Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>seeks to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning. The journal investigates topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world.</p> Oslo Metropolitan University en-US Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 2535-4051 <p><strong>Declaration on copyright</strong></p><ul><li>The author/s will keep their copyright and right of reproduction of their own manuscript, with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, but give the journal a permanent right to 1) present the manuscript to the public in the original form in which it was digitally published and 2) to be registered and cited as the first publication of the manuscript.</li><li>The author itself must manage its financial reproduction rights in relation to any third-parties.</li><li> The journal does not provide any financial or other remuneration for contributions submitted.</li><li>Readers of the journal may print the manuscripts presented under the same conditions that apply to reproduction of a physical copy. This means that mass reproduction of physical copies or production of copies for commercial purposes is not permitted without the agreement of the author/s.</li></ul> Editorial Tony Burner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-12 2018-06-12 2 1 1 2 10.7577/njcie.2747 Fortellinger om 1814: Forestillingen om det eksepsjonelle norske demokrati <p><span lang="EN-US" style="background-color: transparent; color: #000000; font-family: &amp;quot; times new roman&amp;quot;,serif; font-size: 13.33px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The focus of this article is an educational encounter during a social science project at a junior high school in Norway.</span> <span lang="EN-US" style="background-color: transparent; color: #000000; font-family: &amp;quot; times new roman&amp;quot;,serif; font-size: 13.33px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The topic of the school project was the Norwegian Constitution of 1814. In this Constitution, many of the ideas of the French and American revolutions had been adopted, e.g. popular sovereignty and the separation of power. Nevertheless, the Constitution also reflected intolerant ideas, especially with regards to the so-called <em>Jews-paragraph</em>, whereby Protestantism was proclaimed, and Jews were excluded from the Norwegian state. In the educational encounter analyzed in this article, I argue that the notion of an exceptional Norwegian democracy affects the narrative constructed about the Norwegian Constitution. This notion serves to exclude the Jews-paragraph from the narrative. The postcolonial concept of Nordic exceptionalism constitutes an important theoretical framework for the analyses of the educational encounter. In the contemporary Norwegian society, immigration regulation by laws again has relevance. This article, therefore, discusses the critical classroom conversations thematizing the Jews-paragraph could have led to, by pointing at different historical and present-day topics of relevance. The discussion implicates the importance of recognizing the role and impact state-led control, violations and exclusion of minorities have in Norwegian history. Not recognizing these aspects of history can lead to the production and reproduction of idealized and exceptional national narratives.</span></p> Mari Kristine Jore ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-11 2018-06-11 2 1 72 86 10.7577/njcie.2270 «Jeg savner barnet mitt». Møter mellom somaliske mødre og barnehagen <p><span style="display: inline !important; float: none; background-color: transparent; color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 13.33px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The focus of this article is the establishment and development of trust between Somali mothers and educators in Norwegian kindergartens. Qualitative interviews with five Somali mothers and four educators were conducted, aiming to raise awareness and achieve a relation of trust amongst the educators and mothers with a minority background. Using critical theory as a lens, the study shows a negotiation process between the mothers and the educators, where elements of sharing, adapting and belonging became important. The mothers went through a process of adaption to the Norwegian kindergarten. The article argues that educators should focus more on mutual dialogue rather than informing monologue in their communication with parents and that both sides have to be open to mutual change. </span></p> Anne Grethe Sønsthagen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-11 2018-06-11 2 1 55 71 10.7577/njcie.2289 The Double Meaning Making of the Term Cultural Diversity in Teacher Educator Discourses <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p><span style="font-size: 10.000000pt; font-family: 'TimesNewRomanPSMT';">Cultural diversity is assumed to be a central component of Western education and even though it has been extensively investigated in international research on teacher education, little knowledge exists about its usage and meaning making in teacher educator discourses. This article provides insights into the usage and meaning making of the term cultural diversity based on semi-structured individual interviews with a total of twelve teacher educators from two Norwegian teacher education institutions. Drawing on the theoretical perspectives of discourse theory and critical Whiteness studies, we find that the term cultural diversity is used in a double meaning making pattern: Cultural diversity is presented as desirable and positive by teacher educators, yet it is also aligned with the notion of otherness. We discuss some possible methodological tools with which teacher educators can detect meaning making patterns and thus counter the production and reproduction of socially unjust discursive patterns.&nbsp; </span></p> </div> </div> </div> <p><em>&nbsp;</em></p> Sandra Fylkesnes Sølvi Mausethagen Anne Birgitta Nilsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-11 2018-06-11 2 1 16 38 10.7577/njcie.2284 Kindergarten Practice: The Situated Socialization of Minority Parents <p style="font-weight: 400;">Almost all parents in Norway use kindergarten and part of becoming a kindergarten parent is learning the routines of the particular institution. Thus, kindergarten parents go through a socialization process, learning amongst other how to deliver and pick up their children. Building on ten days observations of bringing and delivery scenes in a kindergarten, it is here suggested that this socialization process may have a racialized character. The kindergarten in question had special delivery routines, which the kindergarten staff expected parents to carry out, but not everybody did, and the article investigates how the staff reacted towards the three deviant cases observed. The bottom-up analysis of the social interaction between the parents and the staff is here supplied by the perspective of racialization, questioning the gaze of majority persons and their naturalized power to define non-complying parents as something <em>other</em>. The kindergarten staff did not overtly orient to the non-compliance as a problem in the case where the parent had a majority background, which was in much contrast to their conduct in the two other cases with minority parents. In these cases, the staff interacted in a unilateral manner by giving advice and even instructions, very much embodying what Palludan in her study of children-staff interaction calls <em>the teaching tone</em>.