<p>"" is an international journal, which publishes refereed articles dealing with research into theoretical or practical aspects related to the learning of adolescents, adults and elderly, in formal or informal educational settings. The use of information and communication technologies in general in these settings is a vital field of interest for the journal.</p> en-US <div><p> is a fully open access journal, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication. Non-commercial use and distribution in any medium is permitted, provided the author and the journal are properly credited. T<span style="background: white none repeat scroll 0% 0%;">he journal allow reuse and remixing of content in accordance with a Creative Commons license CC BY</span></p><ul><li>The journal allows the author(s) to hold the copyright without restrictions.</li><li>The journal allows the author(s) to retain publishing rights without restrictions.</li><li> does not charge authors for publishing with us.</li></ul></div> (Yngve Troye Nordkvelle) (Yngve Troye Nordkvelle) Mon, 17 Jun 2019 13:57:25 +0200 OJS 60 Teachers as users of ICT from the student perspective in higher education flipped classroom classes <div style="width: 100%; height: 0; position: relative; padding-bottom: 56.25%;"><iframe style="width: 100%; height: 100%; position: absolute; top: 0; left: 0;" src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=52172269" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" allowfullscreen="1"></iframe></div> <p class="Abstract"><span lang="EN-US">The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is important in today’s higher education. ICT has a central role in the skill set students are expected to master during their studies. The fast development of technology poses both possibilities and challenges for teachers. This paper is part of a larger project aimed at implementing the flipped classroom (FC) model and supporting ICT integration in higher education. In this project, teachers receive systematic support for implementing the FC model. The aim of this paper is to investigate how students assess their teachers’ knowledge of pedagogy, content and technology before and after a course using the FC model. In total, 317 students responded to the pre-post-test surveys. The data were analyzed as a single group and separately for students in different year groups. Results indicate that there are statistically significant differences between the results of the pre- and post-tests. Students assess their teachers content-specific pedagogical skills and technological pedagogical skills in teaching their subject higher after the FC courses. Students also perceived their teachers as having more positive attitudes to using technology in teaching. It was found that the difference was more apparent in second-year and higher students. Students perceived FC positively in general. </span></p> Erkko T. Sointu, Teemu Valtonen, Laura Hirsto, Jenni Kankaanpää, Markku Saarelainen, Kati Mäkitalo, Anneke Smits, Jyri Manninen Copyright (c) 2019 Erkko T. Sointu, Teemu Valtonen, Laura Hirsto, Jenni Kankaanpää, Markku Saarelainen, Kati Mäkitalo, Anneke Smits, Jyri Manninen Fri, 14 Jun 2019 22:34:07 +0200 Teachers’ Pedagogical Role as Mediators in Leading and Guiding Students’ Learning in Digital Storytelling (DST) <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=52116132&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" allowfullscreen="1" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>The aim of this study is to find out how the teachers lead and guide students’ learning in digital storytelling (DST). The main research question is: What is teachers’ pedagogical role in leading and guiding the students’ learning in DST? The research framework is based on Vygotsky’s mediation theory. The research project was carried out in the 2016-2017 school year. Four classes from China and two classes from Finland at the Grade 4 and Grade 5 levels participated in the study. We mainly focus on qualitative data from semi structured interviews of teachers, researchers’ classroom observations, group discussions, and teachers’ course-planning documents. The main findings are that in DST, the main activities in teachers’ pedagogical role as mediators are facilitating, coaching, and scaffolding with the pedagogical decision-making. This study illustrates what teachers did in a DST project and how they have led and guided students’ learning when using the DST pedagogical method.