Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) <p><em>Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) </em>seeks to analyze educational discourse, policy and practice and their implications for teaching and learning. The journal investigates topics through an interdisciplinary lens focusing on new insights and fostering critical debate about the role of education in diverse societies. <em>NJCIE</em> is concerned the interplay of local, national, regional and global contexts shaping education. The ways in which local understandings can bring to light the trends, effects and influences that exist in different contexts globally highlight the general understanding of Comparative and International Education in <em>NJCIE</em>.</p> <p><em>NJCIE</em> invites Nordic and international contributions alike. The journal includes research from all geographic regions in the world.</p> Oslo Metropolitan University en-US Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education (NJCIE) 2535-4051 <p><strong>Declaration on copyright</strong></p><ul><li>The author/s will keep their copyright and right of reproduction of their own manuscript, with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>, but give the journal a permanent right to 1) present the manuscript to the public in the original form in which it was digitally published and 2) to be registered and cited as the first publication of the manuscript.</li><li>The author itself must manage its financial reproduction rights in relation to any third-parties.</li><li> The journal does not provide any financial or other remuneration for contributions submitted.</li><li>Readers of the journal may print the manuscripts presented under the same conditions that apply to reproduction of a physical copy. This means that mass reproduction of physical copies or production of copies for commercial purposes is not permitted without the agreement of the author/s.</li></ul> World-Class or World-Ranked Universities? Performativity and Nobel Laureates in Peace and Literature <p class="Abstract">It is erroneous to draw too many conclusions about global university rankings. Making a university’s reputation rest on the subjective judgement of senior academics and over-reliance on interpreting and utilising secondary data from bibliometrics and peer assessments have created an enmeshed culture of performativity and over-emphasis on productivity. This trend has exacerbated unhealthy competition and mistrust within the academic community and also discord outside its walls. Surely if universities are to provide service and thrive with the advancement of knowledge as a primary objective, it is important to address the methods, concepts, and representation necessary to move from an emphasis on quality assurance to an emphasis on quality enhancement.</p>This overview offers an analysis of the practice of international ranking. US News and World Report Best Global Universities Rankings, the Times Supplement World University Rankings, and the Shanghai Jiao Tong University Academic Ranking of World Universities are analysed. While the presence of Nobel laureates in the hard sciences has been seized upon for a number of years as quantifiable evidence of producing world-class university education, Nobel laureates in peace and literature have been absent from such rankings. Moreover, rankings have been based on employment rather than university affiliation. Previously unused secondary data from institutions where Nobel peace and literature laureates completed their terminal degrees are presented. The purpose has been to determine whether including peace and literature laureates might modify rankings. A caveat: since the presence of awarded Nobel laureates affiliated at various institutions results in the institutions receiving additional <em>ranking credit</em> in the hard sciences of physics, chemistry, medicine, and economic sciences, this additional credit is not recognised in the approach used in this study. Among other things, this study suggests that if educational history were used in assembling the rankings as opposed to one’s university affiliation, conclusions might be very different. Brian Denman ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-04-19 2018-04-19 1 2 10.7577/njcie.2600 Comparing antecedents for Norwegian, Swedish, and Finnish youths’ agentic beliefs in informal online learning Technology has become an ever-present factor in virtually every contemporary situation, and digital media has gained a significant role in the lives of young people. This article explores and compares the antecedents for agentic beliefs in informal online learning amongst young people in Norway, Sweden and Finland. The promotion of such agentic beliefs in informal online learning is an important task for school systems that seek to prepare young people for responsible citizenship, capable of directing their own lives and supporting others. A sample of 3045 urban Finnish, Swedish and Norwegian students in general study programs (15–17-year-olds) participated in a cross-sectional questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used for analysis. We discovered that the patterns in some of these relations were astonishingly similar in Sweden, Norway, and Finland. In each of these countries, online culture, defined in terms of free choice and self-actualisation by using internet, is positively associated with agentic beliefs and with time online. A duality in school and internet orientation demonstrates that the educational systems in these three countries face challenges to build bridges between the attitudes of youth and the emphasis on knowledge found in traditional educational subjects. Furthermore, the agentic beliefs of youngsters in these three countries differ depending on the degree to which youths value education. Eyvind Elstad Thomas Arnesen Knut Andreas Christophersen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-02-24 2018-02-24 1 2 10.7577/njcie.2299 Internationalising Nordic higher education: comparing the imagined with actual worlds of international scholar-practitioners <p class="Abstract">This comparative case study addresses a timely issue engaging researchers involved in the internationalisation of Nordic Higher Education, in the context of Sweden and Finland. The study examines a hypothetical imaginary in the transition between university international policy statements and their understandings from the position of a globalised episteme. The investigation forms a tag-project as part of a funded large international research project examining ethical internationalism in times of global crises, involving a partnership between more than twenty higher education institutions in excess of ten countries across five continents. The data was collected using a mixed-methods design, whilst being controlled across the matched data collection period in 2013-2014. Data consisted of policy texts, surveys and interviews. The current research inquiry reports on a <em>within and across</em> comparative analyses of certain policy texts and follow-up interviews with university management. The results yield logical support for a global higher education imaginary driving internationalisation in ways which reveal paradoxical associations between the imagined and the real worlds of international scholar-practitioners.