Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A 2018-01-09T10:52:17+01:00 Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Open Journal Systems Editorial 2017-12-20T20:01:36+01:00 Eila Lindfors Marja-Leena Rönkkö Kari Carlsen Editorial 24(2)2017 2017-12-20T20:00:09+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Inexplicit Learning: Transferring Knowledge through Visual and Emulative practices 2017-12-20T20:01:37+01:00 Koumudi Patil This study attempts to understand how expert knowledge is transmitted in the absence or lack of explicit and formal means of knowledge acquisition, with particular interest in the evolved relationship of a master-apprentice, observable in pockets of traditional communities of practice. An ethnographic study based on content analysis of the transcriptions of members of a craft community from Varanasi, India has been used to strengthen the undermined pedagogical role of observation and emulation in the transfer of inexplicit knowledge. It is argued that in-situ observation and emulation foster situations for facilitating co-production of knowledge, further implying co-authorship. Gaining community membership in craft communities is not merely a matter of gaining a professional degree; instead, it is a slow process of enculturation.<br />Keywords: Observation, Emulation, Inexplicit learning, Master-apprentice. Communities of Practice<br /><br /> 2017-12-20T19:46:28+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Maker Movement creating knowledge through basic intention 2017-12-20T20:01:37+01:00 Tomi Dufva <p>Maker movement is often celebrated as a rekindled interest in making by hand, as well as a promise for new forms of manufacturing and economic growth. In contrast to this popularized image, the theoretical background in the maker movement remains ambivalent. This article takes a look at the theoretical foundation of the maker movement and proposes a phenomenological approach to making by hand as a framework for maker movement.<br />A particular focus is on the knowledge making process in the maker movement following Finnish craft researcher Kojonkoski-Rännäli's account of making by hand. Basing her theory on Martin Heidegger’s philosophical analysis, Kojonkoski-Rännäli sees making by hand an essential way of existing in the world: making by hand develops not only maker’s handicraft skills but also her/his knowledge, responsibility and caring for the world as it appears to her/him through the act of making.<br />In this paper, I explore maker movements’ relation to Kojonkoski-Rännäli’s philosophy of making by hand. Moreover, I focus on how the maker movements approach to digital and digitalization relate to making by hand.</p><p><br />Keywords: Maker movement, code literacy, craft education, philosophy, making by hand</p><div><span><br /></span></div> 2017-12-20T19:41:38+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Heritage building as a Concept and as a part of Technology Education Conceptions of, structuredness of conceptions of, and conceptual change in students in teacher training during a study module on heritage building 2017-12-20T22:05:08+01:00 Jani Kaasinen As a concept, heritage building is young and previously undefined in Finnish scientific literature. Earlier studies about the very notions of heritage building are also nonexistent in Finland. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conceptions of students in teacher training about heritage building before and after a study module on heritage building, which constitutes a part of their subject studies in didactics of crafts. The lack of previous studies about conceptions of heritage building in Finland led to the selection of these conceptions as a research target. The study uses two different approaches for achieving its purpose. In order to find answers to the research problem, the students' common conceptions about heritage building were examined first. Secondly, it was considered how structured these conceptions were. Therefore, the research process included a conceptual review of heritage building to provide a baseline for comparing the student's conceptions and their structuredness.<br />The research results indicate that even though students in didactics of handicrafts have conceptions about heritage building that are parallel with the definition formulated for the purposes of the study, they are superficial on average. The review of structuredness of conceptions supported the results achieved in the phenomenographical analysis of conceptions. It was observed that completing the study module had an impact on the structuredness of conceptions. Furthermore, the students' personal background was found to have some implications on how structured their conceptions of heritage building were, which was evidenced by notable differences in structuredness of conceptions on an individual level. This article is based on the writer’s doctoral dissertation.