Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A NordFo en-US Techne Series - Research in Sloyd Education and Craft Science A 1893-1774 <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p><p>Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a <a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a> that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</p><p>Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See <a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</p> Förord <p>Förord</p> Marléne Johansson Mia Porko-Hudd Juha Hartvik ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-21 2018-06-21 Kommunikative ressourcer i håndværksmæssig undervisning <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Artiklen behandler kommunikative ressourcer i håndværksmæssig læring, ressourcer i form af handlinger som kan være konkrete, fiktive, kropslige, verbale eller en kombination. Kommunikation i det håndværksmæssige læringsfelt er intentionel og i læringsfeltet sker kommunikationen som transformation mellem underviser og den lærende. I kommunikationen arbejdes der med tredimensionel (3D) instruktion, hvilket i denne sammenhæng betyder forevisning i handling og todimensionel (2D) information, for eksempel billeder eller en skriftlig instruktion. Forskningsspørgsmålet som behandles i artiklen er: Hvilke kommunikative ressourcer giver de bedste forudsætninger for at undervise i håndværksmæssig læring? Empirien, i form af videoindspildninger, er hentet fra forskellige håndværksmæssige læringssituationer. Materialet analyseres med kvalitativ mikroanalyse og i fire forskellige perspektiver: Neurologisk-, undervisnings-, lærer- og kommunikativt perspektiv. Analysen viser at underviserne generelt anvender konkrete frem for fiktive handlinger, og at de i større udstrækning anvender kropslige frem for verbale kommunikative ressourcer. Videre argumenteres for at kommunikationen giver det bedste resultat når verbalisering udnyttes som en støttende ressource til konkrete håndværksmæssige handlinger. Herigennem gives der mulighed for at forstå materiale, redskab og handlinger i en sammenhængende proces. At kunne vælge kommunikationsform og kommunikativ ressource er en didaktisk/pædagogisk kompetence og som skal kombineres med håndværksmæssig kompetence. Som underviser i en håndværksmæssig sammenhæng behøver man være bevidst om at beherske dette ”dobbelte fænomen”.</p> <p>Søgeord: Kommunikation, kommunikative ressourcer, håndværk, didaktik, instruktion, mikroanalyse.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Joakim Andersson Lone Brøns-Pedersen Peter Hasselskog Bent Illum ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-21 2018-06-21 59 78 Handlingsrammer og handlingsrom i kunst og handverksfaget <p><em>Artikkelen ser på to ulike undervisningsopplegg der faglærarstudentar i kunst og handverk arbeidde med installasjonar. Utifrå nokre konkrete eksempel blir det belyst </em><em>korleis forståingar, tilnærmingar og arbeidsmåtar som er opparbeida i kunst og handverksfagets undervisningspraksis medverka i studentanes skapande prosessar. </em><em>Innan ei sosiokulturell ramme ser eg på tilnærmingar og arbeidsmåtar som reiskap. Sjølv om tilnærmingar eller arbeidsmåtar ikkje er reiskap i fysisk forstand, har dei likevel materielle sider og materielle konsekvensar. For kva handlingar ein er i stand til å førestille seg, til å vurdere eller sikte mot, altså det handlingsrommet ein orienterar seg i, vil ha ein samanheng med dei forståingane og arbeidsmåtane ein disponerer. </em><em>Slike forståingar bygger på tradisjonar og mønster og desse fekk ei betyding når studentane skulle arbeide skapande med sine installasjonar. </em></p> <p>Nøkkelord: Institusjonelle mønster, samtidskunstnarisk literacy, handlingsrom, isenesetting av prosessar</p> Åsta Rimstad ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-21 2018-06-21 49 58 The Rebellious Teacher or A Rebel with a Cause <p>Existing research on the field of craft, or sloyd, education focuses on institutional frameworks characterized by having their own legal framework, politics, and defined purpose, whereas public spaces are not subject to similar regulation. Research in sloyd education shows how tools, materials, and artifacts are in a continual interaction among students, teachers, and peers. Recent research shows that craftivism (craft and activism) as cultural phenomenon adds new valuation and thinking contributing useful knowledge to the field of craft research. This article focuses on craftivism from three perspectives: first as a mediator between artifact and context; second as a learning perspective; and third as an identity activity. These three perspectives are introduced as The Activist Method. Research in craftivism shows that if an activist brings sub elements from craft and another topic together a new language is born. A rebel is not a counterpart to the activist. The study is based on teaching and combines materials and techniques within the field of sloyd education and natural