Professions and Professionalism <p><em>Professions and Professionalism</em> (P&amp;P) is an open-access journal that invites research-based empirical, theoretical or synoptic articles focusing on traditional professions as well as other knowledge based occupational groups approached from any perspective or discipline.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p> <p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a title="The Effect of Open Access" href="">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> (Jens-Christian Smeby) (Maiken Risan) Fri, 01 Jun 2018 13:26:53 +0200 OJS 60 Nurses' organizational roles—Stakeholders’ expectations <p>In this study, we analysed stakeholders’ organizational role expectations for nurses. We defined organizational role expectations as a set of informal expectations in behavioural patterns and formal expectations in work tasks related to a certain position in the organization. A qualitative study was conducted, and content analysis was applied to 150 articles published in a Finnish nursing trade journal. We identified five general organizational role expectations of patients and their relatives, physicians and other healthcare professionals, the work community, the nursing association, and legislators in our analysis: “the alongside stroller,” “the patients’ advocate,” “the reliable colleague and team member,” “the expert and skills developer,” and “the organizational underdog.” This study explores these nursing roles and links stakeholder perspective to the organizational role expectations in professional services.</p> Tomi Kallio, Terhi Tevameri, Mervi Vähätalo ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 01 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Developing Care Professionals: Changing Disability Services in Sweden <p>In Sweden, professionalization projects in disability care services are currently being undertaken in order to differentiate and establish a professional identity for professionals within care work. The aim of this paper was to analyse the experiences of care workers’ meaning of the professionalization process concerning their occupation and their occupational identity in relation to tasks they perform in front-line contacts with persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities at respite care service homes. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with ten care workers. The meaning of the professionalization projects is an ongoing process of a connected mission, meaning that the care work is performed in close contact with care receivers and that it takes place within an informal and free framework, predicated on a logic of possessing a particular kind of “care-feeling.”</p> Richard Gäddman Johansson, Ulla Hellström Muhli ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 30 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Organizational Professionalism: Social Workers Negotiating Tools of NPM <p>This article examines how social workers and managers perceive meaningful work and expertise in six care and treatment facilities in Denmark. Based on 29 interviews with social workers (n=22) and managers (n=7), the article shows how New Public Management-inspired tools such as scoring schemas align with social work values such as “client-centeredness” and working with the individual welfare recipient face-to-face. The article finds that fitting social work into organizational schemas changes the work practices of social workers and also the way members of this profession define meaningful work and expertise. In addition, the article also finds that scoring schemas cause conflicts among social workers regarding the character of expertise when values of social work (to meet a welfare recipient’s need) must be aligned with NPM-inspired values of organizations (to meet managers’ demand for documentation).</p> Nanna Mik-Meyer ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 14 May 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Medi(c)ation Work in the Emergency Department: Making Standardized Practice Work <p>Medication review, the systematic examination of an individual patient’s medicines in order to improve medication therapy, has been advocated as an important patient safety measure. Despite widespread use, little is known about how medication review is conducted when implemented in routine health care. Drawing from an ethnographic case study in a Swedish emergency department and using a practice-based approach, we examine how medication review is practically accomplished and how knowledge is mobilized in everyday practice. We show how physicians construct and negotiate medication safety through situated practices and thereby generate knowledge through mundane activities. We illustrate the centrality of practitioners’ collective reflexive work when co-constructing meaning and argue here that practitioners’ local adaptations can serve as important prerequisites to make “standardized” practice function in everyday work. Organizations need to build a practical capacity to support practitioners’ work-based learning in messy and time-pressured &nbsp;health care &nbsp;settings.</p> Ursula Reichenpfader, Anette Wickström, Per Nilsen, Madeleine Abrandt Dahlgren, Siw Carlfjord ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Fighting the Enemy Within? Challenging Minor Principles of Professionalism in Care and Welfare <p>Wilensky’s seminal article on professionals mentions three identifying characteristics besides the familiar specialized knowledge, autonomy and professional ideology. These are the referral principle, which states that professionals should refer clients to a colleague with a different specialty if necessary, the principle of sloughing off, which dictates that professionals allocate less rewarding parts of their job to lesser paid assistants, and the principle of impersonal service delivery, which admonishes professionals to treat clients equally. A changing clientele in health care and social care warrants a reappraisal of these three principles. Population ageing necessitates a reappraisal in health care. The deinstitutionalization of people with psychiatric or mental disabilities necessitates a reappraisal in social care. Referral, sloughing off and impersonal service delivery are professional characteristics that concur with managerial or political objectives. Managers and politicians are partly responsible for their widespread application. Hence, professionals need their help to fight this “enemy within professionalism.”</p> Margo Trappenburg, Mirko Noordegraaf ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 17 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Hospital Administration as a Profession <p>Many benefits accrue to an occupation that is described as a “profession,” including the ability to influence public debate, such as the current one over health policy in the United States. The label of profession frequently enhances the status, prestige, power, and legitimacy of an occupation, which usually translates into additional resources and power. This article examines the current status of the occupation—hospital administration—with respect to the literature pertaining to the concept of a profession. Hospital administration is assessed in terms of its relation to three common attributes associated with professions: collegial traits, knowledge base, and service orientation. The analysis indicates that there are important obstacles to be overcome before hospital administration can be considered a profession based on these three attributes.</p> Cory E. Cronin, Kristin A. Schuller, Doulas S. Bolon ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 10 Apr 2018 00:00:00 +0200 Special Issue: Complexity, Routines, and Reflexivity in Professional Work Vol 8, No 1 (2018) Jens-Christian Smeby ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 21 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Editorial Editorial Florent Champy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Tue, 13 Mar 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Theorising Risk Work: Analysing Professionals’ Lifeworlds and Practices <p>The proliferation of risk logics within public and private sector organisational contexts where many professionals work has been studied as a phenomenon itself, as governance and in its impact on clients. The everyday experiences and practices of (para)professionals where risk has become a key and in some cases (re)defining feature or logic of everyday work—in assessing, intervening, advising and/or communicating—has received much less attention. We develop a theoretical framework for analysing this risk work, identifying three core and interwoven features—risk knowledge, interventions, and social relations. Central to our argument is that these features often stand in tension with one another, as intrinsic and implicit features of risk knowledge—probabilities, categories and values—become explicit and awkward in everyday practices and interactions. We explore key analytical trajectories suggested by our theoretical framework—in particular, the ways in which tensions emerge, remain (partially) hidden or are reconciled in practice.</p> Patrick Brown, Nicola Gale ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 23 Feb 2018 17:49:47 +0100 Complex Professional Learning: Physicians Working for Aid Organizations <p>This article addresses the issue of professional learning of Swedish physicians returning from their work for international aid organisations in the global South. It is a qualitative case study based on 16 in-depth interviews, which uses a thematic narrative analysis, a typology of knowledge, and the concept of symbolic capital. The doctors’ assignments in settings radically different from the welfare state context meant professional challenges, including an initial feeling of de-skilling, but also enhanced reflexivity and intensive and complex learning. The doctors acquired new medical and organisational knowledge, improved diagnostic skills, new perspectives on different health care systems, cultural contexts, global power relations, and postcolonial hierarchies. Since their return to Sweden, they have encountered a friendly but rather shallow interest in their experiences. Their new insights and ideas for change have not been easy to validate as symbolic capital, and their intensive individual learning is seldom utilised for organisational learning.</p> Katarzyna Wolanik Boström ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 23 Feb 2018 17:41:22 +0100