<br />Keywords: Heritage building, conceptions, conceptual change, level of structuredness, phenomenography, technology education 2017-12-20T19:40:32+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Learning situations in Sloyd ‒ to become more handy, dexterous and skilful 2018-01-09T10:52:17+01:00 Marléne Johansson Joakim Andersson <span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">This article provides examples of how students in a teacher training course in sloyd [sw. slöjd] develop their knowledge of sloyd during a workshop in woodturning. Several names from the definition of sloyd may be perceived as relatively the same, but in this article is the focus on three of the meanings included in the concept sloyd; handy [sw. händig], dexterous [sw. hantverksskicklig] and skilful in forming a crafted artefact [sw. konstfärdig]. It is of interest to explore how such skills, usually ‘hidden’ in the making processes, can be developed in learning processes. The study aims to describe how the sloyd skill develops in interaction with others and with the situations created in the physical environment during sloyd activities. The study, carried out by video documentation and microanalysis, shows that so-called practical knowledge requires support from several multimodal forms of interactions. From the video material, three sequences of microanalysis have been selected for this article. The results show that learning to do sloydwork is not something that takes place by only working on one’s own object. The students alternate between standing by and watch, or practice, or demonstrated, their skills when they work on each other's object. Body language and actions have an important role in how shared understanding is created for how for example the suitable handling of a woodturning tool should be implemented. The embedded meanings in the sloyd concept used in this article ‒ handy, dexterous and skilful in forming a crafted artefact ‒ show that knowledge of sloyd includes handicraft knowledge as well as pedagogic aspects.<br />Keywords: sloyd, slöjd, microanalysis, woodturning, handy, dexterous, skillful, multimodal</span> 2017-12-20T19:39:42+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Allt kan transformeras till ett användbart läromedel 2017-12-20T20:01:37+01:00 Annelie Holmberg Mia Porko-Hudd Marcus Samuelsson <p>Hur lärare i slöjd i Finland och Sverige uppfattar och använder läromedel beskrivs och analyseras i denna artikel. Det empiriska materialet består av enkätsvar från både flervalsfrågor och öppna frågor av 143 lärare, insamlat våren 2016. Resultatet visar att lärarna å ena sidan definierar läromedel på ett mycket brett sätt genom att inkludera i princip allt som används i undervisningen som läromedel, medan de å andra sidan också använder en snäv definition på läromedel som endast omfattar för ändamålet publicerade läroböcker. Resultatet visar att många lärare i slöjd producerar läromedel som stöder den egna undervisningens målsättningar, den egna elevgruppens behov och matchar krav som deras undervisningskontext ställer och hjälper dem själv att utveckla och upprätthålla sina färdigheter. Många lärare i slöjd är del av olika slags webbaserade delningskulturer där de delar med sig av sina egenproducerade läromedel och vidareutvecklar läromedel som de fått sig tilldelade av kolleger. Internet framhålls som en guldgruva för att hitta material som kan omvandlas till läromedel för slöjdprocessens olika faser och för att differentiera undervisningen. I diskussionen framkommer att lärare i slöjd har en pluralistisk uppfattning om läromedel som speglar det pedagogiska dilemmat mellan frihet och ansvar för undervisningens utformning och innehåll som läromedel exemplifierar.<br />Sökord: läromedel, slöjdundervisning, pedagogiskt dilemma, internet, pragmatisk transformering</p><p> </p><p>Sökord: läromedel, slöjdundervisning, lärare, dilemma, pluralistisk</p> 2017-12-20T19:32:14+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The influence of mechatronic learning systems on creative problem solving of pupils participating in technology class A pilot study 2017-12-20T20:01:37+01:00 Kai-Christian Tönnsen Patric Schaubrenner <p class="TECHNEabstract">Without being creative and finding solutions for various problems of life mankind wouldn’t be what it is today. Problem solving always has been a key ability for development, in the past, the present and it will also be a key for the future. Creative problem solving is one of the most important ways of technical thinking and acting. Therefore, the ability of finding solutions for problems and realizing them is a primary goal for technological education, especially if it is part of a comprehensive school education. It can be assumed that the available resources affect the possibilities and the result of problem solving processes. In terms of technology classes there are numerous resources that aim for the development of pupils’ creative problem solving skills like for instance mechatronic educational environments (MEEs). Unfortunately there is currently no test instrument for rating the influence of these MEEs on the outcome in terms of creative technical problem solving processes. Therefore, we designed a trial for such purpose and tested it in a pilot study: 33 students (9th grade, average age of 15.24 years) of comprehensive schools were given a problem, which had to be solved using three different MEEs. Solutions found by the students have been documented and analyzed to identify system characteristics which enhance or inhibit the creative outcome.