<p>"" is an international journal, which publishes refereed articles dealing with research into theoretical or practical aspects related to the learning of adolescents, adults and elderly, in formal or informal educational settings. The use of information and communication technologies in general in these settings is a vital field of interest for the journal.</p> Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences en-US 1504-4831 <div><p> is a fully open access journal, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication. Non-commercial use and distribution in any medium is permitted, provided the author and the journal are properly credited. T<span style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">he journal allow reuse and remixing of content in accordance with a Creative Commons license CC BY</span></p><ul><li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li><li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.</li><li> does not charge authors for publishing with us.</li></ul></div> Editorial - Recent trends in the digitalization of the Nordic K-12 schools <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544230&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> J. Ola Lindberg Anders D. Olofsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 14 2 103 108 Rethinking communication in virtual learning environments through the concept of Bildung <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544218&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p class="Seminar-abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The aim of this paper is to discuss the transformative relationship between the self and culture, or Bildung, while considering new technology such as virtual learning environments. It adopts a technocultural educational perspective; the digital world is an extension of the physical world, and as such an extension of humanity. It is the basis for developing identities that are constantly being re-addressed through new encounters with the world. Communication is a central theme in theories of Bildung. From a technocultural standpoint, communication is the space, or interface, where Bildung takes place. In virtual learning environments, there are different ways to communicate, both synchronously and asynchronously. These environments offer communicative spaces where the self is transformed through several actions because of communicating with the software or with other people. The paper suggests rethinking what communication means in education when it is mediated through digital technology. Virtual learning environments make new teaching practices possible that include digital sources and collaborative assignments through intelligent interactions in simulations or social media. Supporting students is crucial for them to learn how to use, understand and navigate these spaces.</span></p> Charlotta Hilli ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 14 2 109 119 Trends in the Digitalization of K-12 Schools: The Australian Perspective <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544219&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p class="Seminar-abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Although Australian children have plenty of access to digital technologies in school, a common perception is that this hasn't made a difference to the quality of education in Australia. In fact, it is widely considered that educational standards are in decline and schools are failing to teach children the skills that they will need for the future. The Australian Government, however, do recognize that the road to digitalization is long and they have invested in a new digital technologies curriculum and the provision of equipment and teacher professional development to support this goal. While this is a positive move and exciting projects are being implemented in schools, there is less focus on educational research in this area. This is a missed opportunity because research outcomes can provide an additional level of credibility that is required to justify why ‘new literacies’ are essential in a contemporary school curriculum.</span></p> Jennifer Masters ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 14 2 120 131 Digitally Competent School Organizations – Developing Supportive Organizational Infrastructures <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544233&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>While research on digital competences so far has focused on the level of single actors (teachers, pupils, and school leaders), a growing but occasionally overlooked field of research looks at school-level competences when promoting digitalization and educational change. The aim of this study is to explore how schools structure their organizations, institutional infrastructure, and activities as conditions for digitalization. The study relies on interviews with school leaders and educational technologists from five upper secondary schools with extensive experience in digitalization and remote teaching. By using three categories, namely setting the direction, developing people, and developing the organization, as an analytical framework, this study identifies two types of digitally competent school organizations: goal- and structure-oriented schools and culture-oriented schools. This study’s insights serve as a point of departure for understanding the different ways schools can organize themselves to become comprehensive, stable, and digitally competent organizations and for understanding important challenges related to this process.</p> Fanny Pettersson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 14 2 132 143 A Comparison Between Digital Competence in Two Nordic Countries’ National Curricula and an International Framework: Inspecting their Readiness for 21st Century Education <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544237&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p><span lang="EN-US">This study investigates the objectives and competence aims in the digital competence curricula of two Nordic countries for compulsory education and an international framework, DIGCOMP. The main aim of the study is to analyze the visions and main features of the Norwegian and Swedish national curricula, and inspect the extent to which they align with the DIGCOMP framework. The results show that the underlying visions and objectives of the frameworks largely converge. However, there are large discrepancies between the national curricula and DIGCOMP regarding the structure, the content covered (e.g., competence aims) and the instructional aspects. The findings and their implications for researchers, policy makers and curriculum developers are discussed.</span></p> Fazilat Siddiq ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 14 2 144 159 Power and control in the one-to-one computing classroom: students’ perspectives on teachers’ didactical design <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544217&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>This paper reports on a research study that scrutinised the student perspective on teachers’ different didactical designs from lessons in the one-to-one computing classroom. Specifically, the aim was to describe and understand three different clusters of didactical design in the one-to-one computing classroom from the student perspective. Each of the three clusters represents different interactions between teachers and students. The research questions embrace how the teachers or students, through the didactical design, will have an advantage over the other. The empirical material was based on student focus groups interviews, enhanced through the method of stimulated recall where different photographs of teaching and learning situations from the one-to-one computing classroom were shown to the students. The results demonstrate three empirical themes: students’ learning in class, students’ learning outside class, and classroom assessment. From a theoretical lens of power and control, the students’ reasoning demonstrates approaches to how teachers regulate students and to how students can make decisions in their learning process. For handling students’ demands, specifically in pedagogical plans, the one-to-one computing classroom becomes one component for making students’ learning processes smoother regarding when to study and how to study.