaking plays out in dialogue meetings set up by a school superintendent and a team of subordinated school leaders, initiated at the purpose of establishing and maintaining a shared interpretation community working with important areas of pedagogy and schooling. Drawing on action research with observations, reflective conversations, and reflection notes from five key participants in the local school system, and framed within a theory of sensemaking, this issue is addressed by demonstrating how dialogue meetings strengthen the relations between a superintendent and school leadership teams. In such a context of asymmetrical power relations, the current study argues that sensemaking constitutes the pivotal activity in dialogue meetings when ensuring productive relations and bridging the gap between municipalities (as school districts) and schools. In the dialogue meetings subjected to the study, steps were taken towards shared understanding, and the involved leaders set the tone in this process by acting as role models, as facilitators of creating space for reflection.</p> Øyvind Henriksen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-17 2018-11-17 3 2 119 133 10.7577/njcie.2752 The Potential of Positive Leadership for School Improvement https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2790 <p>In this paper, we undertake four formative assignments: (1) We introduce the idea of positive school leadership (PSL) based largely on theory and research conducted outside the educational sector and introduce four orientations that anchor PSL; (2) we develop ideas about how asset-grounded concepts of leadership can be incorporated into schooling; (3) we examine how concepts underlying PSL may affect schools, classrooms, teachers, and students; and (4) using narrative research and grounded theory we introduce an overview of empirical evidence linking PSL and valued outcomes. We conclude by discussing the significance of PSL for organizational theory and leadership preparation and professional development.</p> Karen Seashore Louis Joseph F. Murphy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-11 2018-11-11 3 2 165 180 10.7577/njcie.2790 Educational Leadership at Municipality Level https://journals.hioa.no/index.php/nordiccie/article/view/2760 <p>The purpose of this study is to explore the roles and responsibilities that national education legislation in Iceland imposes on municipalities in terms of leadership. A qualitative content analysis was applied to explore the relevant national legislation—that is, education acts, regulations, and curriculum guides—and identify themes by looking for specific words that are characteristic in leadership practices. The findings reveal that policy ends concerning educational leadership of municipalities are somewhat tacit in current national legislation. Yet, the roles and responsibilities that the state delegates to municipalities comprise leadership functions that are distributed in nature and, to a large extent, harmonize with desired leadership practices as emphasized in the literature. Legislation emphasizes comprehensive education, but also in-cludes signs of technocratic homogenization. In the discussion of our findings, we argue that the educational system is quite dependent on the political emphasis at each given time, making it difficult for both munic-ipalities and the state to facilitate a cohesive leadership emphasis. We suggest that closer attention to the local level, and a recognition of it as an important unit and agency for educational development, is of sig-nificant importance. These observations will be followed by a further investigation into the actual practice of leadership at the local level.</p> Sigríður Margrét Sigurðardóttir Anna Kristín Sigurðardóttir Börkur Hansen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2018-11-07 2018-11-07 3 2 56 71 10.7577/njcie.2760