<br />Key words: Creative problem solving, technology education, mechatronic educational environments, Festo MecLab, Fischertechnik RoboTX, Lego Mindstorms EV3</p> 2017-12-20T19:31:31+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pupils' Activities in a Multimaterial Learning Environment in Craft subject A Pilot Study using an Experience Sampling Method based on a Mobile Application in Classroom Settings 2017-12-20T22:03:46+01:00 Juha Jaatinen Harri Ketamo Eila Lindfors <p>This study investigates holistic craft processes in craft education with an instrument for data-collection and self-assessment. Teaching in a study context is based on co-teaching and a design process, highlighted by the Finnish Basic Education Core Curriculum 2014. The school architecture and web-based learning environment is combined. Division for textiles and technical work is no longer supported in this multimaterial learning environment. The aim of the study is to 1) make pupils’ holistic craft processes visible in everyday classroom practices with information collected by a mobile-application and 2) point out the curriculum topics that are covered during everyday classroom practices as defined by the teachers. The data is collected using an Experience Sampling Method with a gamified learning analytics instrument. Teachers’ classroom activities were used as the backbone for the thematic mapping of the craft curriculum. Preliminary measurements were carried out in a Finnish primary school in grades 5–6 (age 10–12, n = 125) during a four-week period in October-November 2016. The list of classroom activities was updated after the four weeks’ experiment and was tested in March-May 2017 with all the pupils of the pilot school (N = 353). The key findings were that a) for pupils the self-assessment was easy as a technical process but there were several factors in the everyday classroom settings that made the process challenging and b) it was relatively difficult for teachers to describe the classroom activities in terms of the new curriculum; however, after four weeks they could not only described the activities in more details but had also developed new activities that supported the ideas of the new curriculum better.</p><p>Keywords: multi-material craft, learning environment, holistic craft process, experience sampling method</p> 2017-12-20T19:30:37+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Practice and impact of the instruments in the “applied arts” curriculum The case of the French high schools 2017-12-20T20:01:37+01:00 Sophie Farsy Chatoney Marjolaine Eric Tortochot <p class="TECHNEabstract">Activities involving Design and Applied Arts (DAA) appear on the curriculum for each cycle from primary to secondary school in France. At primary school (3–11 years) and secondary school (for 12–15 years), these activities are prescribed in the context of two disciplines: at primary, arts education and sciences and technology education; visual arts and technology at secondary. Later (for 15–18 years old) DAA becomes a discipline per se. DAA is taught in a discipline called “Sciences Technology Design Applied Arts” (STD2A). The STD2A curriculum provides multidisciplinary approaches and practice shifts based on design projects involving processes of acquisition of skills. This syllabus does not train design professionals, but educates students about design abilities. This syllabus allows a continuation of study in the DAA in specialised schools and at university (architecture, graphic arts, industrial arts…). This paper proposes to itemise the relationship between design task and design activity within a curriculum of study (the research context) and an activity analysis of the students. Three teaching-learning-design situations have been investigated (different teaching situations and projects of teaching teams) during the summative test in the senior year. The research goal is focused on the instruments the students use to structure their activity and how and why they use them to hone the skills they actually implement in their learning.<br />Keywords: multidisciplinary learning environment, teaching-learning process, design skill, instrument, activity theory</p> 2017-12-20T16:14:19+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Experience as a Learning Form. A Class Conscious Narrative 2017-12-21T14:20:33+01:00 Ron Hansen Using institutional ethnography and narrative, this analysis exposes the role of schools and teachers in serving students, their families and communities.  The analysis explores the extent to which academic learning is privileged and the pros and cons of such privilege.  The author balances a traditional and non-traditional research design that opens a dialogue about how teachers and students cope within stigmatized programs. The movement by governments to 'bottle' a curriculum to nurture a generation of creative people, serves as a backdrop. Slojd and crafts teachers are exalted for using a more authentic pedagogical form compared to their academic counterparts.  