</p> Janne Solberg ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-11 2018-06-11 2 1 39 54 10.7577/njcie.2238 World-Class or World-Ranked Universities? Performativity and Nobel Laureates in Peace and Literature <p class="Abstract">It is erroneous to draw too many conclusions about global university rankings. Making a university’s reputation rest on the subjective judgement of senior academics and over-reliance on interpreting and utilising secondary data from bibliometrics and peer assessments have created an enmeshed culture of performativity and over-emphasis on productivity. This trend has exacerbated unhealthy competition and mistrust within the academic community and also discord outside its walls. Surely if universities are to provide service and thrive with the advancement of knowledge as a primary objective, it is important to address the methods, concepts, and representation necessary to move from an emphasis on quality assurance to an emphasis on quality enhancement.</p>This overview offers an analysis of the practice of international ranking. US News and World Report Best Global Universities Rankings, the Times Supplement World University Rankings, and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities are analysed. While the presence of Nobel laureates in the hard sciences has been seized upon for a number of years as quantifiable evidence of producing world-class university education, Nobel laureates in peace and literature have been absent from such rankings. Moreover, rankings have been based on employment rather than university affiliation. Previously unused secondary data from institutions where Nobel peace and literature laureates completed their terminal degrees are presented. The purpose has been to determine whether including peace and literature laureates might modify rankings. A caveat: since the presence of awarded Nobel laureates affiliated at various institutions results in the institutions receiving additional <em>ranking credit</em> in the hard sciences of physics, chemistry, medicine, and economic sciences, this additional credit is not recognised in the approach used in this study. Among other things, this study suggests that if educational history were used in assembling the rankings as opposed to one’s university affiliation, conclusions might be very different. Brian Denman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-19 2018-04-19 2 1 10.7577/njcie.2600 Comparing antecedents for Norwegian, Swedish, and Finnish youths’ agentic beliefs in informal online learning Technology has become an ever-present factor in virtually every contemporary situation, and digital media has gained a significant role in the lives of young people. This article explores and compares the antecedents for agentic beliefs in informal online learning amongst young people in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The promotion of such agentic beliefs in informal online learning is an important task for school systems that seek to prepare young people for responsible citizenship, capable of directing their own lives and supporting others. A sample of 3045 urban Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian students in general study programs (15–17-year-olds) participated in a cross-sectional questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used for analysis. We discovered that the patterns in some of these relations were astonishingly similar in Sweden, Norway, and Finland. In each of these countries, online culture, defined in terms of free choice and self-actualisation by using internet, is positively associated with agentic beliefs and with time online. A duality in school and internet orientation demonstrates that the educational systems in these three countries face challenges to build bridges between the attitudes of youth and the emphasis on knowledge found in traditional educational subjects. Furthermore, the agentic beliefs of youngsters in these three countries differ depending on the degree to which youths value education. Eyvind Elstad Thomas Arnesen Knut Andreas Christophersen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-24 2018-02-24 2 1 10.7577/njcie.2299 Critical Perspectives on Perceptions and Practices of Diversity in Education <p><span style="display: inline !important; float: none; background-color: transparent; color: #000000; font-family: 'Times New Roman',serif; font-size: 13.33px; font-style: normal; font-variant: normal; font-weight: 400; letter-spacing: normal; line-height: 16px; orphans: 2; text-align: justify; text-decoration: none; text-indent: 0px; text-transform: none; -webkit-text-stroke-width: 0px; white-space: normal; word-spacing: 0px;">The term diversity has been a topic of discussion in educational research and has received increased attention in recent years. Often, the focus has been on the use of the term at policy level. In this article, teacher educators’ and school teachers’ perceptions of diversity in education and self-perceived practices of work with diversity are explored. Five teacher educators and 87 school teachers participated in the study. Interviews and questionnaires were used to collect data. The findings indicate that teacher educators and school teachers discuss and reflect on diversity at different levels of operationalization, that they rarely associate socioeconomic and structural issues with the topic of diversity, and that they hardly mention national minorities and the Norwegian indigenous people as part of their understanding and work with diversity. This study suggests stable and long-term arenas for discussion and reflection for both teacher educators and school teachers. Further, the need for a more critical perspective on diversity in education, and an emphasis on learning from historical experiences with education and minorities is needed. </span></p> Tony Burner Tuva Skjelbred Nodeland Åsmund Aamaas ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-20 2018-01-20 2 1 3 15 10.7577/njcie.2188 Internationalising Nordic higher education: comparing the imagined with actual worlds of international scholar-practitioners <p class="Abstract">This comparative case study addresses a timely issue engaging researchers involved in the internationalisation of Nordic Higher Education, in the context of Sweden and Finland. The study examines a hypothetical imaginary in the transition between university international policy statements and their understandings from the position of a globalised episteme. The investigation forms a tag-project as part of a funded large international research project examining ethical internationalism in times of global crises, involving a partnership between more than twenty higher education institutions in excess of ten countries across five continents. The data was collected using a mixed-methods design, whilst being controlled across the matched data collection period in 2013-2014. Data consisted of policy texts, surveys and interviews. The current research inquiry reports on a <em>within and across</em> comparative analyses of certain policy texts and follow-up interviews with university management. The results yield logical support for a global higher education imaginary driving internationalisation in ways which reveal paradoxical associations between the imagined and the real worlds of international scholar-practitioners.