</p> Meeri Hellstén ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-12 2018-01-12 1 2 10.7577/njcie.1967 Editorial Halla B. Holmarsdottir Heidi Biseth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-01-12 2018-01-12 1 2 10.7577/njcie.2598 Mediation, Collaborative Learning and Trust in Norwegian School Governing: Synthesis from a Nordic Research Project This paper analyses productive patterns through which school superintendents and subordinated principals collaborate at the local levels of implementation in the Nordic countries. The underlying theoretical premise is that the school governance systems in the Nordic countries, as a function of strengthened state steering and a variety of local political conditions, entail a series of loose couplings—described by the <em>broken chain</em> metaphor. The analysis is based on a review of findings from a comparative Nordic research project. The review reveals that school superintendents and principals to a large extent activate professional learning forums as integration mechanism—to make collective sense of ambiguous national reforms. Important learning conditions that emerge from the country reports, on which the reviewed research is based, seem to cluster and cohere around learning climate, interpersonal trust, leadership support and a shared knowledge base between the school leaders and the municipal apparatus. Implications for research and practice are discussed. Jan Merok Paulsen Øyvind Henriksen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-07 2017-09-07 1 2 10.7577/njcie.1952 Editorial Halla Björk Holmarsdottir Heidi Biseth ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-07 2017-09-07 1 2 10.7577/njcie.2205 Stimulering av global bevissthet gjennom internasjonalisering <p class="Abstract">The topic of this article is nurturing global consciousness through internationalization in teacher education. As a teacher educator, I have been supervising 29 student teachers in their three-month practice in Namibia and Uganda over a four-year period. Here I have focused on the students' experience according to global consciousness with a primary focus towards their global sensitivity. The purpose of this article is threefold. First I describe the nuances of global consciousness and the connection between the three sub-areas: global sensitivity, global understanding, and global self-representation. The two concepts intersubjectivity and attunement will provide a meaningful contribution to the definition of global consciousness. Secondly, I argue that internationalization, as a three-month-long practice abroad in itself, is not sufficient to nurture global consciousness. Thirdly, I describe a pedagogical approach to nurture teacher students’ global consciousness through a set of five different tasks. The research question for this article is: How can teacher education contribute in nurturing student teachers’ global consciousness through counselling and practice abroad? Methodologically the study is grounded in a phenomenological tradition. In the analysis of the material, I have focused on the students' experiences concentrated toward the concept <em>global consciousness</em> and the sub-areas mentioned above.</p> Mette Birgitte Helleve ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-09-07 2017-09-07 1 2 10.7577/njcie.1933 Comparative Case Studies: An Innovative Approach <p class="Abstract">What is a case study and what is it good for? In this article, we argue for a new approach—the comparative case study approach—that attends simultaneously to macro, meso, and micro dimensions of case-based research. The approach engages two logics of comparison: first, the more common compare and contrast; and second, a ‘tracing across’ sites or scales. As we explicate our approach, we also contrast it to traditional case study research. We contend that new approaches are necessitated by conceptual shifts in the social sciences, specifically in relation to culture, context, space, place, and comparison itself. We propose that comparative case studies should attend to three axes: horizontal, vertical, and transversal comparison. We conclude by arguing that this revision has the potential to strengthen and enhance case study research in Comparative and International Education, clarifying the unique contributions of qualitative research.</p> Lesley Bartlett Frances Vavrus ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-07-11 2017-07-11 1 2 10.7577/njcie.1929 Exporting Finnish teacher education: Transnational pressures on national models <p>This article analyses empirical data to assess the possible transfer of Finnish teacher education policy, and more specifically, the university training school, into another context. Transnational organisations increasingly pressure nation-states to carry out education policy change, especially due to dissatisfaction with international assessment outcomes. As a high performer in the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), administered by the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Finland has been at the centre of international attention. PISA revealed that the high quality of Finnish teachers contributes to the overall calibre of the country’s education system. Thus, Finnish teacher education has become a model for other education systems. This article uses empirical research to explore the export possibilities of the Finnish <em>normaalikoulu</em>, or university training school. It implements qualitative methodology, using semi-structured interviews with Finnish educationalists to explore the possible export of Finnish education, the implications in terms of policy transfer, and the migration of ideas, specifically the university-affiliated, teacher training school. The export and migration of Finnish education and its impact on education policy are discussed in this article, along with educational export’s position in transnational policy formation.</p> Jennifer Chung ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-07-06 2017-07-06 1 2 10.7577/njcie.2129 Comparing Instructional Factors Related to Students’ Academic Self-Discipline in Norway and Finland <p>School learners can struggle with setting and striving for objectives that require sustained academic self‐discipline. We believe that teachers’ instructional qualities and school culture are factors that can successfully elicit students’ self-discipline in their academic work. This study explores and compares factors related to students’ academic self-discipline among Norwegian and Finnish youths at the upper secondary level. The Finnish students’ excellent results on international comparative tests have led many commentators to consider the Finnish model of education very worthy of emulation. Another reason to com-pare these two groups is that Finnish and Norwegian classrooms differ in their levels of in-class Internet access and computer use for learning purposes. From this perspective, it is interesting to compare empirical associations between instructional factors (as well as students’ school appreciation) and students’ academic self-discipline. The instructional factors in our theoretical model were teachers’ classroom management, teaching quality, teachers’ expressed expectations and the value students placed on the school as an institution. A total of 1433 urban Finnish and Norwegian upper secondary students in general study programmes participated in our cross-sectional questionnaire. We used structural equation modelling for our analysis, and the results show that the associations between instructional qualities (quality instruction, classroom management and high expectations) and academic self-discipline are overall stronger in the Finnish sample than the Norwegian sample. However, students’ appreciation for school was more highly associated with academic self-discipline in Norway than in Finland. Furthermore, the associations between in-class Internet access and motivational conflict were clearly higher in the Norwegian sample than in the Finnish sample. In both samples, we found strong associations between motivational conflict and academic self-discipline. We also discuss the meaning of these results and their implications for research and practice.</p> Thomas Arnesen Eyvind Elstad Knut Andreas Christophersen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-28 2017-06-28 1 2 10.7577/njcie.2111