The author's autobiographical account as a university teacher educator sets the stage for a more complete representation of what is really going on in schools under the long arm of government. <p class="TECHNEkeywords">Keywords:  experiential learning, narrative inquiry, cultural capital, colonialist policy, human creativity</p> 2017-12-20T16:10:08+01:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial 2017-06-20T08:55:39+02:00 Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Editorial 2017-06-19T14:21:49+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Kulturarvens ulike ansikt 2017-06-20T08:55:39+02:00 Else Marie Halvorsen I dag er spørsmålet om overføring av kulturarv i skolen et relevant tema i diskusjonen om skolens innhold. På den ene side synes samfunnet å ha behov for et innhold som rommer sentrale verdier som kan skape identitet og kulturelle røtter, på den annen side etterspør et mer multikulturelt samfunn forandring og fleksibilitet. Denne artikkelen åpner opp noe av kompleksiteten i begrepet kulturarv, både innen en skolekontekst og i en større kulturell kontekst. Resultatene fra min doktoravhandling viser begrepets kontekstualitet gjennom undersøkelser i tre ulike kontekster. Den første kontekst. I følge <strong>offisielle skoledokumenter</strong> ble kulturarv i stor grad knyttet til den manifesterte og dokumenterte kultur slik den finnes bl.a. i tekster og arkitektur, bilder og musikk, både i religiøse og sekulære kontekster. Den andre kontekst viser kulturarvforståelsen hos <strong>lærere i grunnskolen</strong>. Gjennom intervju med dem viser de til dels samme form for kulturarvforståelse som skoledokumentene, og synliggjør dessuten hvor viktig deres kulturarvforståelse er for deres praksis som lærere. Den tredje kontekst er representert av en <strong>kulturell elitegruppe utenfor grunnskolen</strong>, som består av kunstnere som skaper kultur, kulturvernere som bevarer kulturarv og akademikere i høyskole- og universitetssystem som formidler kulturarv. Gjennom intervju med dem kommer det fram at deres kulturarvforståelse er annerledes enn grunnskolelærernes på to måter. På den ene side inkluderer den ikke bare den manifesterte kultur, men også den mer skjulte dimensjon fra vår livsverden. Dessuten oppfattes kulturarven ikke bare som en noe som tas imot, men også som en levende kraft i samfunnet til å bygge videre på og endre. I denne sammenheng er begrepet også del av begrepet kreativitet. Hvis debatten om innholdet i vår fremtidige grunnskole skal bli fruktbar, synes det nødvendig å komme til en dypere forståelse av begrepet kulturarv. Bare med en slik bakgrunn er det mulig å ha en kvalifisert drøfting av hva som skal velges ut og hvilken begrunnelse som er relevant i en skole for alle. 2017-06-19T14:05:21+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Pupils’ performance in managing the holistic craft process 2017-06-20T08:55:39+02:00 Antti Jaakko Hilmola Eila Lindfors The Finnish National Board of Education assessed learning outcomes in the final 9th grade of basic education in 2010. This assessment included a design task that involved testing the management of the holistic craft process (HCP), a test of theoretical knowledge and an attitude test. This article revisits the national assessment from a new perspective: to what extent do pupils have the competence to manage HCP, theoretical knowledge and what stand do they take towards the crafts subject in their attitudes? The more specific research questions strive to address: to what extent does theoretical knowledge and attitudes determine the managing of HCP? Is the performance in managing this process dependent on gender and earlier craft studies? This research focuses on a central concept: the competence to manage HCP. The assessment data was marked off into tasks that indicated the managing of HCP (n = 661 out of the sample N = 4,792). K-means cluster analysis, linear regression analysis, crosstabs with the Chi-squared test, and Spearman’s rank order correlation coefficient were used as a methodological solution. The central observation is that three different groups of pupils managed HCP, the theoretical knowledge and the attitudes. These groups are: the positive achievers (43 %), the positive underachievers (29 %) and the negative underachievers (28 %). In addition the performance in managing HCP cannot be determined by the theoretical knowledge and the attitudes in crafts at all, but is rather related to gender and earlier craft studies. 2017-06-19T13:26:09+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Students’ Attitudes towards Craft and Technology in the Context of Finnish and Slovenian Comprehensive Schools 2017-06-20T08:55:39+02:00 Ossi Autio Janez Jamsek Milan Gaberšek The research is based on a comparative study of craft and technology education curriculums and students’ attitudes towards craft and technology in Finland and Slovenia. The study was undertaken by the Helsinki University and University of Ljubljana during years 2013-2015. A literature review was completed, in order to examine and compare the craft and technology education curriculums in Finland and Slovenia. In addition, a quantitative survey was subsequently distributed to 505 school students in Finland and Slovenia. The questionnaire consisted of 14 questions, which aimed to ascertain students’ attitudes towards craft and technology. The survey showed substantial differences in students’ attitudes towards craft and technology education in the two countries: these differences may be explained by differences in the national curriculums, the different pedagogical traditions and cultural differences in the field of technology. However, for deeper understanding, the quantitative findings need to be examined further with different research methods. 