sciences. Could both topics shine on each other and give the student an understanding of matter and meaning such as textile material and mathematical matters, such as length, distance, materialistic performance, and craft technics? The study took place during the Spring of 2016 at Freinetskolen, Copenhagen, in cooperation with Dark Cosmology Center, Niels Bohr Institute and Copenhagen Institute of Interaction Design, CIID. The activist purpose is to create a new language through craft and activism, which means the craft becomes a mediator between activist and another person. This article suggests possible learning perspectives from the outcome of mirror learning and identity both from formal learning spaces and informal spaces, and introduces the term ‘rebel’ as a new and different role for teachers to assume.</p> <p>Keywords: interdisciplinary, sloyd eduction, natural science, learning space, poststructuralism</p> Marie Koch ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-21 2018-06-21 17 30 Editorial <p>Editorial</p> Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-21 2018-06-21 i ii School Craft in Memories of Three Generations <p>Throughout Finnish elementary school 150-year-history, school craft has served the teaching needs of societal, educational, new craft techniques, tools and materials in every school. This article studies memories associated with school craft throughout three consecutive generations. The focus is particularly on what kind of memories associated with school craft the representatives of different generations have, and how they are related. Five families, with representatives from three different generations (15 persons in total), were interviewed in group-interviews in 2014. The interviews took place as an encountering act of recollection between different generations where the circumstances of teaching handicraft, pupils and teachers as well as handicraft products and the process behind them were evaluated and interpreted in a group. The persons interviewed for this research mainly represent the industrialized era when the focus of craft teaching at school shifted into untraditional skills needed in the industry and hobbies. Two themes stood especially out from the data analysis: products manufactured in school craft and positive and negative memories associated with handicraft. There were not that much conversation regarding the materials or techniques used in manufacturing handicraft products. Although the oldest memories were associated with the lack of materials.<br>Keywords: school craft, memory, comprehensive school, elementary school, handicraft</p> Päivi Marjanen Eila Lindfors Sirpa Ketola ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-21 2018-06-21 1 16 Students confronting risks during holistic craft processes <p>This study aims to examine risk-taking situations among students during holistic craft processes. The study was conducted during the spring terms of 2013 and 2016. The data comprise interviews of seventh-grade students (2013), in which they defined solutions found during craft design and production processes, and digital learning diaries (2016), in which students self-evaluated craft design, production and evaluation processes. The results show that making crafts includes risk-taking during every phase of the process. These are situations in which students either take risks or avoid them. The results reveal that risk-taking situations related to economical risk are emphasised in the design and production phases, in which the students make decisions regarding the product to be made and the techniques to be used. Psychological risk-taking is particularly connected to the production phase of the craft process, in which the students begin production and progress through its phases. Social risk-taking situations are linked to the design and evaluation phases, in which the students interact with their peer group and the social environment. Based on the study results, it is important for teachers to pay attention to these situations and how the students behave. In this way, teachers can teach and support the students in identifying and taking controlled risks, which is an important skill in a changing society looking toward the future.<br>Keywords: risk-taking, craft process, craft as a subject, enterprise education</p> Ulla Häsänen Jaana Lepistö Marja-Leena Rönkkö ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-21 2018-06-21 31 48 VÅGA - VETA - VINNA <p>Detta specialnummer består av en text som är skriven som en memoarbok av professor emerita Linnéa Lindfors. Efter sin pensionering från professuren i slöjdpedagogik vid Åbo Akademi i Vasa har Lindfors fortsatt med forskning och bland annat gjort djuplodande släktforskning.