</p> Peter Bergström Eva Mårell-Olsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-12 2018-10-12 14 2 160 173 Digital transformation in Swedish schools – Principals’ strategic leadership and organisation of tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544229&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p><span lang="EN-US">This paper reports on a research study about principals’ strategic leadership and organisation of schools within established tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives. The aim was to investigate how principals lead and guide one-to-one computing initiatives in K–12 education. The research questions focused on principals’ expressed intentions and their strategic leadership and organisation when implementing tablet-based one-to-one computing initiatives in Swedish schools. The empirical material was collected through semi-structured interviews with seven principals in five municipalities where the schools had used tablets for more than six months within a one-to-one computing initiative. The findings are organised by themes concerning one-to-one computing as a strategy to <span class="shorttext">change teaching and working methods</span>, using technology for adapting teaching and learning to every pupil’s needs, and strategies for organisation. The findings show that marketisation of schools (e.g. the school-choice reform) in combination with the annual presentation of national rankings have had an impact on the financial situations of schools because they receive a voucher for every attending pupil. The participating principals’ strategic leadership concerning their intentions and applied strategies on how to lead and organise<span class="shorttext"> the digitalised school </span>are an attempt to meet the demands <span class="shorttext">that the marketisation and digitalisation of Swedish schools requires. </span></span></p> Eva Mårell-Olsson Peter Bergström ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 14 2 174 187 Digital relational competence: Sensitivity and responsivity to needs of distance and co-located students <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544243&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p class="Seminar-abstract"><span lang="EN-US">Being relationally competent is an essential skill for teachers. This involves, for example, skills in social interaction, emotional communication, and human connection. Two key factors for relational competence are teachers’ sensitivity and responsivity to learner needs. In a distance-learning environment this can be a challenge because of the technical barriers, which often entail a lack of nonverbal cues that can guide teachers in social interactions and the orchestration of relations. In this study, nine semi-structured interviews capture the experiences of teachers in upper secondary school, in order to explore how they describe their own digital didactical design for distance courses and how they perceive that it supports students’ learning. In the qualitative content analysis of the interview data, the emphasis was placed on teachers’ digital relational competence with regard to their sensitivity and responsivity. These two factors are scrutinized in relation to six categories of student needs: emotional, cognitive-epistemic, metareflective, self-regulatory, social, and practical-logistic needs. </span></p> Annika Wiklund-Engblom ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 14 2 188 200 Digitally competent schools: teacher expectations when introducing digital competence in Finnish basic education <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544222&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p><span lang="EN-GB">The increased exposure to technology raises a need for understanding how the digital world works, just as we learn about the physical world. As a result, countries all over the world are renewing their school curricula in order to include digital competence, computer science or other similar content. In this paper, we provide insight into what teachers see as crucial aspects when implementing a new curricula introducing digital competence as a transversal element. We have analysed 86 Finnish teachers’ descriptions of digitally competent schools and digitally competent personnel, in order to identify a list of prerequisites that can be helpful to school leaders who are to drive the change at their local schools. </span></p> Linda Mannila ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 14 2 201 215 Enhancing future teachers’ competencies for technology integration in education: Turning theory into practice <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544234&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p><span lang="EN-US">The main aim of this conceptual paper is to provide an overview of effective strategies to support pre-service teachers to adequately integrate ICT in teaching and learning activities. Specifically, the focus is on the strategies included in the SQD (Synthesis of Qualitative Evidence) model: 1) using teacher educators as role models, 2) reflecting on the role of technology in education, 3) learning how to use technology by design, 4) collaboration with peers, 5) scaffolding authentic technology experiences, and 6) providing continuous feedback. To turn this model into practice, the approach of teacher design teams is adopted. A teacher design team can be described as a group of two or more (pre-service) teachers who design (ICT-rich) curriculum materials. Based on the SQD model – theory - and the implementation of the key themes emerging from this model via teacher design teams – practice -, this conceptual paper provides recommendations to improve the potential of pre-service training to enhance future teachers use of ICT in their educational practice. </span></p> Jo Tondeur ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 14 2 216 224 Adequate digital competence – a close reading of the new national strategy for digitalization of the schools in Sweden <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=36544214&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>In this paper, the notion of ‘adequate digital competence’, as it is used in the 2017 Swedish strategy for digitalization of the school system, is in focus. Based on a close reading of the strategy, three dimensions are formulated for discussion: time, context, and interpretation. These dimensions open a more general discussion about the content of policies regarding digital competence. The notion of striving for an ‘adequate digital competence’ for children, students, teachers, school leaders, and other school staff is loaded with a variety of possible meanings. The strategy provides guidance in some aspects, but leaves a lot to local enactment of the strategy.</p> Göran Fransson J. Ola Lindberg Anders D. Olofsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-10-15 2018-10-15 14 2 217 228