2017-06-19T13:01:09+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Att lära sig se trådraken – om tvekan och fokusförskjutning på väg mot förändrat kunnande 2017-06-20T08:49:10+02:00 Marléne Johansson Viveca Lindberg <span style="line-height: 115%; font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 12pt; mso-bidi-font-size: 11.0pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-ansi-language: SV; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;">Utgångspunkten i denna artikel är empiriskt förankrade exempel från textilslöjdspraktiker i den svenska skolan; grundskolans slöjdundervisning årskurs 8 och ett specialutformat program inom gymnasieskolan med textil inriktning i årskurserna 1 och 3. Artikelns videoutdrag handlar alla om principiellt samma handling – trådrak mönsterutläggning på tyg – men, dels finns det två olika inramningar (grundskolan och gymnasieskolan), och dels exemplifierar de olika skeden av kunnande. Syftet är att beskriva skillnader i kunnande och vad som framstår som svårt för elever med liten eller ingen erfarenhet av att lägga ut mönster på ett tyg inför tillklippning och hur kunnandet förändras med ökande erfarenhet, liksom vilka nya svårigheter som följer med att elever arbetar med mönster av ökande komplexitet. Det som vid en första blick kan framstå som samma handling utvecklas över tid från något som framstår som enkel handling till att utvecklas i komplexitet. I de tvekan-situationer som beskriv finns potential för ett förändrat deltagande, där förändringen idealt är ett mer kompetent deltagande där ingen tvekan förekommer. Med ökad förtrogenhet kan uppmärksamheten förflyttas till något annat. Det vi är förtrogna med blir till rutiner och därmed behövs det en avvikelse för att fånga uppmärksamheten. I avvikelsen ligger möjligheterna till fortsatt lärande. Artikelns empiriska exempel synliggör dessa skillnader i kunnande som annars oreflekterat kan uppfattas som lika. Eleverna bygger in kunskap i sina handlingar, fokus flyttar från att inte veta vad man tittar på till självklarheten i handlingen. Eleverna lär sig se och urskilja.</span> 2017-05-16T13:57:54+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Reforhandling av kunnskapsgrunnlag. Forskning og fagutvikling med utspring i designdidaktikk 2017-05-19T10:08:58+02:00 Laila Belinda Fauske <p class="TECHNEabstract">I 1960 erstattet Forming de tre fagene Tegning, Håndarbeid og Sløyd i norsk grunnskole. På dette tidspunktet hadde ikke miljøet rundt skolefagene mulighet for egen forskning. Forskning var forbeholdt universitetsmiljøene, og ikke lærerutdanningsinstitusjonene. En konsekvens av dette var at lærerne ikke hadde et eget forskningsbasert grunnlag for å fremme sine argument for utvikling av det nye skolefaget. Selv om Forming skulle videreføre både Tegning, Håndarbeid og Sløyd var det pedagogiske og psykologiske ideer om barnet som hadde sterkest gjennomslagskraft når fagets innhold skulle defineres. Disse ideene hadde sitt utspring i internasjonale ideer om kunst, barn og pedagogikk. I 1997 skiftet Forming navn til Kunst og håndverk. Endringen karakteriseres her som et ideskifte der de formingsfaglige ideene om barnets utvikling ble erstattet med større vekt på faglig kunnskap. Denne artikkelen ser på endringene i lys av at lærere i 1995 fikk mulighet for opptak ved doktor–grads–programmet ved Arkitektur og designhøgskolen i Oslo (AHO) samt fremveksten av forskningsgrenen ‘designdidaktikk’. Med distinksjonen ‘knowing that’ og ‘knowing how’ som utgangspunkt skiller artikkelen mellom fagutvikling fra et innside- kontra et utsideperspektiv. Konseptet ‘knowledge building’ med vekt på ‘community knowledge’ og ‘knowledge building discourse’ danner en ramme omkring temaet. Artikkelen finner organisert opplæring, på både hovedfag/master samt doktorgradsnivå, som helt avgjørende for kunnskapsbygging fra et innsideperspektiv. Artikkelen fremhever også forskningskontekstens betydning for både forskningsfokus og fagutvikling i skolen og viser spesielt til doktorgradsprogrammet ved AHO. Artikkelen peker også på utfordringer ved akademisering av fag, en utvikling som fordrer videre diskusjon om fagets teori og praksis.</p> 2016-06-23T12:27:10+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Att kunna såga rakt. Om manuell bildning i skolämnet slöjd. 2017-05-19T10:08:58+02:00 Jenny Frohagen <p class="TECHNEabstract"><span lang="SV-FI">Denna artikel belyser elevers förmåga att såga rakt och syftar till att beskriva innebörder av detta kunnande. Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i att betrakta manuellt arbete med verktyg och material som ett ämnesspecifikt kunnande undervisningen i slöjd syftar till att utveckla. Slöjdkunnande betraktas som en beredskap att i görandet urskilja detaljer och nyanser av manuellt arbete. Kunnande kommer till uttryck i hur någon erfar något. Erfarande kommer i sin tur till uttryck i görandet, i detta fall hur elever på mellanstadiet utför ett manuellt arbete. Elevers sätt att såga rakt kan på så sätt betraktas som ett uttryck för ett specifikt kunnande i slöjdämnet. Ett ökat kunnande innebär ett mer differentierat erfarande i arbetet med att såga rakt, fler detaljer och nyanser av kunnandet urskiljs. Studien vill genom att artikulera vad eleverna kan när de kan såga rakt bidra till utvecklingen av ett språk för att tala om ämnesspecifika förmågor, ett språk vi vet är bristfälligt inte endast i ämnet slöjd utan i skolans ämnen i stort. Att kunna beskriva och visa på vad eleven kan urskilja och kvaliteten i det kunnande som kommer till uttryck när eleven arbetar manuellt är en central del av undervisningen för att åstadkomma lärande i slöjd. Videoempiri av elevers rakt-sågande har legat till grund för en fenomenografisk analys. Denna har resulterat i fyra beskrivningskategorier av sätt att såga rakt och synliggör progression i kunnandet. Empirin har genererats från fyra så kallade för- och eftertest i en learning study i slöjd som genomförts på två kommunala grundskolor i årskurs fem och sex. </span></p><p class="TECHNEabstract"><span lang="SV-FI"><br /></span></p> 2016-06-23T12:26:26+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Learning craft skills. Exploring preschoolers' craft making process 2017-05-19T10:08:58+02:00 Virpi Yliverronen Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen <p class="TECHNEabstract"><span lang="EN-GB">The aim of this study was to explore a preschooler craft-making process in which 18 preschool novices cut pieces for fabric bags and designed and printed patterns to decorate the bags. Through the task, children were familiarised with a small-scale holistic craft process. The intention was to determine how preschoolers perceived, verbalised and interpreted the craft-making process and how children used bodily expressions when explaining a learned craft skill. The present study relies on the videographic method: two preschool groups’ stamp printing activities were recorded, and each child was interviewed individually. Children’s embodied expressions were particularly in focus in video analysis. The results reveal that all the children were able to sufficiently explain the making phase, however, some children compensated for missing words using bodily and facial expressions and gestures when talking about making. The results showed that children worked logically, and the skill learning phases of perceiving, making, and interpretation were revealed from their learning. </span></p> 2016-06-22T23:27:54+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## Editorial preface 2017-05-19T10:08:58+02:00 Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen Editorial preface 2016-06-22T23:12:41+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement## The Validity of the School Assessment in the Craft Subject 2017-05-19T10:08:58+02:00 Antti Hilmola Manne Kallio <p class="4Tiivistelm-Techne">In this research project, the validity of the school assessment is examined in the craft subject in Finland’s basic education. The criteria for the school assessment are based on the Finnish Na-tional Core Curriculum (FNCC) in which the idea of the Entire Craft (EC) is highlighted. How-ever, the discussion as to whether or not the school practice is based on the idea of EC, or whether the teachers are still focused on the technical details of products in reflecting on the pupils’ tool-handling skills, is still an ongoing debate. Learner-centred learning is implicated in EC since the pupils are expected to set goals for the implementation of their own ideating, plan-ning and constructing. And, finally, in such a process, the self-reflection of the implemented out-comes against the goals will take place.  Altogether 73 craft teachers from 59 upper level schools participated in this research project. The pupils’ (N = 982) success was assessed during an EC period using the indicator validated by the previous nation-wide evaluation by the Finn-ish National Board of Education (FNBE). Since the valid school assessment was expected to reflect the success in the Entire Craft Assessment Period (ECAP), the outcomes were assessed against the criteria of the FNCC and compared to the pupils’ school scores. The data was ana-lysed using the Linear Regression Analysis (Enter Method). The central observation was that the pupils’ success in the criteria of the EC do not reflect the 7th grade school scores, in all re-spects. Moreover, the pupils’ success does not reflect the 6th grade school scores. The instruc-tions and supplementary education of the FNCC criteria are needed for craft teachers, especial-ly for class teachers at the lower level. In Finland, also the craft subject is taught by the class teachers at the lower level while, at the upper level, the subject teachers take their place. Ac-cording to the new FNCC, the number of class lessons will be diminished at the upper level and increased at the lower level. This might challenge the assessment in the craft subject in basic education. Special attention should be paid to the school assessment in 2016, at the latest, when the new National Core Curriculum comes into force.</p> 2016-06-22T23:01:15+02:00 ##submission.copyrightStatement##