</p> <p>Linnéa Lindfors är en av pionjärerna inom slöjdforskning i Norden. Hennes idoga arbete och omfattande grundforskning ledde till utvecklingen av vetenskapsområdet slöjdpedagogik vid Åbo Akademi i Vasa, Finland. Lindfors har utvecklat en mängd slöjdpedagogiska teorier och modeller, som exempel kan nämnas modellen för elevens slöjdprocess som en av de mest kända och använda. Modellen för slöjdprocessen återfinns i åtskilliga texter, uppsatser och artiklar på olika nivåer. Lindfors grundforskning har gett viktiga bidrag för forskningen och har också gjort det möjligt att diskutera slöjdens betydelse och kunskapsform i olika sammanhang.</p> <p>I samband med ett nordiskt forskarnätverk i mitten av 1990-talet utvecklade och inrättade Linnéa Lindfors Techne serien tillsammans med professor emeritus Juhani Peltonen vid Åbo universitet i Rauma, Finland. Syftet var att svara på behovet av ett publikationsforum för vetenskaplig rapportering för att förstärka de relativt nyetablerade vetenskapsområdenas ställning i de nordiska länderna. Lindfors deltog aktivt i Techne seriens redaktionsarbete under hela sin arbetskarriär och var även redaktör och skribent i flera publikationer.</p> <p>Lindfors har valt att dela upp sin memoarbok, <em>En livsresa från bondlandet till vetenskapens arenor. Våga ‒ Veta ‒ Vinna. Fokus på slöjdpedagogik. 1974‒2000</em>, i två delar. I Del 1 beskrivs hur bakgrund, händelser, studier och intresse medverkade i yrkesval och akademisk karriär. I Del 2 redogör Lindfors för slöjdpedagogikens framväxt och forskningssamarbeten samt för de utmaningar som ett ungt vetenskapsområde mötte i den akademiska världen. I memoarboken finns en referenslista som ger en heltäckande bild av Lindfors vetenskapliga produktion. Memoarbokens delar kompletterar varandra och kan ses som flera livsberättelser om att våga, veta och vinna, samt hur ihärdigt arbete och klokskap ledde till att vetenskapsområdet etablerades och erhöll en professur. &nbsp;</p> <p>I redaktionen för Techne serien är vi stolta över att som specialnummer kunna publicera Linnéa Lindfors memoarbok med berättelser om hur bakgrund, hinder och möjligheter ledde till att Lindfors blev en framstående slöjdpedagog. Specialnumret vänder sig till alla med intresse för lärande och undervisning inom slöjdområdet och vår förhoppning är att den inspirerar till fortsatt lärande, utvecklingsarbete och forskning inom slöjd.</p> Linnéa Lindfors ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2018-06-21 2018-06-21 Editorial Editorial 24(2)2017 Eila Lindfors Marja-Leena Rönkkö Kari Carlsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Inexplicit Learning: Transferring Knowledge through Visual and Emulative practices This study attempts to understand how expert knowledge is transmitted in the absence or lack of explicit and formal means of knowledge acquisition, with particular interest in the evolved relationship of a master-apprentice, observable in pockets of traditional communities of practice. An ethnographic study based on content analysis of the transcriptions of members of a craft community from Varanasi, India has been used to strengthen the undermined pedagogical role of observation and emulation in the transfer of inexplicit knowledge. It is argued that in-situ observation and emulation foster situations for facilitating co-production of knowledge, further implying co-authorship. Gaining community membership in craft communities is not merely a matter of gaining a professional degree; instead, it is a slow process of enculturation.<br />Keywords: Observation, Emulation, Inexplicit learning, Master-apprentice. Communities of Practice<br /><br /> Koumudi Patil ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Maker Movement creating knowledge through basic intention <p>Maker movement is often celebrated as a rekindled interest in making by hand, as well as a promise for new forms of manufacturing and economic growth. In contrast to this popularized image, the theoretical background in the maker movement remains ambivalent. This article takes a look at the theoretical foundation of the maker movement and proposes a phenomenological approach to making by hand as a framework for maker movement.<br />A particular focus is on the knowledge making process in the maker movement following Finnish craft researcher Kojonkoski-Rännäli's account of making by hand. Basing her theory on Martin Heidegger’s philosophical analysis, Kojonkoski-Rännäli sees making by hand an essential way of existing in the world: making by hand develops not only maker’s handicraft skills but also her/his knowledge, responsibility and caring for the world as it appears to her/him through the act of making.<br />In this paper, I explore maker movements’ relation to Kojonkoski-Rännäli’s philosophy of making by hand. Moreover, I focus on how the maker movements approach to digital and digitalization relate to making by hand.</p><p><br />Keywords: Maker movement, code literacy, craft education, philosophy, making by hand</p><div><span><br /></span></div> Tomi Dufva ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Heritage building as a Concept and as a part of Technology Education Conceptions of, structuredness of conceptions of, and conceptual change in students in teacher training during a study module on heritage building As a concept, heritage building is young and previously undefined in Finnish scientific literature. Earlier studies about the very notions of heritage building are also nonexistent in Finland. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the conceptions of students in teacher training about heritage building before and after a study module on heritage building, which constitutes a part of their subject studies in didactics of crafts. The lack of previous studies about conceptions of heritage building in Finland led to the selection of these conceptions as a research target. The study uses two different approaches for achieving its purpose. In order to find answers to the research problem, the students' common conceptions about heritage building were examined first. Secondly, it was considered how structured these conceptions were. Therefore, the research process included a conceptual review of heritage building to provide a baseline for comparing the student's conceptions and their structuredness.<br />The research results indicate that even though students in didactics of handicrafts have conceptions about heritage building that are parallel with the definition formulated for the purposes of the study, they are superficial on average. The review of structuredness of conceptions supported the results achieved in the phenomenographical analysis of conceptions. It was observed that completing the study module had an impact on the structuredness of conceptions. Furthermore, the students' personal background was found to have some implications on how structured their conceptions of heritage building were, which was evidenced by notable differences in structuredness of conceptions on an individual level. This article is based on the writer’s doctoral dissertation.<br />Keywords: Heritage building, conceptions, conceptual change, level of structuredness, phenomenography, technology education Jani Kaasinen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Learning situations in Sloyd ‒ to become more handy, dexterous and skilful <span style="font-family: 'Times New Roman','serif'; font-size: 11pt; mso-fareast-font-family: 'Times New Roman'; mso-fareast-theme-font: minor-latin; mso-ansi-language: EN-US; mso-fareast-language: EN-US; mso-bidi-language: AR-SA;" lang="EN-US">This article provides examples of how students in a teacher training course in sloyd [sw. slöjd] develop their knowledge of sloyd during a workshop in woodturning. Several names from the definition of sloyd may be perceived as relatively the same, but in this article is the focus on three of the meanings included in the concept sloyd; handy [sw. händig], dexterous [sw. hantverksskicklig] and skilful in forming a crafted artefact [sw. konstfärdig]. It is of interest to explore how such skills, usually ‘hidden’ in the making processes, can be developed in learning processes. The study aims to describe how the sloyd skill develops in interaction with others and with the situations created in the physical environment during sloyd activities. The study, carried out by video documentation and microanalysis, shows that so-called practical knowledge requires support from several multimodal forms of interactions. From the video material, three sequences of microanalysis have been selected for this article. The results show that learning to do sloydwork is not something that takes place by only working on one’s own object. The students alternate between standing by and watch, or practice, or demonstrated, their skills when they work on each other's object. Body language and actions have an important role in how shared understanding is created for how for example the suitable handling of a woodturning tool should be implemented. The embedded meanings in the sloyd concept used in this article ‒ handy, dexterous and skilful in forming a crafted artefact ‒ show that knowledge of sloyd includes handicraft knowledge as well as pedagogic aspects.<br />Keywords: sloyd, slöjd, microanalysis, woodturning, handy, dexterous, skillful, multimodal</span> Marléne Johansson Joakim Andersson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Allt kan transformeras till ett användbart läromedel <p>Hur lärare i slöjd i Finland och Sverige uppfattar och använder läromedel beskrivs och analyseras i denna artikel. Det empiriska materialet består av enkätsvar från både flervalsfrågor och öppna frågor av 143 lärare, insamlat våren 2016. Resultatet visar att lärarna å ena sidan definierar läromedel på ett mycket brett sätt genom att inkludera i princip allt som används i undervisningen som läromedel, medan de å andra sidan också använder en snäv definition på läromedel som endast omfattar för ändamålet publicerade läroböcker. Resultatet visar att många lärare i slöjd producerar läromedel som stöder den egna undervisningens målsättningar, den egna elevgruppens behov och matchar krav som deras undervisningskontext ställer och hjälper dem själv att utveckla och upprätthålla sina färdigheter. Många lärare i slöjd är del av olika slags webbaserade delningskulturer där de delar med sig av sina egenproducerade läromedel och vidareutvecklar läromedel som de fått sig tilldelade av kolleger. Internet framhålls som en guldgruva för att hitta material som kan omvandlas till läromedel för slöjdprocessens olika faser och för att differentiera undervisningen. I diskussionen framkommer att lärare i slöjd har en pluralistisk uppfattning om läromedel som speglar det pedagogiska dilemmat mellan frihet och ansvar för undervisningens utformning och innehåll som läromedel exemplifierar.