</p> Meeri Hellstén ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-12 2018-01-12 2 1 10.7577/njcie.1967 Editorial Halla B. Holmarsdottir Heidi Biseth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-12 2018-01-12 2 1 10.7577/njcie.2598 Mediation, Collaborative Learning and Trust in Norwegian School Governing: Synthesis from a Nordic Research Project This paper analyses productive patterns through which school superintendents and subordinated principals collaborate at the local levels of implementation in the Nordic countries. The underlying theoretical premise is that the school governance systems in the Nordic countries, as a function of strengthened state steering and a variety of local political conditions, entail a series of loose couplings—described by the <em>broken chain</em> metaphor. The analysis is based on a review of findings from a comparative Nordic research project. The review reveals that school superintendents and principals to a large extent activate professional learning forums as integration mechanism—to make collective sense of ambiguous national reforms. Important learning conditions that emerge from the country reports, on which the reviewed research is based, seem to cluster and cohere around learning climate, interpersonal trust, leadership support and a shared knowledge base between the school leaders and the municipal apparatus. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Jan Merok Paulsen Øyvind Henriksen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-07 2017-09-07 2 1 10.7577/njcie.1952 Editorial Halla Björk Holmarsdottir Heidi Biseth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-07 2017-09-07 2 1 10.7577/njcie.2205 Stimulering av global bevissthet gjennom internasjonalisering <p class="Abstract">The topic of this article is nurturing global consciousness through internationalization in teacher education. As a teacher educator, I have been supervising 29 student teachers in their three-month practice in Namibia and Uganda over a four-year period. Here I have focused on the students' experience according to global consciousness with a primary focus towards their global sensitivity. The purpose of this article is threefold. First I describe the nuances of global consciousness and the connection between the three sub-areas: global sensitivity, global understanding, and global self-representation. The two concepts intersubjectivity and attunement will provide a meaningful contribution to the definition of global consciousness. Secondly, I argue that internationalization, as a three-month-long practice abroad in itself, is not sufficient to nurture global consciousness. Thirdly, I describe a pedagogical approach to nurture teacher students’ global consciousness through a set of five different tasks. The research question for this article is: How can teacher education contribute in nurturing student teachers’ global consciousness through counselling and practice abroad? Methodologically the study is grounded in a phenomenological tradition. In the analysis of the material, I have focused on the students' experiences concentrated toward the concept <em>global consciousness</em> and the sub-areas mentioned above.</p> Mette Birgitte Helleve ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-07 2017-09-07 2 1 10.7577/njcie.1933 Comparative Case Studies: An Innovative Approach <p class="Abstract">What is a case study and what is it good for? In this article, we argue for a new approach—the comparative case study approach—that attends simultaneously to macro, meso, and micro dimensions of case-based research. The approach engages two logics of comparison: first, the more common compare and contrast; and second, a ‘tracing across’ sites or scales. As we explicate our approach, we also contrast it to traditional case study research. We contend that new approaches are necessitated by conceptual shifts in the social sciences, specifically in relation to culture, context, space, place, and comparison itself. We propose that comparative case studies should attend to three axes: horizontal, vertical, and transversal comparison. We conclude by arguing that this revision has the potential to strengthen and enhance case study research in Comparative and International Education, clarifying the unique contributions of qualitative research.</p> Lesley Bartlett Frances Vavrus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-07-11 2017-07-11 2 1 10.7577/njcie.1929 Exporting Finnish teacher education: Transnational pressures on national models <p>This article analyses empirical data to assess the possible transfer of Finnish teacher education policy, and more specifically, the university training school, into another context. Transnational organisations increasingly pressure nation-states to carry out education policy change, especially due to dissatisfaction with international assessment outcomes. As a high performer in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), administered by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Finland has been at the centre of international attention. PISA revealed that the high quality of Finnish teachers contributes to the overall calibre of the country’s education system. Thus, Finnish teacher education has become a model for other education systems. This article uses empirical research to explore the export possibilities of the Finnish <em>normaalikoulu</em>, or university training school. It implements qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews with Finnish educationalists to explore the possible export of Finnish education, the implications in terms of policy transfer, and the migration of ideas, specifically the university-affiliated, teacher training school. The export and migration of Finnish education and its impact on education policy are discussed in this article, along with educational export’s position in transnational policy formation.</p> Jennifer Chung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-07-06 2017-07-06 2 1 10.7577/njcie.2129