Radiography Open <p><strong><em>Radiography Open</em></strong> is an open access scientific journal that publishes scientific original articles, review articles, and case studies, within a broad understanding of radiography. In addition <strong><em>Radiography Open</em></strong>&nbsp;publishes columns that underpins evidence-based practice within radiography.</p> en-US Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br /><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication, with the work after publication simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li></ol><br /><ol type="a"><li>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li></ol> (Borgny Ween) (Odd Bjørnstad) Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Three-dimensional Ultrasound Volume Measurements in an Aortic Aneurysm Model <p>Measuring the aneurysm sac’s size is vital in postoperative surveillance following endovascular treatment of aortic aneurysms.&nbsp; A three-dimensional ultrasound technique may enable accurate volume measurements.&nbsp; However, there is no validation of any commercially&nbsp;&nbsp; available electro-mechanical 3D ultrasound equipment or of the software used when measuring the volume of the aortic aneurysm sac. This investigation used a phantom model to study a three-dimensional ultrasound technique on aortic aneurysm sac volume measurements.&nbsp; High volume measurement accuracy indicates that this method may be useful for postoperative surveillance following endovascular aortic aneurysm operations.&nbsp; These results must be confirmed in clinical studies.</p> Lydia Johnsen, Jon Anders Torbjørn Jonung, Elin Hanna Laxdal, Gustav Pedersen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 07 May 2018 10:17:31 +0200 Imaging breast with implants – a Swedish perspective <p><em>Background</em>: Today, the most common cancer among women in Sweden is breast cancer. <br> To detect and treat cancer at an early stage, women between 40-74 years are offered mammographic screening. However, it is becoming more common with women having breast implants, which causes some difficulties in meeting the image criteria in mammographic screening. Therefore, Eklund’s technique is preferred to optimize the detection of breast cancer for women with breast implants.</p> <p><em>Purpose</em>: The purpose of this study was to report and describe the screening protocol of several mammography clinics for imaging breasts with implants.</p> <p><em>Method</em>: A survey with four open questions was distributed, and then interpreted and reported in a quantitative manner. Out of 28 contacted mammography clinics, 24 responded.</p> <p><em>Result:</em> The results of the study show that most of the participating clinics were using Eklund´s pushback technique without knowing it. There were significant differences in the selection of projection and compression pressure for the mammographic screening.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Conclusion</em>: The results of the study indicate that guidelines are recommended to ensure that every clinic in Sweden is working evidence-based and that women can be offered equal care.</p> Mathilda Holst, Nicole Marina Valber, Hanna Dumky, Jessica Ekber, Kent Fridell ##submission.copyrightStatement## Wed, 28 Nov 2018 11:59:36 +0100 Radiografers oppfatninger av suboptimale henvisninger innen konvensjonell røntgen - en kvalitativ studie <p>Abstract:</p> <p>Title: Radiographers’ perception of suboptimal referrals for plain radiography – a qualitative study.<br>Introduction: Adequately filled in radiology requests forms are crucial for the quality of conducting and reporting examinations. Still suboptimal referrals occur. The knowledge of how the referrals are assessed handled in the radiological department is limited, in particular the role of the radiographers. The purpose of this study was to investigate how radiographers understand, experience and act upon suboptimal referrals and how this influence their work.<br>Methods and Materials: A semi-structured interview guide was developed and applied in individual interviews with five radiographers in south-east Norway. The radiographers had different length of employment and experience in performing plain radiographs. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using a thematic analysis method.<br>Results: Five main categories were identified from the interviews. 1) Scope and type of referral quality problems, where the problem is recognised, mainly due to missing clinical information, which is reported to occur frequently, particularly in referrals for control examinations. 2) Communication experiences and approaches towards patients, experienced colleges or radiologists, when seeking to substitute missing/wrong referral information. 3) Consequences of inappropriate referrals, in shape of unwarranted examinations, waste of time, and reduced job satisfaction. 4) Perceived responsibility for optimisation and justification of examinations. 5) Strategies to overcome the problem, through leadership and co-operation between radiographers, radiologists and referring physicians.<br>Conclusion: Suboptimal referral quality influence the radiographers work. They recognize it as a commonplace problem with implication for quality patient care, own work-situation and -satisfaction and economically for health society. Increased interdisciplinary co-operation may improve the quality of the referrals.