<br />Sökord: läromedel, slöjdundervisning, pedagogiskt dilemma, internet, pragmatisk transformering</p><p> </p><p>Sökord: läromedel, slöjdundervisning, lärare, dilemma, pluralistisk</p> Annelie Holmberg Mia Porko-Hudd Marcus Samuelsson ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 The influence of mechatronic learning systems on creative problem solving of pupils participating in technology class A pilot study <p class="TECHNEabstract">Without being creative and finding solutions for various problems of life mankind wouldn’t be what it is today. Problem solving always has been a key ability for development, in the past, the present and it will also be a key for the future. Creative problem solving is one of the most important ways of technical thinking and acting. Therefore, the ability of finding solutions for problems and realizing them is a primary goal for technological education, especially if it is part of a comprehensive school education. It can be assumed that the available resources affect the possibilities and the result of problem solving processes. In terms of technology classes there are numerous resources that aim for the development of pupils’ creative problem solving skills like for instance mechatronic educational environments (MEEs). Unfortunately there is currently no test instrument for rating the influence of these MEEs on the outcome in terms of creative technical problem solving processes. Therefore, we designed a trial for such purpose and tested it in a pilot study: 33 students (9th grade, average age of 15.24 years) of comprehensive schools were given a problem, which had to be solved using three different MEEs. Solutions found by the students have been documented and analyzed to identify system characteristics which enhance or inhibit the creative outcome.<br />Key words: Creative problem solving, technology education, mechatronic educational environments, Festo MecLab, Fischertechnik RoboTX, Lego Mindstorms EV3</p> Kai-Christian Tönnsen Patric Schaubrenner ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Pupils' Activities in a Multimaterial Learning Environment in Craft subject A Pilot Study using an Experience Sampling Method based on a Mobile Application in Classroom Settings <p>This study investigates holistic craft processes in craft education with an instrument for data-collection and self-assessment. Teaching in a study context is based on co-teaching and a design process, highlighted by the Finnish Basic Education Core Curriculum 2014. The school architecture and web-based learning environment is combined. Division for textiles and technical work is no longer supported in this multimaterial learning environment. The aim of the study is to 1) make pupils’ holistic craft processes visible in everyday classroom practices with information collected by a mobile-application and 2) point out the curriculum topics that are covered during everyday classroom practices as defined by the teachers. The data is collected using an Experience Sampling Method with a gamified learning analytics instrument. Teachers’ classroom activities were used as the backbone for the thematic mapping of the craft curriculum. Preliminary measurements were carried out in a Finnish primary school in grades 5–6 (age 10–12, n = 125) during a four-week period in October-November 2016. The list of classroom activities was updated after the four weeks’ experiment and was tested in March-May 2017 with all the pupils of the pilot school (N = 353). The key findings were that a) for pupils the self-assessment was easy as a technical process but there were several factors in the everyday classroom settings that made the process challenging and b) it was relatively difficult for teachers to describe the classroom activities in terms of the new curriculum; however, after four weeks they could not only described the activities in more details but had also developed new activities that supported the ideas of the new curriculum better.