</p> Jenny Niu, Hannele Niemi Copyright (c) 2019 Jenny Niu, Hannele Niemi Fri, 14 Jun 2019 22:49:38 +0200 Exploring Healthcare Simulation Facilitators’ Conceptions of Teaching and Learning <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=52116426&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" allowfullscreen="1" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>This study aimed to investigate healthcare simulation facilitators’ conceptions of teaching and learning because they influence the approaches and strategies used in teaching and learning and ultimately influence learning outcomes. The study was conducted using a phenomenographic methodology to identify the variation in conceptions. This study included 37 healthcare simulation facilitators. The data were collected using both thematic and semi-structured individual and paired interviews. The iterative phenomenographic data analysis process revealed four categories of conceptions of learning: 1) learning as acquiring and reproducing knowledge and skills, 2) learning as applying and advancing knowledge and skills, 3) learning as transformation of individual thinking and behaviour and 4) learning as co-constructing knowledge and skills. Three categories of conceptions of teaching were also revealed: 1) teaching as transmission of knowledge, 2) teaching as development of students’ professional skills and 3) teaching as facilitation of learning. Based on the results of this study, we argue that, by changing teaching conditions, we may also affect the underlying conceptions of teaching and learning as well as approaches to teaching and ultimately learning outcomes. The results of this study can also be used to develop healthcare educators’ pedagogical training. However, approaches to teaching and learning are not necessarily aligned; therefore, in future studies, our aim will be to continue the research by investigating how these self-perceived conceptions are related to approaches to teaching and learning within actual educational practices.</p> Tuulikki Keskitalo, Heli Ruokamo Copyright (c) 2019 Tuulikki Keskitalo, Heli Ruokamo Fri, 14 Jun 2019 22:51:13 +0200 Nonlinear Storytelling Method and Tools for Low-Threshold Game Development <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=52116671" scrolling="no" allowfullscreen="1" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p class="Standard">In our research project, an educational computer game was developed. To enable a low-threshold participation to the game development process for people with low information technology skills, tools for nonlinear storytelling software were reviewed. Nonlinear storytelling is a method in digital storytelling where the storyline is not linear but has branches. This is typical for interactive stories such as computer game plots. The aim of the study was to find easy to use tools suitable for educational game development. The history of nonlinear storytelling is shortly discussed from the early experimental literacy in pre-information technology age to hypertext and game development tools of information technology. Software for nonlinear storytelling is reviewed. Special attention is paid for usability, software licensing models, and integration with modern game engines. An open source storytelling software Twine was chosen for this project. Nonlinear stories (n = 14) were collected during the game development project. Participants were over 30 year old adults who had low information technology skills. A qualitative analysis of the collected stories is performed. Writing nonlinear stories is activity that is not familiar to most people. Common errors and misconceptions in collected stories are studied. Usability of the stories in the context of game integration is examined. These observations and findings are used to develop storytelling process more meaningful to students and to harness the nonlinear storytelling method more effectively in educational game development.</p> Mika Letonsaari Copyright (c) 2019 Mika Letonsaari, Dr. Fri, 14 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200 How are technology-related workplace resources associated with techno-work engagement among a group of Finnish teachers? <p><iframe src=";source=embed&amp;photo%5fid=52116563&amp;endOn=thumbnail" scrolling="no" allowfullscreen="1" width="560" height="315" frameborder="0"></iframe></p> <p>Teachers perceive the digitalisation of teaching not only as demanding but also as an inspiring aspect of their work. Prior studies have mainly focused on teachers’ negative experiences, such as technostress. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to explore how technology-related workplace resources, such as technology-related self-efficacy and autonomy, predict teachers’ positive well-being, techno-work engagement. Based on prior studies, it was hypothesised that three technology-related job resources are associated with higher techno-work engagement and technology-related self-efficacy is associated with higher techno-work engagement. Data was collected from Finnish teachers and principals (N=183) via a web-based questionnaire as part of a larger research project. Most of the participants were female teachers. The hypotheses were tested with structural equation modelling. The key findings indicated that technology-related self-efficacy had strongest impact on techno-work engagement. In addition, technology-related autonomy and technology-related competence support were statistically significant predictors of techno-work engagement. The findings suggest that similar workplace resources, which predict general work engagement, are also relevant in the context of techno-work engagement. Some practical recommendations are made concerning enhancement of teachers’ technology-related self-efficacy at schools.</p> Jaana-Piia Irene Mäkiniemi, Salla Ahola, Johanna Joensuu Copyright (c) 2019 Jaana-Piia Irene Mäkiniemi, Salla Ahola, Johanna Joensuu Fri, 14 Jun 2019 00:00:00 +0200