</p> Alaa Sadiq Abohaikel, Huda Hussein Musa, Kristin Bakke Lysdahl ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 20 Dec 2018 19:01:24 +0100 Radiografers legemiddelhåndtering - en pilotstudie <p><em>Introduction:</em> The field of work in radiography is in constant development. This imposes requirements for both education, the professional practitioner herself, and for the employer who will ensure that knowledge and skills are up to date in order to maintain high standards at all times. Internationally organizational development and professional knowledge are continually calling for radiographer’s familiarization with the latest standards and techniques in this field. There has been little research on how radiographers experience if they have sufficient knowledge and experience in medication and drug administration.</p> <p><em>Method:</em> A qualitative study with observation of five radiographers, who also participated in focused interviews aimed at mapping their experiences and assessments about the safety of drug administration in professional practice.</p> <p><em>Results:</em> The observed performance of the radiographers´ work testifies to safe drug administration in that administration situations are characterized by a high academic level of knowledge. Still, radiographers are positive to more regular follow-up learning and/or training at the workplace, and discussions about drug administration safety.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> Radiographers' level of knowledge in the field of drug administration was found to be adequate according to the expected learning outcomes of the bachelor education in radiography. However, this is a small study, and the subject should be followed up further.</p> Ola Hellingsrud Næss, Martine Strand Aasand, Albertina Rusandu ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 10:44:19 +0100 Dose optimization in computed tomography of brain using CARE kV and CARE Dose 4D <p><em>Background: </em>Computed Tomography (CT) scan of brain is the most widely used CT examination. Latest CT scanners have the potential to deliver very low radiation dose by utilizing tube potential and tube current modulation techniques. We aim to determine the application of CARE kV (tube potential modulation) and CARE Dose4D (tube current modulation) in CT scan of brain. Both CARE kV and CARE Dose4D are well-established innovative technology of Siemens Medical Solutions.</p> <p><em>Methodology:</em> A prospective hospital-based study was conducted during four months at Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital (TUTH). The data were collected on a Siemens Somatom Definition Edge 128 slices CT scanner. Non-random purposive sampling technique was employed. Ethical approval and consent to participate were taken for every participant. Non-contrast (NC) CT images were acquired without using CARE kV and CARE Dose4D, whereas during contrast-enhanced (CE) investigation, both were turned on keeping other scanning parameters constant for each individual.</p> <p><em>Results: </em>A total of 72 patients, 42 males and 28 females - mean age 41y (range 16-87y) participated in this study. The Body Mass Index (BMI) was 22.0, range 20.1-25.0. The mean value of Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI), Dose Length Product (DLP) and Effective Dose (ED) before and after switching on both CARE kV and CARE Dose4D were 58.19±0.35 and 39.67±3.59 milli-Gray (mGy), 946.67 and 652.58 mGy-cm, and 1.98 and 1.36 milli-Sievert (mSv) respectively.</p> <p><em>Conclusion:</em> CARE kV and CARE Dose4D can reduce radiation dose in CT scan of brain without loss of image quality.</p> Pooja Shah, Amish Sharma, Jayanti Gyawali, Sharma Paudel, Shanta Lall Shrestha, Surendra Maharjan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 30 Dec 2018 00:00:00 +0100 Er hygiene-protokollene i radiologiske avdelinger optimale for å hindre MRSA-smitte? <p><em>Innledning:</em> MRSA er en bakterie som er motstandsdyktig mot både penicillin og methicillin. Den er fryktet i norske helseinstitusjoner da den er vanskelig å behandle. Det er viktig å ha gode protokoller for generell hygiene, og spesielt for håndtering av smittepasienter, for å forebygge spredning av bakterier, og å unngå at bakterien blir en naturlig del av bakteriefloraen. Hvordan standarden er på hygiene-protokoller ved radiologiske avdelinger, er per vår viten ikke kartlagt. Hensikten med studien var å samle og evaluere kvaliteten på smitteprotokollene for behandling av pasienter med MRSA-smitte, ved radiologiske avdelinger.</p> <p><em>Metode:</em> Kriteriene for utstyr og adferd tilpasset projeksjons-radiografi, ble utviklet i samarbeid med en fagradiograf. Dette forarbeidet ga en gullstandard-beskrivelse sammenholdt med faglige kriterier i MRSA-veilederen fra Folkehelseinstituttet (FHI). Totalt ble 19 protokoller fra norske offentlige og private helseinstitusjoner, analysert. GRADE-metoden ble brukt for å bestemme kvantitative mål på helseinstitusjonenes protokoll-kvalitet, målt opp mot gullstandarden.</p> <p><em>Resultater:</em> Studien omfattet 19 protokoller av 33 mulige, dvs en svarprosent på 73%. Faglige enkelt-beskrivelser i protokollene omfattet totalt 627 skår (33 svar per protokoll), hvorav faglig korrekte beskrivelser i hht gullstandarden var oppgitt i 23% (144 korrekte svar).&nbsp;</p> <p>Det var faglige mangler hos samtlige av de mottatte protokollene. GRADE-metoden ble tilpasset kriterier for generell smitte. Elleve av studiens protokoller omhandlet generell smitte på helseinstitusjonen, mens åtte protokoller omhandlet pasienter med MRSA på radiologisk avdeling. Det førte til at mange protokoller fikk en lav poengskår. Også på fakta-krav i hht utstyr og metoder, dokumenteres kvalitetssvikt.&nbsp;</p> <p><em>Konklusjon:</em> Protokollene for MRSA-smitte ved radiologiske avdelinger, er ikke optimale for å forebygge smitte. Alle avdelinger blir utsatt for smitteutbrudd. Det vil gi alvorlige konsekvenser for pasienter, personell og samfunn.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Kajsa Pauline Boqvist, Nina Helen Rudi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 21 Jun 2018 00:00:00 +0200