</p><p>Keywords: multi-material craft, learning environment, holistic craft process, experience sampling method</p> Juha Jaatinen Harri Ketamo Eila Lindfors ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Practice and impact of the instruments in the “applied arts” curriculum The case of the French high schools <p class="TECHNEabstract">Activities involving Design and Applied Arts (DAA) appear on the curriculum for each cycle from primary to secondary school in France. At primary school (3–11 years) and secondary school (for 12–15 years), these activities are prescribed in the context of two disciplines: at primary, arts education and sciences and technology education; visual arts and technology at secondary. Later (for 15–18 years old) DAA becomes a discipline per se. DAA is taught in a discipline called “Sciences Technology Design Applied Arts” (STD2A). The STD2A curriculum provides multidisciplinary approaches and practice shifts based on design projects involving processes of acquisition of skills. This syllabus does not train design professionals, but educates students about design abilities. This syllabus allows a continuation of study in the DAA in specialised schools and at university (architecture, graphic arts, industrial arts…). This paper proposes to itemise the relationship between design task and design activity within a curriculum of study (the research context) and an activity analysis of the students. Three teaching-learning-design situations have been investigated (different teaching situations and projects of teaching teams) during the summative test in the senior year. The research goal is focused on the instruments the students use to structure their activity and how and why they use them to hone the skills they actually implement in their learning.<br />Keywords: multidisciplinary learning environment, teaching-learning process, design skill, instrument, activity theory</p> Sophie Farsy Chatoney Marjolaine Eric Tortochot ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Experience as a Learning Form. A Class Conscious Narrative Using institutional ethnography and narrative, this analysis exposes the role of schools and teachers in serving students, their families and communities.  The analysis explores the extent to which academic learning is privileged and the pros and cons of such privilege.  The author balances a traditional and non-traditional research design that opens a dialogue about how teachers and students cope within stigmatized programs. The movement by governments to 'bottle' a curriculum to nurture a generation of creative people, serves as a backdrop. Slojd and crafts teachers are exalted for using a more authentic pedagogical form compared to their academic counterparts.  The author's autobiographical account as a university teacher educator sets the stage for a more complete representation of what is really going on in schools under the long arm of government. <p class="TECHNEkeywords">Keywords:  experiential learning, narrative inquiry, cultural capital, colonialist policy, human creativity</p> Ron Hansen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-12-20 2017-12-20 Editorial Editorial Pirita Seitamaa-Hakkarainen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-19 2017-06-19 Kulturarvens ulike ansikt I dag er spørsmålet om overføring av kulturarv i skolen et relevant tema i diskusjonen om skolens innhold. På den ene side synes samfunnet å ha behov for et innhold som rommer sentrale verdier som kan skape identitet og kulturelle røtter, på den annen side etterspør et mer multikulturelt samfunn forandring og fleksibilitet. Denne artikkelen åpner opp noe av kompleksiteten i begrepet kulturarv, både innen en skolekontekst og i en større kulturell kontekst. Resultatene fra min doktoravhandling viser begrepets kontekstualitet gjennom undersøkelser i tre ulike kontekster. Den første kontekst. I følge <strong>offisielle skoledokumenter</strong> ble kulturarv i stor grad knyttet til den manifesterte og dokumenterte kultur slik den finnes bl.a. i tekster og arkitektur, bilder og musikk, både i religiøse og sekulære kontekster. Den andre kontekst viser kulturarvforståelsen hos <strong>lærere i grunnskolen</strong>. Gjennom intervju med dem viser de til dels samme form for kulturarvforståelse som skoledokumentene, og synliggjør dessuten hvor viktig deres kulturarvforståelse er for deres praksis som lærere. Den tredje kontekst er representert av en <strong>kulturell elitegruppe utenfor grunnskolen</strong>, som består av kunstnere som skaper kultur, kulturvernere som bevarer kulturarv og akademikere i høyskole- og universitetssystem som formidler kulturarv. Gjennom intervju med dem kommer det fram at deres kulturarvforståelse er annerledes enn grunnskolelærernes på to måter. På den ene side inkluderer den ikke bare den manifesterte kultur, men også den mer skjulte dimensjon fra vår livsverden. Dessuten oppfattes kulturarven ikke bare som en noe som tas imot, men også som en levende kraft i samfunnet til å bygge videre på og endre. I denne sammenheng er begrepet også del av begrepet kreativitet. Hvis debatten om innholdet i vår fremtidige grunnskole skal bli fruktbar, synes det nødvendig å komme til en dypere forståelse av begrepet kulturarv. Bare med en slik bakgrunn er det mulig å ha en kvalifisert drøfting av hva som skal velges ut og hvilken begrunnelse som er relevant i en skole for alle. Else Marie Halvorsen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2017-06-19 2017-06-19